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tuberculosis in childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909133/tuberculin-skin-test-reaction-is-related-to-memory-but-not-naive-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterial-stimuli-in-bcg-vaccinated-young-adults
#1
Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Piotr Szpakowski, Camille Locht, Franck Biet, Paulina Kaplonek, Krzysztof T Krawczyk, Joël Pestel, Wieslawa Rudnicka
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis and the tuberculin skin test (TST) is the most widely used method to detect BCG take. However, subjects may remain TST-negative, even after several BCG administrations. To investigate some of the potential reasons underlying this inability of developing tuberculin sensitivity in response to BCG we compared the effect of different mycobacterial stimuli in the groups differently responding to tuberculin. TST was performed on 71 healthy adults aged 25-30 years, who had received BCG in their childhood, and considered TST-positive at ≥10 mm...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885751/epidemiology-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-kenya-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-during-treatment-a-national-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866076/predictors-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-public-health-facilities-of-bale-zone-oromia-region-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#3
Bereket Gebremichael, Tsega-Ab Abebaw, Tsedey Moges, Admas Abera Abaerei, Nadia Worede
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is among the top ten cause of death (9th) from a single infectious agent worldwide. It even ranks above HIV/AIDS. It is among the top 10 causes of death among children. Globally there are estimates of one million cases of TB in children, 76% occur in 22 high-burden countries among which Ethiopia ranked 8th. Despite this fact, children with TB are given low priority in most national health programs. Moreover reports on childhood TB and its predictors are very limited...
June 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791553/epidemiological-aspects-clinical-manifestations-and-prevention-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-end-tb-strategy
#4
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773321/evaluating-scenarios-of-locations-and-capacities-for-vaccine-storage-in-nigeria
#5
Dor Hirsh Bar Gai, Zachary Graybill, Paule Voevodsky, Ekundayo Shittu
Many developing countries still face the prevalence of preventable childhood diseases because their vaccine supply chain systems are inadequate by design or structure to meet the needs of their populations. Currently, Nigeria is evaluating options in the redesign of the country's vaccine supply chain. Using Nigeria as a case study, the objective is to evaluate different regional supply chain scenarios to identify the cost minimizing optimal hub locations and storage capacities for doses of different vaccines to achieve a 100% fill rate...
May 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749044/mycobacteria-employ-two-different-mechanisms-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier
#6
L M van Leeuwen, M Boot, C Kuijl, D I Picavet, G van den Brink, S M A van der Pol, H E de Vries, N N van der Wel, M van der Kuip, A M van Furth, A M van der Sar, W Bitter
Central nervous system (CNS) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis, in particular in early childhood. In order to induce CNS infection, M. tuberculosis needs to cross specialized barriers protecting the brain. How M. tuberculosis crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enters the CNS is not well understood. Here, we use transparent zebrafish larvae and the closely related pathogen Mycobacterium marinum to answer this question. We show that in the early stages of development mycobacteria rapidly infect brain tissue, either as free mycobacteria or within circulating macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740714/xpert-mtb-rif-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis-from-sputum-and-stool-samples-in-a-high-tb-hiv-prevalent-setting
#7
Patrick Orikiriza, Margaret Nansumba, Dan Nyehangane, Mathieu Bastard, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Denis Nansera, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Elias Kumbakumba, Maryline Bonnet
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a major advance for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries but is limited in children by their difficulty to produce sputum. We investigated TB in sputum and stool from children with the aim of improving paediatric TB diagnosis. A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB, provided two sputum or induced sputum at enrolment in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Stool was collected from those started on TB treatment. All specimen were tested for Xpert MTB/RIF, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), Lowenstein Jensen cultures and microscopy (except stool)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728429/interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-performance-for-tuberculosis-in-childhood
#8
Alexander W Kay, Shamim M Islam, Kristen Wendorf, Janice Westenhouse, Pennan M Barry
BACKGROUND: Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are important adjunctive tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) disease in children. METHODS: We analyzed California TB registry data for patients ≤18 years with laboratory-confirmed TB disease during 2010-2015 to identify case characteristics associated with test selection and performance and measure IGRA sensitivity. RESULTS: In total, 778 cases of TB were reported; 360 were laboratory confirmed...
May 4, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687155/takayasu-arteritis-in-childhood-misdiagnoses-at-disease-onset-and-associated-diseases
#9
Gleice Clemente, Clovis A Silva, Silvana B Sacchetti, Virginia P L Ferriani, Sheila K Oliveira, Flavio Sztajnbok, Blanca E R G Bica, André Cavalcanti, Teresa Robazzi, Marcia Bandeira, Maria Teresa Terreri
Juvenile-Takayasu arteritis (j-TA) is a difficult diagnosis and some patients develop uncommon manifestations and associated diseases that may contribute to the delayed diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the misdiagnoses, the associated diseases and the atypical manifestations observed in a j-TA Brazilian multicentre study. 71 children and adolescents who met the classification criteria for j-TA were included. The misdiagnoses, the associated diseases and the atypical manifestations were evaluated. 19 (26.8%) patients had misdiagnoses...
