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Excitatory glutamate receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909096/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#1
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We previously demonstrated that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we use neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections co-express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895553/glypican-6-enhances-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-function-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#2
Kaoru Sato, Kanako Takahashi, Yukari Shigemoto-Mogami, Kaori Chujo, Yuko Sekino
The in vitro use of neurons that are differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-neurons) is expected to improve the prediction accuracy of preclinical tests for both screening and safety assessments in drug development. To achieve this goal, hiPSC neurons are required to differentiate into functional neurons that form excitatory networks and stably express N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Recent studies have identified some astrocyte-derived factors that are important for the functional maturation of neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886179/astrocytic-gaba-transporter-activity-modulates-excitatory-neurotransmission
#3
Kim Boddum, Thomas P Jensen, Vincent Magloire, Uffe Kristiansen, Dmitri A Rusakov, Ivan Pavlov, Matthew C Walker
Astrocytes are ideally placed to detect and respond to network activity. They express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, and can release gliotransmitters. Astrocytes also express transporters that regulate the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters. Here we report a previously unrecognized role for the astrocytic GABA transporter, GAT-3. GAT-3 activity results in a rise in astrocytic Na(+) concentrations and a consequent increase in astrocytic Ca(2+) through Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. This leads to the release of ATP/adenosine by astrocytes, which then diffusely inhibits neuronal glutamate release via activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886171/transduction-of-group-i-mglur-mediated-synaptic-plasticity-by-%C3%AE-arrestin2-signalling
#4
Andrew G Eng, Daniel A Kelver, Tristan P Hedrick, Geoffrey T Swanson
Conventional signalling by the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR1 and mGluR5, occurs through G-protein coupling, but evidence suggests they might also utilize other, non-canonical effector pathways. Here we test whether group I mGluRs require β-arrestin signalling during specific forms of plasticity at hippocampal excitatory synapses. We find that genetic ablation of β-arrestin2, but not β-arrestin1, results in deficits in plasticity mediated by mGlu1 receptors in CA3 pyramidal neurons and by mGlu5 receptors in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885630/vesicular-glutamate-uptake
#5
Tetsufumi Ueda
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter widely used in the vertebrate central nervous systems. The synaptic transmission process is characterized by three steps: (1) presynaptic vesicular transmitter uptake, (2) presynaptic release, and (3) postsynaptic receptor activation. Presynaptic vesicular glutamate uptake plays an initial pivotal role in glutamate transmission by concentrating glutamate in the vesicular lumen prior to its release. This active glutamate transport harnesses energy derived from ATP hydrolysis, and intra- or extravesicular chloride, and is highly specific to glutamate...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880078/serine-racemase-is-expressed-in-islets-and-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis
#6
Amber D Lockridge, Daniel C Baumann, Brian Akhaphong, Alleah Abrenica, Robert F Miller, Emilyn U Alejandro
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have recently been discovered as functional regulators of pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion. While these excitatory receptor channels have been extensively studied in the brain for their role in synaptic plasticity and development, little is known about how they work in β-cells. In neuronal cells, NMDAR activation requires the simultaneous binding of glutamate and a rate-limiting co-agonist, such as D-serine. D-serine levels and availability in most of the brain rely on endogenous synthesis by the enzyme serine racemase (Srr)...
November 23, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872019/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Fabiola M Ribeiro, Luciene B Vieira, Rita G W Pires, Roenick P Olmo, Stephen S G Ferguson
Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), playing an important role in memory, synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. However, glutamate overstimulation is also implicated in neuronal cell death. There are two major types of glutamate receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic. Thus far, eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) subtypes have been characterized and are divided into three subgroups based on sequence homology and cell signaling activation...
