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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334728/changing-treatment-paradigms-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jong Pil Im, Byong Duk Ye, You Sun Kim, Joo Sung Kim
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and progressive inf lammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract causing bowel damage, hospitalizations, surgeries, and disability. Although there has been much progress in the management of IBD with established and evolving therapies, most current approaches have failed to change the natural course. Therefore, the treatment approach and follow-up of patients with IBD have undergone a significant change. Usage of immunosuppressants and/or biologics early during the course of the disease, known as top-down or accelerated step-up approach, was shown to be superior to conventional management in patients who had been recently diagnosed with IBD...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333575/a-phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-pf-06664178-an-anti-trop-2-aur0101-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-solid-tumors
#2
Gentry T King, Keith D Eaton, Brandon R Beagle, Christopher J Zopf, Gilbert Y Wong, Heike I Krupka, Steven Y Hua, Wells A Messersmith, Anthony B El-Khoueiry
Purpose and Methods Trop-2 is a glycoprotein over-expressed in many solid tumors but at low levels in normal human tissue, providing a potential therapeutic target. We conducted a phase 1 dose-finding study of PF-06664178, an antibody-drug conjugate that targets Trop-2 for the selective delivery of the cytotoxic payload Aur0101. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary objectives included further characterization of the safety profile, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity...
January 15, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333561/pharmacokinetics-of-the-b-cell-lymphoma-2-bcl-2-inhibitor-venetoclax-in-female-subjects-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#3
Mukul Minocha, Jiewei Zeng, Jeroen K Medema, Ahmed A Othman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Venetoclax is an oral selective Bcl-2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion. Mechanistic and preclinical evidence warranted evaluation of venetoclax for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This work characterized the pharmacokinetics of venetoclax in female subjects with SLE. METHODS: Single (10-500 mg) and multiple (30-600 mg) escalating doses of venetoclax or matching placebo were evaluated using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled designs (6 active and 2 placebo per dose with 73 unique SLE patients enrolled, 25 of whom enrolled twice)...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333010/sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-during-treatment-for-wilms-tumor-a-life-threatening-complication
#4
Sidharth Totadri, Amita Trehan, Deepak Bansal, Richa Jain
Context: Survival rates exceed 90% in Wilms' tumor (WT). Actinomycin-D (ACT-D) which is indispensable in the management of WT is associated with the development of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a potentially fatal complication. Aims: The aim is to study the presentation, management, and outcome of SOS complicating ACT-D administration in WT. Settings and Design: Retrospective file review conducted in a Pediatric Hematology-Oncology unit...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332562/the-delicate-balance-between-the-good-and-the-bad-il-1-proinflammatory-effects-in-endometriosis
#5
Justyna Sikora, Simone Ferrero, Aleksandra Mielczarek-Palacz, Zdzislawa Kondera-Anasz
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an inflammatory gynaecological disease with an associated chronic inflammation. Interleukin(IL)-1 is one of the most important immune and proinflammatory factors, produced mainly by monocytes and macrophages. Studies indicate the role of the cytokine from IL-1 family in endometrium-related disorders, particularly in endometriosis. METHODS: The information about the impact of cytokine from IL-1 cytokine family on the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis was obtained with an electronic literature search based on the PubMed and Medline databases, spanning the period of January 1950 to July 2017 and includes associated references in the published studies...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332325/is-%C3%AE-n-acetylgalactosaminidase-the-key-to-curing-cancer-a-mini-review-and-hypothesis
#6
Ehsan Saburi, Jalil Tavakol-Afshari, Sajjad Biglari, Yousef Mortazavi
