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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333284/revisiting-the-mutant-prevention-concentration-to-guide-dosing-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#1
Devan Jaganath, H Simon Schaaf, Peter R Donald
The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) is a well-known concept in the chemotherapy of many bacterial infections, but is seldom considered in relation to tuberculosis (TB) treatment, as the required concentrations are generally viewed as unachievable without undue toxicity. Early studies revealed single mutations conferring high MICs of first- and second-line anti-TB agents; however, the growing application of genomics and quantitative drug susceptibility testing in TB suggests a wide range of MICs often determined by specific mutations and strain type...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#2
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319817/indoor-air-quality-of-low-and-middle-income-urban-households-in-durban-south-africa
#3
Nkosana Jafta, Lars Barregard, Prakash M Jeena, Rajen N Naidoo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM10, NO2 and SO2) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302234/tuberculous-dactylitis-with-concomitant-thyroid-involvement-a-rare-presentation-of-childhood-tuberculosis
#4
Sobia Qamar, Farrah Naz, Samia Naz, Iftikhar Ejaz
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis rarely presents as thyroid involvement along with other manifestations, and poses a diagnostic challenge on account of paucibacillary nature of disease. In general, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on epidemiological risk factors, clinical features, imaging studies, in addition to a positive skin testing or Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). A 14-year boy presented with history of fever and weight loss for one year. On examination, he had painful swelling of fingers and toes along with a painless thyroid nodule and squint...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300336/the-second-epidemiologic-transition-on-the-brink-what-we-can-learn-from-the-island-of-newfoundland-during-the-early-20th-century
#5
Dana M Schmidt, Lisa Sattenspiel
OBJECTIVES: We aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268242/tuberculosis-associated-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
REVIEW
Malay Sarkar, Srinivas Gowda, Irappa Madabhavi, Kushal Dogra
OBJECTIVES: Reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, mechanisms and treatment of tuberculosis associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. DATA SOURCE: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the CINAHL from inception to June 2016. We used the following search terms: Tuberculosis, COPD, Tuberculosis associated COPD etc. All types of study were chosen. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tuberculosis are significant public health problems, particularly in developing countries...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264670/examining-the-quality-of-childhood-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-cambodia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Julia B Frieze, Rajendra-Prasad Yadav, Khann Sokhan, Song Ngak, Team Bak Khim
BACKGROUND: Cambodia is one of the 22 countries with the highest TB burden. While childhood TB is estimated to make up 10-20% of total TB cases in high-burden settings, this proportion ranges from 1.3 to 39.4% throughout Cambodia's provinces, suggesting potential under- and over-diagnosis of childhood TB, subnationally. The proportion of case notifications classified as extrapulmonary TB out of total TB case notifications in children is 87%, greatly exceeding the expected global range of 20-30%...
March 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260482/late-diagnosis-of-e148q-mutation-positive-familial-mediterranean-fever-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-fever-of-unknown-origin-a-case-report
#8
Erhan Tatar, Adam Uslu, Cenk Simsek, Ahmet Aykas, Giray Bozkaya, Cetin Imamoglu
Fever of unknown origin is a rare condition after solid organ transplant and is generally associated with atypical infections (eg, tuberculosis, fungal infections) and/or lymphoproliferative disorders. Here, we present a kidney transplant patient with a late diagnosis of E148Q mutation-positive familial Mediterranean fever as the cause of fever of unknown origin. A 22-year-old female patient with a previous history of 4 years of hemodialysis and unknown primary renal disease received a deceased-donor kidney transplant at our center 5 years previously...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250686/prevalence-of-tuberculosis-among-children-in-north-sudan-are-we-only-seeing-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#9
Wadie M Elmadhooun, Elmuntasir Taha Salah, Sufian K Noor, Sarra O Bushara, Ekhlas O Ahmed, Hamdan Mustafa, Amel A Sulaiman, Mohamed H Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children. The vague symptoms, the uncertain diagnostic tests and lack of adequate awareness among families all contributed in masking the actual prevalence of the disease. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of childhood TB in River Nile State (RNS), North Sudan. METHODS: All registered cases of TB aged 15 years and below, at the 13 management units in RNS during 3 years, 2011-2013 were included...
