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Neurotrophin production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323721/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-modulates-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-apolipoprotein-e-synthesis-in-human-cell-models-of-astrocytes-and-neurons
#1
Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Aldo Donizetti, Lucia Iannotta, Vincenza Aliperti, Chiara Cupidi, Amalia Cecilia Bruni, Luisa Cigliano
In the central nervous system, cholesterol is critical to maintain membrane plasticity, cellular function, and synaptic integrity. In recent years, much attention was focused on the role of cholesterol in brain since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was previously reported to elicit cholesterol biosynthesis and promote the accumulation of presynaptic proteins in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, but no data are available on its ability to modulate physiological mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321376/retinal-de-novo-lipogenesis-coordinates-neurotrophic-signaling-to-maintain-vision
#2
Rithwick Rajagopal, Sheng Zhang, Xiaochao Wei, Teresa Doggett, Sangeeta Adak, Jennifer Enright, Vaishali Shah, Guoyu Ling, Shiming Chen, Jun Yoshino, Fong-Fu Hsu, Clay F Semenkovich
Membrane lipid composition is central to the highly specialized functions of neurological tissues. In the retina, abnormal lipid metabolism causes severe forms of blindness, often through poorly understood neuronal cell death. Here, we demonstrate that deleting the de novo lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) from the neural retina, but not the vascular retina, results in progressive neurodegeneration and blindness with a temporal pattern resembling rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa. Blindness was not rescued by protection from light-evoked activity; by eating a diet enriched in palmitate, the product of the FAS reaction; or by treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215199/neurotrophically-induced-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-enhance-neuritogenesis-via-neurotrophin-and-cytokine-production
#3
Rachel M Brick, Aaron X Sun, Rocky S Tuan
Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to produce a number of bioactive factors, including neurotrophic growth factors, capable of supporting and improving nerve regeneration. However, with a finite culture expansion capacity, MSCs are inherently limited in their lifespan and use. We examined here the potential utility of an alternative, mesenchymal-like cell source, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, termed induced mesenchymal progenitor cells (MiMPCs). We found that several genes were upregulated and proteins were produced in MiMPCs that matched those previously reported for MSCs...
January 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161446/microglia-activation-and-gene-expression-alteration-of-neurotrophins-in-the-hippocampus-following-early-life-exposure-to-e-cigarette-aerosols-in-a-murine-model
#4
Judith T Zelikoff, Nancy Parmalee, Kevin Corbett, Terry Gordon, Catherine B Klein, Michael Aschner
Recent epidemiological data indicate that the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and consequently nicotine use, is rising in both adolescent and adult populations. As nicotine is a known developmental neurotoxin, these products present a potential threat for those exposed during early life stages. Despite this, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of e-cigarettes on the developing central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study was to assess neurotoxicity resulting from early life exposure to electronic cigarette aerosols in an in vivo model...
November 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157042/head-out-immersion-in-hot-water-increases-serum-bdnf-in-healthy-males
#5
Daisuke Kojima, Takeshi Nakamura, Motohiko Banno, Yasunori Umemoto, Tokio Kinoshita, Yuko Ishida, Fumihiro Tajima
PURPOSE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin. The present study investigated the effects of head-out water immersion (HOI) on serum BDNF concentrations. METHODS: Eight healthy men performed 20 min head-out water immersion at 42 °C (hot-HOI) and 35 °C (neutral-HOI). These experimental trials were administered in a randomised order separated by at least 7 days. Venous blood samples were withdrawn at rest, immediately after the 20-min HOI, as well as at 15 and 30 min after the end of the HOI...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149835/forkhead-transcription-factors-formulating-a-foxo-target-for-cognitive-loss
#6
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With almost 47 million individuals worldwide suffering from some aspect of dementia, it is clear that cognitive loss impacts a significant proportion of the global population. Unfortunately, definitive treatments to resolve or prevent the onset of cognitive loss are limited. In most cases such care is currently non-existent prompting the need for novel treatment strategies. METHODS: Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO) are one such avenue of investigation that offer an exciting potential to bring new treatments forward for disorders that involve cognitive loss...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091753/high-plasticity-of-new-granule-cells-in-the-aging-hippocampus
#7
Mariela F Trinchero, Karina A Buttner, Jessica N Sulkes Cuevas, Silvio G Temprana, Paula A Fontanet, M Cristina Monzón-Salinas, Fernanda Ledda, Gustavo Paratcha, Alejandro F Schinder
During aging, the brain undergoes changes that impair cognitive capacity and circuit plasticity, including a marked decrease in production of adult-born hippocampal neurons. It is unclear whether development and integration of those new neurons are also affected by age. Here, we show that adult-born granule cells (GCs) in aging mice are scarce and exhibit slow development, but they display a remarkable potential for structural plasticity. Retrovirally labeled 3-week-old GCs in middle-aged mice were small, underdeveloped, and disconnected...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084332/assessment-of-neurotrophins-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-vitreous-of-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Joseph D Boss, Pawan Kumar Singh, Hemang K Pandya, Joaquin Tosi, Chaesik Kim, Asheesh Tewari, Mark S Juzych, Gary W Abrams, Ashok Kumar