In the constant battle against cancer cells, macrophages are of great importance. Their activation is achieved through various mechanisms such as Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP or Gc). After undergoing modifications via enzymes secreted by stimulated lymphocytes, VDBP is modified into Macrophages Activator Form/Factor (Gc-MAF). Some studies (particularly those focusing on cancer) have reported that an enzyme known as α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) facilitates the deglycosylation of Gc-MAF, which in turn inhibits the activation of macrophages...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332320/the-role-of-tiotropium-olodaterol-dual-bronchodilator-therapy-in-the-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
David M G Halpin
Bronchodilator therapy is central to the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and are recommended as the preferred treatment by the Global Obstructive Lung Disease Initiative (GOLD). Long acting anti-muscarinics (LAMA) and long acting β₂ agonists (LABA) are both more effective than regular short-acting drugs but many patients remain symptomatic despite monotherapy with these drugs. Combination therapy with LAMA and LABA increases the therapeutic benefit while minimizing dose-dependent side effects of long-acting bronchodilator therapy...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331262/can-interrogation-of-tumour-characteristics-lead-us-to-safely-omit-adjuvant-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-early-breast-cancer
#8
I S Bhattacharya, A M Kirby, J M Bliss, C E Coles
Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery has been an important component of the standard of care for early breast cancer. Improvements in breast cancer care have resulted in a substantial reduction in local relapse rates over recent decades. Although the proportional benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy are similar for different prognostic risk groups of patients, the absolute benefits depend on the risk of relapse and therefore vary considerably between prognostic groups. Radiotherapy is not without risk and for some patients at very low risk of relapse the risks of radiotherapy may outweigh the benefit, leading to potential overtreatment...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330813/characteristics-of-elderly-patients-initiating-sitagliptin-or-non-dpp-4-inhibitor-oral-antihyperglycemic-agents-analysis-of-a-cross-sectional-us-claims-database
#9
Tongtong Wang, Ann Marie McNeill, Yong Chen, Edward A O'Neill, Samuel S Engel
INTRODUCTION: Previous analyses concluded that patients initiating treatment with sitagliptin are older and have more comorbidities than patients initiating treatment with other oral antihyperglycemic agents (OAHAs). However, these studies focused on the general population or subjects ≤ 65 years of age. We sought to compare differences in baseline characteristics of elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) with T2DM initiating sitagliptin vs. non-DPP-4 inhibitor (non-DPP-4i) OAHA in the MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental Database...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330005/a-phase-i-study-of-irinotecan-capecitabine-xeloda-and-oxaliplatin-in-patients-with-advanced-colorectal-cancer
#10
Jean Maroun, Horia Marginean, Derek Jonker, Christine Cripps, Rakesh Goel, Timothy Asmis, Rachel Goodwin, Gabriela Chiritescu
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present phase I study was to define the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of irinotecan, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin given in combination (IXO regimen) to patients with previously untreated, unresectable advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received oxaliplatin followed by irinotecan as intravenous infusions on day 1, with oral capecitabine taken twice daily (BID) on days 2 to 15 of a 3-week cycle...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329996/to-prep-or-not-to-prep-that-is-the-question-a-randomized-trial-on-the-use-of-antiflatulent-medication-as-part-of-bowel-preparation-for-patients-having-image-guided-external-beam-radiation-therapy-to-the-prostate
#11
Merrylee McGuffin, Naila Devji, Lyann Kehoe, Anne Carty, Steve Russell, Lisa Di Prospero, Carlo DeAngelis, Alex Kiss, Danny Vesprini, Andrew Loblaw, Laura D'Alimonte
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy is a standard treatment option for prostate cancer. With growing use of escalated doses and tighter margins, procedures to limit rectal size variation are needed to reduce prostate motion, increase treatment accuracy, and minimize rectal toxicity. This prospective study was done to determine whether the introduction of an antiflatulent medication would decrease rectal distention at computed tomography (CT) simulation and throughout a course of radiation therapy...