June 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680795/monomac-syndrome-with-associated-neurological-deficits-and-longitudinally-extensive-cord-lesion
#10
Mastura Monif, Aamira Huq, Lynette Chee, Trevor Kilpatrick
We present a case of monocytopaenia and mycobacteria-related infection (MonoMac) syndrome in a 30-year-old man of Indian origin. The clinical diagnosis of GATA2 haploinsufficiency was suspected after an unusual neurological presentation on a background of myelodysplastic syndrome and childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient had a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion and a lesion in the medulla. No obvious infective cause for the spinal cord MRI abnormality was found, and the lesions were presumed to be inflammatory in nature...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#11
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659851/causes-of-death-at-the-university-of-ghana-hospital-in-accra-a-37-year-review-1979-2015
#12
Edward K Sutherland, Gloria A Ansa, Frank Baiden, Enoch N B Quaye, Afua A Amoabeng, Christian Amenuveve
Background: An analysis of the causes of death in developing countries is needed to improve healthcare delivery. The aim of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of the causes of death at the University of Ghana Hospital from 1979 to 2015. Methods: Data were extracted from the electronic database of the University of Ghana Hospital. Diseases were grouped into three broad groups of causes of death as per the Global Burden of Disease cause list, with some diseases of epidemiological importance outlined and analysed by age, gender and time in years...
April 5, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#13
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622712/isolated-cystic-lymphangiomatosis-of-spleen-in-an-adult-a-diagnostic-conundrum
#14
Pavan Kumar, Saket Kumar, Nuzhat Husain, Abhijit Chandra
Lymphangiomatosis is a rare developmental disorder characterised by diffuse proliferation of anastomosing lymphatic channels (lymphangiomas). It is believed to result from anomalous lymphatic development and usually presents in childhood. It typically occurs as a part of systemic lymphangiomatosis and isolated organ involvement is rare. Only nine cases of isolated cystic lymphangiomatosis of spleen have been reported between 1990 and 2010. Tuberculosis is a significant health problem in India and varied forms of this disease are seen in clinical practice...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605210/a-review-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-tertiary-care-experience
#15
Ozlem Satırer, Ayse Mete Yesil, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Gökcen Dilsa Tugcu, Ebru Yalcın, Deniz Dogru, Nural Kiper, Ugur Ozcelik
INTRODUCTION: Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical findings of 187 patients diagnosed with non-CF bronchiectasis over a period of 10 years (January 2005-December 2015) at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Pulmonology...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566781/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-cause-of-necrotising-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-case-series
#16
C Jacobs, P Goussard, R P Gie
Tertiary care hospital, Western Cape, South Africa.<br />DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of acase series of necrotising pneumonia (NP) in children associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis presenting over a 4-year period in a country with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) prevalence.<br />OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and radiological features of, and treatment regimens and outcomes in, children with NP.<br />RESULTS: Of 32 children (median age 16...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566651/complementary-surveillance-strategies-are-needed-to-better-characterise-the-epidemiology-care-pathways-and-treatment-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#17
Karen du Preez, H Simon Schaaf, Rory Dunbar, Elisabetta Walters, Alvera Swartz, Regan Solomons, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in young and HIV-infected children is frequently diagnosed at hospital level. In settings where general hospitals do not function as TB reporting units, the burden and severity of childhood TB may not be accurately reflected in routine TB surveillance data. Given the paucibacillary nature of childhood TB, microbiological surveillance alone will miss the majority of hospital-managed children. The study objective was to combine complementary hospital-based surveillance strategies to accurately report the burden, spectrum and outcomes of childhood TB managed at referral hospital-level in a high TB burden setting...
March 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514237/priorities-for-decreasing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#18
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511357/childhood-tuberculosis-in-nigeria-disease-presentation-and-treatment-outcomes
#19
Chidubem L Ogbudebe, Victor Adepoju, Christy Ekerete-Udofia, Ebere Abu, Ginika Egesemba, Nkem Chukwueme, Mustapha Gidado
Objectives: Understanding the factors that influence tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in children is key to designing interventions to address them. This study aimed to determine the case category distribution of childhood TB in Nigeria and assess which clinical and demographic factors are associated with different treatment outcomes in childhood TB. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records of children (0-14 years) with TB in 3 states in Nigeria in 2015...
2018: Health Services Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502937/managing-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-tuberculosis-in-children
#20
I Carvalho, D Goletti, S Manga, D R Silva, D Manissero, G Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this review is to describe the management of the child with TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To develop this article, a working group reviewed relevant epidemiological and other scientific studies and established practices in conducting LBTI and TB in children. The article describes how to manage the child with LTBI, considering transmission and infectiousness of tuberculosis, contact screening and prioritization of contacts and recommendations on treatment of children with LTBI and how to manage the child with TB considering the susceptibility of children to developing tuberculosis, epidemiology and classification of tuberculosis in children, diagnosis and treatment...
March 2018: Pulmonology
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