Purpose: To assess vitreous levels of inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins (NTs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and elucidate their potential roles. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 50 vitreous samples obtained from patients with DR (n = 22) and the nondiabetic controls (n = 28). All patients were candidates for vitrectomy. Inflammatory cytokine and NT levels were determined with ELISA. Potential source and role of NTs was determined by using human retinal Müller glia and mouse photoreceptor cells and challenging them with TNF-α or IL-1β, followed by detection of NTs and cell death...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031834/dysregulation-of-neurotrophin-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-disease-and-of-alzheimer-disease-in-down-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Xu-Qiao Chen, Mariko Sawa, William C Mobley
Neurotrophic factors, including the members of the neurotrophin family, play important roles in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Trophic factor signals must be transmitted over long distances from axons and dendrites to the cell bodies of neurons. A mode of signaling well suited to the challenge of robust long distance signaling is the signaling endosome. We review the biology of signaling endosomes and the "signaling endosome hypothesis". Evidence for disruption of signaling endosome function in disorders of the nervous system is also reviewed...
October 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031144/senegenin-exerts-anti-depression-effect-in-mice-induced-by-chronic-un-predictable-mild-stress-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-regulating-nlrp3-signal-pathway
#10
Hongwei Li, Shiyi Lin, Tingting Qin, Hongyan Li, Zhanqiang Ma, Shiping Ma
Depressive disorder is a kind of affective disturbance disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that inflammation may contribute to the pathologic process of depressive disorder. Senegenin (SEN), a major bioactive constituent in Polygala tenuifolia Willd, has much bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection effects. However, the mechanism of its anti-depressant effect in mice remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the anti-depressant effects of SEN on behavioral changes and inflammatory responses in mice induced by chronic un-predictable mild stress (CUMS)...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030221/inhibition-of-bdnf-production-by-mpp-through-up-regulation-of-mir-210-3p-contributes-to-dopaminergic-neuron-damage-in-mptp-model
#11
Shan Zhang, Shu Chen, Anmin Liu, Jungang Wan, Lingwen Tang, Niandong Zheng, Yi Xiong
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been involved in supporting of neuron survival. The observation of reduced level of BDNF in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggests its important role in neuron protection in PD pathogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the down-regulation of BDNF in PD was largely unknown. In this study, we found that miR-210-3p is involved in the regulation of BDNF production by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)). MPP(+) inhibits the BDNF production in SH-SY5Y cells through a transcription independent manner...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022899/transplanted-human-p75-positive-stem-leydig-cells-replace-disrupted-leydig-cells-for-testosterone-production
#12
Min Zhang, Jiancheng Wang, Chunhua Deng, Mei Hua Jiang, Xin Feng, Kai Xia, Weiqiang Li, Xingqiang Lai, Haipeng Xiao, Ren-Shan Ge, Yong Gao, Andy Peng Xiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that rodent stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation can partially restore testosterone production in Leydig cell (LC)-disrupted or senescent animal models, which provides a promising approach for the treatment of hypogonadism. Here, we isolated human SLCs prospectively and explored the potential therapeutic benefits of human SLC transplantation for hypogonadism treatment. In adult human testes, p75 neurotrophin receptor positive (p75(+)) cells expressed the known SLC marker nestin, but not the LC lineage marker hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3β (HSD3β)...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965835/dopamine-induces-glutamate-accumulation-in-astrocytes-to-disrupt-neuronal-function-leading-to-pathogenesis-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Saidan Ding, Xuebao Wang, Weishan Zhuge, Jianjing Yang, Qichuan Zhuge
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is induced by elevated intracranial dopamine (DA). Glutamate (Glu) toxicity is known to be involved in many neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated whether DA increased Glu levels and collaborated with Glu to impair memory. We found that DA upregulated TAAR1, leading to reduced EAAT2 expression and Glu clearance in primary cortical astrocytes (PCAs). High DA increased TAAR1 expression, and high Glu increased AMPAR expression, inducing the activation of CaN/NFAT signaling and a decrease in the production of BDNF (Brain Derived Nerve Growth Factor)/NT3 (neurotrophin-3) in primary cortical neurons (PCNs)...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894046/the-role-of-trophic-factors-and-inflammatory-processes-in-physical-activity-induced-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Ewelina Pałasz, Agnieszka Bąk, Anna Gąsiorowska, Grażyna Niewiadomska
Glial cells and neurotrophins play an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the CNS. Disturbances of their function can lead to a number of nervous system diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Current clinical studies provide evidence that moderate physical activity adapted to the health status of PD patients can support pharmacological treatment, slow down the onset of motor impairments, and extend the patients period of independence. Physical activity, by stimulating the production and release of endogenous trophic factors, prevents the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons via inhibition of inflammatory processes and the reduction of oxidative stress...