January 2017: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129755/improving-case-detection-of-tuberculosis-among-children-in-bangladesh-lessons-learned-through-an-implementation-research
#10
Ziaul Islam, Kazi Istiaque Sanin, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: According to the Bangladesh National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP), the proportion of childhood tuberculosis (TB) among all reported cases is only 3%. This is considerably lower compared to other high-burden countries. One of our previous studies identified substantial gaps at the primary care level related to capacity of service providers, supply of required logistics and community awareness about childhood TB. Therefore, we conducted an implementation study with the objectives to address those gaps...
January 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107788/the-indications-and-role-of-paediatric-bronchoscopy-in-a-developing-country-with-high-prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv
#11
Irwin Webster, Pierre Goussard, Robert Gie, Jacques Janson, Gawie Rossouw
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy, an important investigation for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases, is widely used in high income countries. There is limited information on value of paediatric bronchoscopy in low and middle income countries (LMIC). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Aim was to describe the indications, findings and complications of bronchoscopy in a middle income country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of a database over a 3...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105923/mosaic-structure-of-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-genomes-as-a-representation-of-phage-sequences-mobility
#12
Olga L Voronina, Marina S Kunda, Ekaterina I Aksenova, Andrey N Semenov, Natalia N Ryzhova, Vladimir G Lunin, Alexandr L Gintsburg
BACKGROUND: The control of genome stability is relevant for the worldwide BCG vaccine preventing the acute forms of childhood tuberculosis. BCG sub-strains whole genome comparative analysis and revealing the triggers of sub-strains transition were the purpose of our investigation. RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing of three BCG Russia seed lots (1963, 1982, 2006 years) confirmed the stability of vaccine sub-strain genome. Comparative analysis of three Mycobacteruim bovis and nine M...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043630/effective-testing-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-using-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-stool-specimens-in-immunocompetent-pakistani-children
#13
Zahra Hasan, Fehmina Arif, Sadia Shakoor, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Akbar Kanji, Mussarat Ashraf, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in children with pulmonary TB cases, by performing comparative testing of GA and stool samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043615/what-can-we-learn-from-the-past-a-pediatrician-s-view
#14
Margareta Eriksson, Rutger Bennet
When the tuberculosis epidemic reached its peak in central Europe in the 1900s (not until the 2000s in sub-Saharan Africa), both contained and disseminated tuberculosis was mainly regarded as a childhood disease. From 1920, before the use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and the possibility of drug treatment, there was a drastic decline in the rate of tuberculosis incidence in the Western world. In 1970, the case rate had declined in Sweden from 500/100,000 individuals to 1/100,000 individuals...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#15
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043582/mediastinal-lymphadenopathy-in-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-computed-tomography-scan
#16
Payam Mehrain, Amin Momeni Moghaddam, Elham Tavakol, Afshin Amini, Mehrdad Moghimi, Ali Kabir, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pediatric tuberculosis is usually a primary infection presenting mainly as mediastinal or hilar adenopathy in computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, we study the distribution and other CT scan characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in childhood tuberculosis. METHODS: Chest CT scans of 75 cases of pediatric tuberculosis at Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2013 were studied regarding characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043529/relation-between-smear-positivity-and-imaging-findings-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Maryam Hassanzad, Mohammad Reza Bolursaz, Payam Mehrian, Farahnaz Aghahosseini, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood and the results of sputum smear. The aim of this study was to identify an alternative indicator of infectivity to prevent disease transmission through special isolation methods in children who have a clinical condition that suggests TB. METHODS: This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under the age of 15years with a diagnosis of TB based on World Health Organization criteria and laboratory data (smear and culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043528/childhood-tuberculosis-in-qatar
#18
Jay P N Singh, Reem Mohammed, Thanveer Thayyullathil, Abdullatif Al-Khal, Zubaida Al-Suwaidi
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID (International Drug Purchase Facility) to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed from 2013 to 2015 and included patients aged ⩽14years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043487/the-difficulties-of-childhood-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#19
A M Djouahra, M Ifticene, D Yala, F Boulahbal
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The WHO estimate that 8.8millions new cases of tuberculosis occurred in 2010, (between 8.5 and 9.2millions) linked to 1.45millions death cases. The load of children tuberculosis is estimated at 10-15 per cent of the total load. In 2014 more than one million children have developed the disease. The children just as adults are exposed to contract and develop the multi resistant forms of the tuberculosis, constituting a major issue for the disease control. The children less than 5years of age are the most exposed to present the most serious and more often deadly forms of the illness...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029320/pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-patient-with-advanced-melanoma
#20
Charles A Powell
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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