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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161565/shape-control-cell-growth-hits-the-mechanical-buffers
#1
Andrew Fleming
Organs are made from cells whose individual growth rates differ, yet the final shape of organs is highly robust. A new mechanics-based system is proposed to physically restrain cells that grow more than their neighbours, buffering their influence on organ size and shape.
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160133/inhibition-of-metastasis-and-angiogenesis-in-hep-2-cells-by-wheatgrass-extract-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approach
#2
Garima Shakya, Sangeetha Balasubramanian, Muddasarul Hoda, Rukkumani Rajagopalan
Metastasis is the major hindrance in the treatment of all cancers, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Intensive researches are under way to identify the effective natural polyphenols with anti-metastatic ability for cancer treatment. Wheatgrass, an herbal plant has been reported to show anticancer effects. Hence, in this study, we aimed to analyze the anti-metastatic effect of methanol extract of wheatgrass (MEWG). The levels of metastatic marker proteins were determined by western blot. PI3K and AKT levels were determined by real time (RT)-PCR analysis...
November 21, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159354/self-assembled-nano-leaf-vein-bionic-structure-of-tio2-mos2-composites-for-photoelectric-sensors
#3
Qianyu Wang, Peng Yu, Lu Bai, Ruiying Bao, Ning Wang, Chuanbing Cheng, Zhengying Liu, Mingbo Yang, Wei Yang, Zhanhu Guo
Inspired by the leaf/vein structure of leaves which effectively supports the photosynthesis of green plants, a nano-leaf/vein bionic structure of self-assembled TiO2/MoS2 composites is applied to induce the reversible photochromic reactions of methylene blue (MB) for the first time. This reversible photochromic phenomenon gives a novel performance for the TiO2/MoS2 composites and expands their applications. Similar to the case where the natural vein network in leaves ensures the efficient material transfer and energy exchange for photosynthesis, the bionic internal MoS2 vein network in the composites ensures the efficient separation and directional transfer of photo-generated carriers to restrain the photocatalytic degradation reactions and to enhance the reversible photochromic reactions...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158820/ph-sensitive-nano-complexes-overcome-drug-resistance-and-inhibit-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-by-silencing-akt-expression
#4
Jieying Yin, Tianqun Lang, Dongmei Cun, Zhong Zheng, Yan Huang, Qi Yin, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li
The therapy of breast cancer is encumbered by drug resistance and metastasis, which can be due to a defective PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. This study was aimed at improving the anti-cancer effect of the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) on the drug resistant and metastatic breast cancer by co-delivering PTX and a siRNA, siAkt, directed at silencing the Akt expression. Methods: The pH-sensitive amphiphilic polymer, poly [(1,4-butanediol)-diacrylate-β-N, N-diisopropylethylenediamine]-polyethyleneimine (BDP) was synthesized...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158543/genetic-predisposition-to-obesity-restrained-eating-and-changes-in-body-weight-a-population-based-prospective-study
#5
H Konttinen, C Llewellyn, K Silventoinen, A Joensuu, S Männistö, V Salomaa, P Jousilahti, J Kaprio, M Perola, A Haukkala
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on whether cognitive control over food intake (i.e. restrained eating) is helpful, merely ineffective or actually harmful in weight management. We examined the interplay between genetic risk of obesity, restrained eating and changes in body weight and size. METHODS: Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n=5024), height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a health examination and participants self-reported their weight at age 20 years...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158386/cholesterol-binding-site-of-the-influenza-m2-protein-in-lipid-bilayers-from-solid-state-nmr
#6
Matthew R Elkins, Jonathan K Williams, Martin D Gelenter, Peng Dai, Byungsu Kwon, Ivan V Sergeyev, Bradley L Pentelute, Mei Hong
The influenza M2 protein not only forms a proton channel but also mediates membrane scission in a cholesterol-dependent manner to cause virus budding and release. The atomic interaction of cholesterol with M2, as with most eukaryotic membrane proteins, has long been elusive. We have now determined the cholesterol-binding site of the M2 protein in phospholipid bilayers using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Chain-fluorinated cholesterol was used to measure cholesterol proximity to M2 while sterol-deuterated cholesterol was used to measure bound-cholesterol orientation in lipid bilayers...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158288/time-dependent-testing-evaluation-and-modeling-for-rubber-stopper-seal-performance
#7
Qingyu Zeng, Xia Zhao
Sufficient rubber stopper sealing performance throughout the entire sealed product life cycle is essential for maintaining container closure integrity (CCI) in the parenteral packaging industry. However, prior publications have lacked systematic considerations for the time-dependent influence on sealing performance that results from the viscoelastic characteristics of the rubber stoppers. In this paper, we report results of an effort to study these effects, by applying both compression stress relaxation (CSR) testing and residual seal force (RSF) testing for time-dependent experimental data collection...