January 4, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844871/emerging-role-of-amyloid-beta-in-stress-response-implication-for-depression-and-diabetes
#15
Maria Grazia Morgese, Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Chronic stress is considered a widely accepted risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, high cortisol levels, and, thus, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation, have been indicated as the most frequent alteration in patients affected by depression, as well as by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, depressive state has been pointed as an early manifestation of AD, advocating an overlap between these neuropathological events. We have previously demonstrated that central soluble beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ) administration peptide induces a depressive like-behavior in rats, with altered HPA axis activation, reduced cortical serotonin and neurotrophin levels...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821608/the-transmembrane-domain-of-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-stimulates-phosphorylation-of-the-trkb-tyrosine-kinase-receptor
#16
Khalil Saadipour, Michael MacLean, Sean Pirkle, Solav Ali, Maria-Luisa Lopez-Redondo, David L Stokes, Moses V Chao
The function of protein products generated from intramembraneous cleavage by the γ-secretase complex is not well defined. The γ-secretase complex is responsible for the cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein that results in Aβ, a transmembrane (TM) peptide. Another protein that undergoes very similar γ-secretase cleavage is the p75 neurotrophin receptor. However, the fate of the cleaved p75 TM domain is unknown. p75 neurotrophin receptor is highly expressed during early neuronal development and regulates survival and process formation of neurons...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761415/dual-and-multi-drug-delivery-nanoparticles-towards-neuronal-survival-and-synaptic-repair
#17
REVIEW
Angelina Angelova, Borislav Angelov
Among the macromolecular drug targets in neurodegenerative disorders, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase receptor (TrkB) present strong interest for nanomedicine development aiming at neuronal and synaptic repair. Currently, BDNF is regarded as the neurotrophic factor of highest therapeutic significance. However, BDNF has delivery problems as a protein drug. The enhanced activation of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) has been evidenced to increase the BDNF gene expression and hence the production of endogenous BDNF...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725180/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-is-present-in-dendritic-spines-of-neurons-in-primary-cultures
#18
Ariel Caviedes, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Carlos Lafourcade, Soledad Sandoval, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Thilo Kaehne, Angela Massmann, Jorge P Figueroa, Francisco Nualart, Ursula Wyneken
Nitric oxide exerts important regulatory functions in various brain processes. Its synthesis in neurons has been most commonly ascribed to the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform. However, the endothelial isoform (eNOS), which is significantly associated with caveolae in different cell types, has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and is enriched in the dendrites of CA1 hippocampal neurons. Using high resolution microscopy and co-distribution analysis of eNOS with synaptic and raft proteins, we now show for the first time in primary cortical and hippocampal neuronal cultures, virtually devoid of endothelial cells, that eNOS is present in neurons and is localized in dendritic spines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606778/hmgb1-promotes-neurovascular-remodeling-via-rage-in-the-late-phase-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#19
Xiaodi Tian, Liang Sun, Dongxia Feng, Qing Sun, Yang Dou, Chenglin Liu, Feng Zhou, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
High-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein widely expressed in the central nervous system. Extracellular HMGB1 serves as a proinflammatory cytokine and contributes to brain injury during the acute stage post-stroke. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated beneficial effects of HMGB1 in some types of brain injury, but little is known about its effects during the late phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was designed to explore the potential roles and mechanisms of HMGB1 and its receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (Rage), on brain recovery in the late stage of experimental SAH...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604632/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-induced-elevated-expression-of-the-e1-isoform-of-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2e1-implications-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-induced-neurological-disability-and-associated-myelin-damage
#20
Tina Khorshid Ahmad, Ting Zhou, Khaled AlTaweel, Claudia Cortes, Ryan Lillico, Ted Martin Lakowski, Kiana Gozda, Michael Peter Namaka
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by the destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. At present, there is no cure for MS due to the inability to repair damaged myelin. Although the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a beneficial role in myelin repair, these effects may be hampered by the over-expression of a transcriptional repressor isoform of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) called MeCP2E1. We hypothesize that following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced myelin damage, the immune system induction of the pathogenic MeCP2E1 isoform hampers the myelin repair process by repressing BDNF expression...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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