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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#1
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659851/causes-of-death-at-the-university-of-ghana-hospital-in-accra-a-37-year-review-1979-2015
#2
Edward K Sutherland, Gloria A Ansa, Frank Baiden, Enoch N B Quaye, Afua A Amoabeng, Christian Amenuveve
Background: An analysis of the causes of death in developing countries is needed to improve healthcare delivery. The aim of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of the causes of death at the University of Ghana Hospital from 1979 to 2015. Methods: Data were extracted from the electronic database of the University of Ghana Hospital. Diseases were grouped into three broad groups of causes of death as per the Global Burden of Disease cause list, with some diseases of epidemiological importance outlined and analysed by age, gender and time in years...
April 5, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#3
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622712/isolated-cystic-lymphangiomatosis-of-spleen-in-an-adult-a-diagnostic-conundrum
#4
Pavan Kumar, Saket Kumar, Nuzhat Husain, Abhijit Chandra
Lymphangiomatosis is a rare developmental disorder characterised by diffuse proliferation of anastomosing lymphatic channels (lymphangiomas). It is believed to result from anomalous lymphatic development and usually presents in childhood. It typically occurs as a part of systemic lymphangiomatosis and isolated organ involvement is rare. Only nine cases of isolated cystic lymphangiomatosis of spleen have been reported between 1990 and 2010. Tuberculosis is a significant health problem in India and varied forms of this disease are seen in clinical practice...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605210/a-review-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-tertiary-care-experience
#5
Ozlem Satırer, Ayse Mete Yesil, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Gökcen Dilsa Tugcu, Ebru Yalcın, Deniz Dogru, Nural Kiper, Ugur Ozcelik
INTRODUCTION: Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical findings of 187 patients diagnosed with non-CF bronchiectasis over a period of 10 years (January 2005-December 2015) at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Pulmonology...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566781/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-cause-of-necrotising-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-case-series
#6
C Jacobs, P Goussard, R P Gie
Tertiary care hospital, Western Cape, South Africa.<br />DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of acase series of necrotising pneumonia (NP) in children associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis presenting over a 4-year period in a country with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) prevalence.<br />OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and radiological features of, and treatment regimens and outcomes in, children with NP.<br />RESULTS: Of 32 children (median age 16...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566651/complementary-surveillance-strategies-are-needed-to-better-characterise-the-epidemiology-care-pathways-and-treatment-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#7
Karen du Preez, H Simon Schaaf, Rory Dunbar, Elisabetta Walters, Alvera Swartz, Regan Solomons, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in young and HIV-infected children is frequently diagnosed at hospital level. In settings where general hospitals do not function as TB reporting units, the burden and severity of childhood TB may not be accurately reflected in routine TB surveillance data. Given the paucibacillary nature of childhood TB, microbiological surveillance alone will miss the majority of hospital-managed children. The study objective was to combine complementary hospital-based surveillance strategies to accurately report the burden, spectrum and outcomes of childhood TB managed at referral hospital-level in a high TB burden setting...
March 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514237/priorities-for-decreasing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#8
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511357/childhood-tuberculosis-in-nigeria-disease-presentation-and-treatment-outcomes
#9
Chidubem L Ogbudebe, Victor Adepoju, Christy Ekerete-Udofia, Ebere Abu, Ginika Egesemba, Nkem Chukwueme, Mustapha Gidado
Objectives: Understanding the factors that influence tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in children is key to designing interventions to address them. This study aimed to determine the case category distribution of childhood TB in Nigeria and assess which clinical and demographic factors are associated with different treatment outcomes in childhood TB. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records of children (0-14 years) with TB in 3 states in Nigeria in 2015...
2018: Health Services Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502937/managing-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-tuberculosis-in-children
#10
I Carvalho, D Goletti, S Manga, D R Silva, D Manissero, G Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this review is to describe the management of the child with TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To develop this article, a working group reviewed relevant epidemiological and other scientific studies and established practices in conducting LBTI and TB in children. The article describes how to manage the child with LTBI, considering transmission and infectiousness of tuberculosis, contact screening and prioritization of contacts and recommendations on treatment of children with LTBI and how to manage the child with TB considering the susceptibility of children to developing tuberculosis, epidemiology and classification of tuberculosis in children, diagnosis and treatment...