November 20, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156826/protective-effect-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-extract-egb761-on-myocardium-injury-in-ischemia-reperfusion-rats-via-regulation-of-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#8
Yuping Tang, Guisheng Zhou, Lijun Yao, Ping Xue, Danhong Yu, Renjie Xu, Wen Shi, Xin Yao, Zhaowei Yan, Jin-Ao Duan
Beneficial actions of EGb 761 against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in lung, brain and renal ischemia have been described. However, the relationship between EGb 761 and signal molecules in myocardial ischemia reperfusion has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of EGb 761 preconditioning on anti-myocardial I/R injuries in vivo. Meanwhile, their potential anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammation effect were assessed. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored as left ventricular systolic pressure, LV end-diastolic pressure and maximal rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (dP/dtmax)...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156755/escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-engineered-to-express-tum-5-can-restrain-murine-melanoma-growth
#9
Lian He, Huijun Yang, Fei Liu, Yiyan Chen, Sijia Tang, Wei Ji, Jianli Tang, Zhudong Liu, Yunjun Sun, Shengbiao Hu, Youming Zhang, Xiong Liu, Weitao Huang, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia
Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis. Thus, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has become promising cancer therapeutic strategy in recent years. Tumstatin is a more powerful angiogenesis inhibitor than endostatin. Anti-angiogenic active fragment encoding amino acids 45-132 (Tum-5) of tumstatin was subcloned into four different inducible expression vectors and successfully solubly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in this study. Subsequently, an anaerobic inducible expression vector was constructed under Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene promoter Pvhb in E...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156047/immunopathogenesis-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#10
Tai-Chung Tseng, Li-Rung Huang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. There are >250 million people chronically infected with HBV, and these chronic carriers are at high risk of developing end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) usually acquire the virus perinatally, while most patients infected during adulthood develop acute hepatitis B (AHB), which usually results in viral clearance. HBV infection is noncytopathic, and liver injury is mostly contributed by host immune responses...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155067/contrasting-roles-of-fungal-siderophores-in-maintaining-iron-homeostasis-in-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae
#11
Natasha T Forester, Geoffrey A Lane, Melle Steringa, Iain L Lamont, Linda J Johnson
The symbiosis between Epichloë festucae and its host perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a model system for mutualistic interactions in which the fungal endophyte grows between plant shoot cells and acquires host nutrients to survive. E. festucae synthesises the siderophore epichloënin A (EA) via SidN, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). EA is involved in the acquisition of iron, an essential micronutrient, as part of the process of maintaining a stable symbiotic interaction. Here, we mutated a different NRPS gene sidC and showed that it is required for production of a second siderophore ferricrocin (FC)...
November 15, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153475/toxicity-associated-changes-in-the-invasive-cyanobacterium-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-in-response-to-nitrogen-fluctuations
#12
Yiming Yang, Youxin Chen, Fangfang Cai, Xiang Liu, Yilang Wang, Renhui Li
The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is of particular concern due to its ability to fix nitrogen (N), sporadic bloom, potential toxicity and apparent invasiveness. However, the toxicity associated behavior and response of toxic C. raciborskii under N fluctuations in water have been poorly investigated. The present study initiated based on the field survey in which Cylindrospermopsis species was found to have a high fitness under nitrate concentrations fluctuating from 0.02 mg L(-1) to 2.90 mg L(-1) in Chinese freshwater lakes...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152852/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-hospital-emergency-department-waiting-times-and-demand
#13
Peter Sivey
In the absence of the price mechanism, hospital emergency departments rely on waiting times, alongside prioritisation mechanisms, to restrain demand and clear the market. This paper estimates by how much the number of treatments demanded is reduced by a higher waiting time. I use variation in waiting times for low-urgency patients caused by rare and resource-intensive high-urgency patients to estimate the relationship. I find that when waiting times are higher, more low-urgency patients are deterred from treatment and leave the hospital during the waiting period without being treated...