November 18, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869800/a-rapidly-acting-glutamatergic-arc%C3%A2-pvh-satiety-circuit-postsynaptically-regulated-by-%C3%AE-msh
#8
Henning Fenselau, John N Campbell, Anne M J Verstegen, Joseph C Madara, Jie Xu, Bhavik P Shah, Jon M Resch, Zongfang Yang, Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Yoav Livneh, Bradford B Lowell
Arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons sense the fed or fasted state and regulate hunger. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the ARC (ARC(AgRP) neurons) are stimulated by fasting and, once activated, they rapidly (within minutes) drive hunger. Pro-opiomelanocortin (ARC(POMC)) neurons are viewed as the counterpoint to ARC(AgRP) neurons. They are regulated in an opposite fashion and decrease hunger. However, unlike ARC(AgRP) neurons, ARC(POMC) neurons are extremely slow in affecting hunger (many hours). Thus, a temporally analogous, rapid ARC satiety pathway does not exist or is presently unidentified...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862359/the-conversion-of-glutamate-by-glutamine-synthase-in-neocortical-astrocytes-from-juvenile-rat-is-important-to-limit-glutamate-spillover-and-peri-extrasynaptic-activation-of-nmda-receptors
#9
Yosra Trabelsi, Mohamed Amri, Hélène Becq, Florence Molinari, Laurent Aniksztejn
Glutamate transporters (EAATs) are important to maintain spatial and temporal specificity of synaptic transmission. Their efficiency to uptake and transport glutamate into the intracellular space depends on several parameters including the intracellular concentrations of Na(+) and glutamate, the elevations of which may slow down the cycling rate of EAATs. In astrocytes, glutamate is maintained at low concentration due to the presence of specific enzymes such as glutamine synthase (GS). GS inhibition results in cytosolic accumulation of glutamate suggesting that the conversion of glutamate by GS is important for EAATs operation...
November 12, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861918/maguk-dynamics-reveal-regional-and-developmental-specificity-of-synapse-stability
#10
Jonathan M Levy, Roger A Nicoll
Fast excitatory transmission in the brain requires localization of glutamate receptors to synapses. The MAGUK family of synaptic scaffolding proteins is critical for localization of glutamate receptors to synapses. Although the MAGUKs are well-studied in reduced preparations and young animals, little data exists on their role in adult animals. Here, we present a detailed developmental study of the role of the MAGUKs during rat development. We first confirm by knockdown experiments that MAGUKs are essential for glutamatergic transmission in young animals and cultured slices, and increases in PSD-95 by overexpression causes correlated increases in glutamatergic transmission...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861545/glucocorticoid-induces-incoordination-between-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-amygdala
#11
Guang-Yan Wang, Zhao-Ming Zhu, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Stressful life leads to mood disorders. Chronic mild stress is presumably major etiology for depression, and acute severe stress leads to anxiety. These stressful situations may impair hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and in turn induce synapse dysfunction. However, it remains elusive how the stress hormones mess up subcellular compartments and interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which we have investigated in mouse amygdala, a structure related to emotional states...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856517/mglur-long-term-depression-regulates-glua2-association-with-copii-vesicles-and-exit-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#12
Joseph E Pick, Latika Khatri, Matheus F Sathler, Edward B Ziff
mGluR long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) is a form of synaptic plasticity induced at excitatory synapses by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). mGluR-LTD reduces synaptic strength and is relevant to learning and memory, autism, and sensitization to cocaine; however, the mechanism is not known. Here we show that activation of Group I mGluRs in medium spiny neurons induces trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the synapse by enhancing GluA2 binding to essential COPII vesicle proteins, Sec23 and Sec13...
