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Neurotrophin production

Ana E López-Pérez, Kulmira Nurgali, Raquel Abalo
Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Zeljka Rupcic, Monique Rascher, Sae Kanaki, Reinhard W Köster, Marc Stadler, Kathrin Wittstein
Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) or (as established more recently) brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion's Mane mushroom ( Hericium erinaceus ) strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ru-Yi Zhang, Lan Zhang, Li Zhang, Yu-Lan Wang, Lin Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative brain disorder with complex pathogenesis. Emerging evidence indicates that there is a tight relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and β-amyloid (Aβ) formation. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is one of the main active components extracted from Polygonum multiflorum. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of TSG on Aβ production and neurotrophins in the brains of rats by using a mitochondrial dysfunction rat model induced by sodium azide (NaN3 ), an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Md Mohibbullah, Jae-Suk Choi, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Khalilur Rahman, Il Soo Moon, Yong-Ki Hong
Exogenous neurotrophins can induce neuronal differentiation, outgrowth, survival, and synaptic function in the central nervous system. In primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, an ethanol extract of the red alga Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) and its active compound arachidonic acid (AA) significantly increased the densities of dendritic filopodia and spines, promoted the expression of presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), induced robust synaptogenesis, and increased the expression of cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) and actin-related protein 2 (ARP2), which are important for actin organization in dendritic protrusions, and facilitated presynaptic plasticity by increasing the size of the synaptic vesicle pool at presynaptic nerve terminals...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Zhengjun Yi, Kunshan Gao, Ruifang Li, Yurong Fu
Cell wall deficient (CWD) forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) confers a marked resistance to immune system of the host. However, there is limit data on the effect of intracellular CWD-Mtb infection on macrophages. In the study, effects of CWD-Mtb on cell viability, cytokine response and miRNA expression of macrophages were analyzed. Cell viability was reduced, levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were also significantly changed after infection of RAW264.7 cells with CWD-Mtb...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Kathryn A Schiel
This etiologic model proposes that Alzheimers Disease (AD) arises when an unusually rapid increase in ventricle volume triggers axon stretch that culminates in the physical separation of trans-synaptic proteins. As a result, these proteins, such as neurexin, neuroligin, N-Cadherin and Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), experience a change in the configuration of their cytoplasmic tail, so that instead of transmitting signals to create and maintain synaptic structure they activate enzymes, and generate molecules, that stimulate neurite growth; for example, the transformation of the N-Cadherin tail dissolves its complex with presenilin and β-catenin triggering activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and cytoskeletal disruption...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Gaetana Restivo, Johanna Diener, Phil F Cheng, Gregor Kiowski, Mario Bonalli, Thomas Biedermann, Ernst Reichmann, Mitchell P Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Lukas Sommer
The originally published version of this Article was updated shortly after publication to add the words 'The' and 'affinity' to the title, following their inadvertent removal during the production process. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
January 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Aldo Donizetti, Lucia Iannotta, Vincenza Aliperti, Chiara Cupidi, Amalia Cecilia Bruni, Luisa Cigliano
In the central nervous system, cholesterol is critical to maintain membrane plasticity, cellular function, and synaptic integrity. In recent years, much attention was focused on the role of cholesterol in brain since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was previously reported to elicit cholesterol biosynthesis and promote the accumulation of presynaptic proteins in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, but no data are available on its ability to modulate physiological mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Rithwick Rajagopal, Sheng Zhang, Xiaochao Wei, Teresa Doggett, Sangeeta Adak, Jennifer Enright, Vaishali Shah, Guoyu Ling, Shiming Chen, Jun Yoshino, Fong-Fu Hsu, Clay F Semenkovich
Membrane lipid composition is central to the highly specialized functions of neurological tissues. In the retina, abnormal lipid metabolism causes severe forms of blindness, often through poorly understood neuronal cell death. Here, we demonstrate that deleting the de novo lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) from the neural retina, but not the vascular retina, results in progressive neurodegeneration and blindness with a temporal pattern resembling rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa. Blindness was not rescued by protection from light-evoked activity; by eating a diet enriched in palmitate, the product of the FAS reaction; or by treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
Rachel M Brick, Aaron X Sun, Rocky S Tuan
Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to produce a number of bioactive factors, including neurotrophic growth factors, capable of supporting and improving nerve regeneration. However, with a finite culture expansion capacity, MSCs are inherently limited in their lifespan and use. We examined here the potential utility of an alternative, mesenchymal-like cell source, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, termed induced mesenchymal progenitor cells (MiMPCs). We found that several genes were upregulated and proteins were produced in MiMPCs that matched those previously reported for MSCs...
January 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Judith T Zelikoff, Nancy Parmalee, Kevin Corbett, Terry Gordon, Catherine B Klein, Michael Aschner
Recent epidemiological data indicate that the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and consequently nicotine use, is rising in both adolescent and adult populations. As nicotine is a known developmental neurotoxin, these products present a potential threat for those exposed during early life stages. Despite this, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of e-cigarettes on the developing central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study was to assess neurotoxicity resulting from early life exposure to electronic cigarette aerosols in an in vivo model...