March 1, 2018: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496214/smaller-long-bone-cross-sectional-size-in-people-who-died-of-tuberculosis-insights-on-frailty-factors-from-a-19th-and-early-20th-century-finnish-population
#11
Liina Mansukoski, Vitale Stefano Sparacello
There is little research on how individuals suffering from tuberculosis may differ from those not infected in terms of overall skeletal morphology. Tuberculosis was endemic in 19th and early 20th century Finland making documented skeletal collections of Finns ideal to study effects of the disease on bone. The present study compares long bone cross-sectional total area between individuals who died of tuberculosis and those with another recorded cause of death in a Finnish sample. Adult male individuals (N = 105) were selected for analysis...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471914/molecular-tests-expedite-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-childhood
#12
S Namiiro, E Wobudeya, R Colebunders, W Worodria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465259/latent-tuberculosis-in-childhood-tolerability-of-two-different-therapeutic-approaches
#13
Chiara Tersigni, Elisabetta Venturini, Chiara Cordola, Paola Piccini, Leila Bianchi, Carlotta Montagnani, Sara Sollai, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid monotherapy for six or nine months and the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin for three or four months are the most used regimens for treating latent tuberculosis. The main aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the safety of latent tuberculosis treatment by analysing side effects in both regimens. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Children with latent tuberculosis and treated with isoniazid or isoniazid and rifampicin were included...
February 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459859/next-generation-vaccines-based-on-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#14
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major health threat. A live, attenuated mycobacterium known as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), derived from the causative agent of cattle TB, Mycobacterium bovis , has been in clinical use as a vaccine for 90 years. The current incidence of TB demonstrates that BCG fails to protect sufficiently against pulmonary TB, the major disease manifestation and source of dissemination. The protective efficacy of BCG is on average 50% but varies substantially with geographical location and is poorer in those with previous exposure to mycobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#15
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438536/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#16
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391244/role-of-pcr-method-using-is6110-primer-in-detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-the-clinically-diagnosed-childhood-tuberculosis-patients-at-an-urban-hospital-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#17
Senjuti Kabir, Mohammad Khaja Mafij Uddin, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Tilka Fannana, Mohammad Enamul Haque, Muhammad Reaj Uddin, Sayera Banu, Tahmeed Ahmed
Better methods are warranted for precise childhood tuberculosis (TB) detection. We compared different laboratory tests and evaluated PCR IS6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) detection among clinically diagnosed child TB patients.
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363172/bcg-vaccination-drives-accumulation-and-effector-function-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-murine-lungs
#18
Pia Steigler, Naomi J Daniels, Tim R McCulloch, Brin M Ryder, Sarah K Sandford, Joanna R Kirman
The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents disseminated childhood TB, however fails to protect against the more prevalent pulmonary TB. Limited understanding of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, has hindered development of improved vaccines. Although memory CD4 T cells are considered the main mediators of protection against TB, recent studies suggest there are other key subsets that contribute to anti-mycobacterial immunity. To that end, innate cells may be involved in the protective response...
January 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326867/cavitary-lung-lesion-suspicious-for-malignancy-reveals-mycobacterium-xenopi
#19
Sumit Fogla, Vaishali M Pansare, Luis G Camero, Uzma Syeda, Naveen Patil, Arun Chaudhury
We report the case of a 68-year-old gentleman who presented with musculoskeletal chest pain which appeared suddenly when he bent over with his dog. The chest pain was localized to the left lower chest and increased with movement and deep breathing. The patient did not complain weight loss, night sweat, fever or chill. He complained of mild cough, with expectoration of whitish mucus. Imaging revealed cavitary chest lesion in the right upper lobe, which was initially suspected to be lung cancer. The patient had a 50-year-old history of smoking 2 packs per day...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298106/the-complications-of-treating-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-low-income-countries-of-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Frederik A van Gemert, Bruce J Kirenga, Tewodros Haile Gebremariam, George Nyale, Corina de Jong, Thys van der Molen
In most low and middle-income countries, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise. Areas covered: Unfortunately, COPD is a neglected disease in these countries. Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, in rural areas, COPD is even unknown regarding public awareness and public health planning. Programs for the management of COPD are poorly developed, and the quality of care is often of a low standard. Inhaled medication is often not available or not affordable. Tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for COPD...
March 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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