November 4, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329957/safety-and-tolerability-of-a-novel-polyclonal-human-anti-mers-coronavirus-antibody-produced-from-transchromosomic-cattle-a-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-single-dose-escalation-study
#12
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329336/effective-dispersal-and-density-dependence-in-mesophotic-macroalgal-forests-insights-from-the-mediterranean-species-cystoseira-zosteroides
#13
Pol Capdevila, Cristina Linares, Eneko Aspillaga, Joan Lluís Riera, Bernat Hereu
Dispersal and recruitment are fundamental processes for population recovery following disturbances in sessile species. While both processes are well understood for many terrestrial species, they still remain poorly resolved for some macroalgal species. Here we experimentally investigated the effective dispersal and recruit survival of a mesophotic Mediterranean fucoid, Cystoseira zosteroides. In three isolated populations, four sets of settlement collectors were placed at increasing distances (from 0 to 10 m) and different orientations (North, South, East and West)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327978/in-vivo-cyp3a-activity-in-palliative-care-patients-study-protocol-for-a-single-arm-prospective-trial
#14
Marcus J P Geist, Hubert J Bardenheuer, Jürgen Burhenne, Gerd Mikus
BACKGROUND: Drug interactions are a common cause for escalation of debilitating symptoms in palliative care patients. CYP3A is the most relevant CYP enzyme in humans involved in metabolism of about half of all available pharmaceuticals. OBJECTIVE: To increase knowledge about the CYP3A enzyme and the impact of drug interactions on its activity to improve dosing in palliative care patients. DESIGN: The prospective clinical trial uses a secure method of analyzing CYP3A activity in humans: Administration of a marker substance followed by the determination of its blood concentrations as well as the concentrations of its metabolite at certain points of time and corresponding metabolic clearance calculations...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326424/assessing-treatment-outcomes-in-multiple-sclerosis-trials-and-in-the-clinical-setting
#15
REVIEW
Carmen Tur, Marcello Moccia, Frederik Barkhof, Jeremy Chataway, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Alan J Thompson, Olga Ciccarelli
Increasing numbers of drugs are being developed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Measurement of relevant outcomes is key for assessing the efficacy of new drugs in clinical trials and for monitoring responses to disease-modifying drugs in individual patients. Most outcomes used in trial and clinical settings reflect either clinical or neuroimaging aspects of MS (such as relapse and accrual of disability or the presence of visible inflammation and brain tissue loss, respectively). However, most measures employed in clinical trials to assess treatment effects are not used in routine practice...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326181/what-are-the-sources-of-stress-and-distress-for-general-practitioners-working-in-england-a-qualitative-study
#16
Ruth Riley, Johanna Spiers, Marta Buszewicz, Anna Kathryn Taylor, Gail Thornton, Carolyn Anne Chew-Graham
OBJECTIVES: This paper reports the sources of stress and distress experienced by general practitioners (GP) as part of a wider study exploring the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental illness and burnout among this medical population. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 47 GP participants. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymised and imported into NVivo V.11 to facilitate data management. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis employing the constant comparative method...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325708/promising-roles-for-pharmacists-in-addressing-the-u-s-opioid-crisis
#17
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324932/the-neurophysiological-and-evolutionary-considerations-of-close-combat-a-modular-approach
#18
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324302/addressing-the-paradox-of-increasing-mastectomy-rates-in-an-era-of-de-escalation-of-therapy-communication-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Mona P Tan, Edibaldo Silva
Breast conservation therapy (BCT) was established as the preferred modality of surgical treatment for early stage breast cancer in the early 1990's. Yet, rising mastectomy rates have been observed over the last decade. This increase is a cause for concern as recent large population-based studies have consistently reported improved breast cancer-specific survival and local control rates with BCT, in comparison with mastectomy. There is a pressing need to formulate strategies to effectively inform both patients and practitioners about current data, in the hope of reversing rising mastectomy rates to optimise survival outcomes...
January 8, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324050/the-roles-of-adjuvant-supplements-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-on-chemotherapy-reaping-benefits-from-metabolic-crosstalk
#20
Babak Golkhalkhali, Audra Shaleena Paliany, Kin Fah Chin, Retnagowri Rajandram
The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on a steady rise over the years, with the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting CRC as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. While treatment modalities may differ in accordance to the staging and severity of the disease itself, chemotherapy is almost unavoidable in most cases. Though effective in its mode of action, chemotherapy is commonly associated with undesirable side effects that negatively affects the patient in terms of quality of life, and in some cases may actually interfere with their treatment regimens, thus escalating to poor prognosis...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
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