November 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Daisuke Kojima, Takeshi Nakamura, Motohiko Banno, Yasunori Umemoto, Tokio Kinoshita, Yuko Ishida, Fumihiro Tajima
PURPOSE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin. The present study investigated the effects of head-out water immersion (HOI) on serum BDNF concentrations. METHODS: Eight healthy men performed 20 min head-out water immersion at 42 °C (hot-HOI) and 35 °C (neutral-HOI). These experimental trials were administered in a randomised order separated by at least 7 days. Venous blood samples were withdrawn at rest, immediately after the 20-min HOI, as well as at 15 and 30 min after the end of the HOI...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With almost 47 million individuals worldwide suffering from some aspect of dementia, it is clear that cognitive loss impacts a significant proportion of the global population. Unfortunately, definitive treatments to resolve or prevent the onset of cognitive loss are limited. In most cases such care is currently non-existent prompting the need for novel treatment strategies. METHODS: Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO) are one such avenue of investigation that offer an exciting potential to bring new treatments forward for disorders that involve cognitive loss...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
Mariela F Trinchero, Karina A Buttner, Jessica N Sulkes Cuevas, Silvio G Temprana, Paula A Fontanet, M Cristina Monzón-Salinas, Fernanda Ledda, Gustavo Paratcha, Alejandro F Schinder
During aging, the brain undergoes changes that impair cognitive capacity and circuit plasticity, including a marked decrease in production of adult-born hippocampal neurons. It is unclear whether development and integration of those new neurons are also affected by age. Here, we show that adult-born granule cells (GCs) in aging mice are scarce and exhibit slow development, but they display a remarkable potential for structural plasticity. Retrovirally labeled 3-week-old GCs in middle-aged mice were small, underdeveloped, and disconnected...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
Joseph D Boss, Pawan Kumar Singh, Hemang K Pandya, Joaquin Tosi, Chaesik Kim, Asheesh Tewari, Mark S Juzych, Gary W Abrams, Ashok Kumar
Purpose: To assess vitreous levels of inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins (NTs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and elucidate their potential roles. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 50 vitreous samples obtained from patients with DR (n = 22) and the nondiabetic controls (n = 28). All patients were candidates for vitrectomy. Inflammatory cytokine and NT levels were determined with ELISA. Potential source and role of NTs was determined by using human retinal Müller glia and mouse photoreceptor cells and challenging them with TNF-α or IL-1β, followed by detection of NTs and cell death...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xu-Qiao Chen, Mariko Sawa, William C Mobley
Neurotrophic factors, including the members of the neurotrophin family, play important roles in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Trophic factor signals must be transmitted over long distances from axons and dendrites to the cell bodies of neurons. A mode of signaling well suited to the challenge of robust long distance signaling is the signaling endosome. We review the biology of signaling endosomes and the "signaling endosome hypothesis". Evidence for disruption of signaling endosome function in disorders of the nervous system is also reviewed...
October 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hongwei Li, Shiyi Lin, Tingting Qin, Hongyan Li, Zhanqiang Ma, Shiping Ma
Depressive disorder is a kind of affective disturbance disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that inflammation may contribute to the pathologic process of depressive disorder. Senegenin (SEN), a major bioactive constituent in Polygala tenuifolia Willd, has much bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection effects. However, the mechanism of its anti-depressant effect in mice remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the anti-depressant effects of SEN on behavioral changes and inflammatory responses in mice induced by chronic un-predictable mild stress (CUMS)...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Shan Zhang, Shu Chen, Anmin Liu, Jungang Wan, Lingwen Tang, Niandong Zheng, Yi Xiong
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been involved in supporting of neuron survival. The observation of reduced level of BDNF in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggests its important role in neuron protection in PD pathogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the down-regulation of BDNF in PD was largely unknown. In this study, we found that miR-210-3p is involved in the regulation of BDNF production by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)). MPP(+) inhibits the BDNF production in SH-SY5Y cells through a transcription independent manner...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Min Zhang, Jiancheng Wang, Chunhua Deng, Mei Hua Jiang, Xin Feng, Kai Xia, Weiqiang Li, Xingqiang Lai, Haipeng Xiao, Ren-Shan Ge, Yong Gao, Andy Peng Xiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that rodent stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation can partially restore testosterone production in Leydig cell (LC)-disrupted or senescent animal models, which provides a promising approach for the treatment of hypogonadism. Here, we isolated human SLCs prospectively and explored the potential therapeutic benefits of human SLC transplantation for hypogonadism treatment. In adult human testes, p75 neurotrophin receptor positive (p75(+)) cells expressed the known SLC marker nestin, but not the LC lineage marker hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3β (HSD3β)...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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