November 20, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152741/neat1-acts-as-an-inducer-of-cancer-stem-cell-like-phenotypes-in-nsclc-by-inhibiting-egcg-upregulated-ctr1
#14
Pan Jiang, Aochang Chen, Xiaoyue Wu, Ming Zhou, Ijaz Ul Haq, Zahula Mariyam, Qing Feng
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in the pathogenesis of various cancers, including lung cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the biological function of lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been suggested as the main cause of tumor metastasis, tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. The copper transporter 1 (CTR1) has been the focus of many recent studies because of its correlation with cisplatin (CDDP) resistance. So far, the mechanism of how NEAT1 regulates CSCs in NSCLC remains unknown...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152611/nur77-is-upregulated-in-b-1a-cells-by-chronic-self-antigen-stimulation-and-limits-generation-of-natural-igm-plasma-cells
#15
John Huizar, Corey Tan, Mark Noviski, James L Mueller, Julie Zikherman
B-1a cells are a unique population of innate-like B cells with a highly restricted and self-reactive BCR repertoire. Preimmune "natural" IgM produced by B-1a-derived plasma cells is essential for homeostatic clearance of cellular debris and forms a primary layer of protection against infection. In this study, we take advantage of a fluorescent reporter of BCR signaling to show that expression of the orphan nuclear hormone receptor Nur77 is upregulated under steady-state conditions in self-reactive B-1a cells in response to chronic Ag stimulation...
November 1, 2017: Immunohorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152116/microrna-526b-servers-as-a-prognostic-factor-and-exhibits-tumor-suppressive-property-by-targeting-sirtuin-7-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Xin Liu, Liu Yang, Jianfeng Tu, Wenwei Cai, Meiqi Zhang, Zhangxuan Shou, Yingmin Yao, Qiuran Xu
Recent studies have reported that microRNA-526b (miR-526b) is implicated in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the clinical significance of miR-526b and its role as well as underlying mechanisms are largely unknown in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we detected miR-526b expression difference between HCC and matched nontumor tissues with qRT-PCR. We found that miR-526b displayed lower expression in HCC patient tissues and cells. Clinical analysis revealed that low miR-526b expression correlated with large tumor size, venous infiltration, advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151095/violent-behavior
#17
Sophia Sopromadze, Alexander Tsiskaridze
Violence is a significant public health problem representing one of the leading causes of death worldwide for people aged 15-44 years. Although violence and aggression are more frequent in adolescence and early adult life and decline with advancing age, these conditions can still develop for the first time in old age especially in association with organic brain disorder. Rates of violent death vary according to country income levels and are twice as higher in low- to middle-income countries than in high-income countries...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149065/calcined-chitosan-supported-layered-double-hydroxides-an-efficient-and-recyclable-adsorbent-for-the-removal-of-fluoride-from-an-aqueous-solution
#18
Hanjun Wu, Huali Zhang, Qingxue Yang, Dongsheng Wang, Weijun Zhang, Xiaofang Yang
In this work, calcined chitosan-supported layered double hydroxides (CSLDO) were synthesized through a co-precipitation method that restrained the particles' aggregation of LDHs and exhibited huge specific surface areas, which can enhance the fluoride adsorption capacity. CSLDOs were characterized by physical and chemical methods and used for fluoride adsorption in an aqueous solution. The results indicated that the nanoparticles were constructed first and then assembled to form a porous and layered structure, and chitosan-supported layered double hydroxides (CSLDHs) calcined at 400 °C (CSLDO400) showed the highest specific surface area of 116...
November 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148846/preparation-and-evaluation-of-curcumin-loaded-self-assembled-micelles
#19
Lu-Lu Wang, Dan-Dan He, Shu-Xia Wang, Yun-Hao Dai, Jian-Ming Ju, Cheng-Lei Zhao
Objective Curcumin being used to treat various chronic diseases while its poor bioavailability issue limited its wide clinical application as a therapeutic agent. The aim of this work was to prepare curcumin-loaded self-assembled micelles using soluplus and solutol®HS15 (SSCMs) to enhance curcumin's solubility and thus oral bioavailability. Methods Optimum formulation was investigated and the optimized ratio of drugs and excipients was obtained and the SSCMs were prepared via ethanol solvent evaporation method...
November 17, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148838/discordance-between-age-and-size-based-criteria-of-child-passenger-restraint-appropriateness
#20
Mary L Smiley, C Raymond Bingham, Peter D Jacobson, Michelle L Macy
Objectives In this study we sought to accomplish the following objectives: 1) to calculate the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained across eight criteria of increasing restrictiveness; 2) to examine agreement between age- and size-based appropriateness criteria; 3) to assess for changes in the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained by the eight criteria between 2011 (shortly after updates to United States (U.S.) guidelines) and 2015. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys of 928 parents of children younger than 12 years old (n = 591 in 2011, n = 337 in 2015) were analyzed in 2017...
November 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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