November 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855736/glutamate-is-a-wake-active-neurotransmitter-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
John E Zimmerman, May T Chan, Olivia T Lenz, Brendan T Keenan, Greg Maislin, Allan I Pack
STUDY OBJECTIVES: In mammals, there is evidence that glutamate has a role as a wake active neurotransmitter. So using video-based analysis of Drosophila behavior we undertook a study to examine if glutamate, which has been previously shown to have an excitatory role in neuromuscular junctions in Drosophila, may have a conserved wake-active role in the adult brain. METHODS: Using 6-9 day old female flies we examined the effect of perturbations of the glutamatergic signaling on total wakefulness and wake bout architecture...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847432/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-dependent-long-term-depression-in-the-cortex
#14
REVIEW
Sukjae Joshua Kang, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD), a type of synaptic plasticity, is characterized by a reduction in the synaptic response, mainly at the excitatory synapses of the neurons. The hippocampus and the cerebellum have been the most extensively studied regions in mGluR-dependent LTD, and Group 1 mGluR has been reported to be mainly involved in this synaptic LTD at excitatory synapses. However, mGluR-dependent LTD in other brain regions may be involved in the specific behaviors or diseases...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843437/paraventricular-hypothalamic-mechanisms-of-chronic-stress-adaptation
#15
REVIEW
James P Herman, Jeffrey G Tasker
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary driver of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses. At least part of the role of the PVN is managing the demands of chronic stress exposure. With repeated exposure to stress, hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the PVN display a remarkable cellular, synaptic, and connectional plasticity that serves to maximize the ability of the HPA axis to maintain response vigor and flexibility. At the cellular level, chronic stress enhances the production of CRH and its co-secretagogue arginine vasopressin and rearranges neurotransmitter receptor expression so as to maximize cellular excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828957/plasticity-in-single-axon-glutamatergic-connection-to-gabaergic-interneurons-regulates-complex-events-in-the-human-neocortex
#16
Viktor Szegedi, Melinda Paizs, Eszter Csakvari, Gabor Molnar, Pal Barzo, Gabor Tamas, Karri Lamsa
In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3-5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823628/leonurine-ameliorates-cognitive-dysfunction-via-antagonizing-excitotoxic-glutamate-insults-and-inhibiting-autophagy
#17
Chunhua Liu, Hongqiang Yin, Jing Gao, Xiaxia Xu, Tao Zhang, Zhuo Yang
BACKGROUND: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is related with cognitive deficits in different types of dementia. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of leonurine on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion both in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was duplicated by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2-VO) in vivo. METHODS: In in vitro study, there were control group, OGD group, OGD+ 100µM leonurin group, and OGD+ 10µM donepezil group...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816700/a-subnanomolar-concentration-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-pre-synaptically-modulates-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-rat-hippocampus-acting-through-acetylcholine
#18
Pecoraro Valeria, Sardone Lara Maria, Chisari Mariangela, Licata Flora, Li Volsi Guido, Perciavalle Vincenzo, Ciranna Lucia, Costa Lara
The neuropeptide PACAP modulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus exerting multiple effects through different receptor subtypes: the underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exerts a well-documented modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. Since PACAP was shown to stimulate ACh release in the hippocampus, we tested whether PACAP acting through ACh might indirectly modulate glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission at a pre- and/or at a post-synaptic level...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816550/intra-lc-microinjection-of-orexin-type-1-receptor-antagonist-sb-334867-attenuates-the-expression-of-glutamate-induced-opiate-withdrawal-like-signs-during-the-active-phase-in-rats
#19
Bita Hooshmand, Hossein Azizi, Mohammad Javan, Saeed Semnanian
Opiate withdrawal syndrome is temporally associated with the hyperactivity of locus coeruleus neurons. Previous studies have shown that this hyperactivity, at least in part, results from the activity of excitatory afferents which mainly include the orexinergic neurons of hypothalamus and glutamatergic neurons of paragigantocellularis (PGi) nucleus. The effect of intra LC orexin type 1 receptor antagonism were investigated on expression of glutamate-induced morphine withdrawal-like signs in rats. Regarding the involvement of both orexin and LC in modulation of circadian rhythm, experimental procedures were performed during the rest (day) and the active (night) phases...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800545/loss-of-syndig1-reduces-excitatory-synapse-maturation-but-not-formation-in-vivo
#20
George Chenaux, Lucas Matt, Travis C Hill, Inderpreet Kaur, Xiao-Bo Liu, Lyndsey M Kirk, David J Speca, Samuel A McMahon, Karen Zito, Johannes W Hell, Elva Díaz
Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord...
September 2016: ENeuro
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