keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

tuberculosis in childhood

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865396/mycobacterium-smegmatis-proteoliposome-induce-protection-in-a-murine-progressive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-model
#1
Yanely Tirado, Alina Puig, Nadine Alvarez, Reinier Borrero, Alicia Aguilar, Frank Camacho, Fatima Reyes, Sonsire Fernandez, Jose Luis Perez, Reynaldo Acevedo, Dulce Mata Espinoza, Jorge Alberto Barrios Payan, Maria de Los A Garcia, Ramlah Kadir, María E Sarmiento, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando, Mohd-Nor Norazmi, Armando Acosta
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity. The TB vaccine, BCG, is not fully protective against the adult form of the disease and is unable to prevent its transmission although it is still useful against severe childhood TB. Hence, the search for new vaccines is of great interest. In a previous study, we have shown that proteoliposomes obtained from Mycobacterium smegmatis (PLMs) induced cross reactive humoral and cellular response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865389/mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-as-a-booster-vaccine-enhances-bcg-induced-immunity-and-confers-higher-protection-in-animal-models-of-tuberculosis
#2
Mohd Saqib, Rahul Khatri, Bindu Singh, Ananya Gupta, Arvind Kumar, Sangeeta Bhaskar
BCG, the only approved vaccine protects against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but its protective efficacy wanes in adolescence. BCG has reduced the incidence of infant TB considerably in endemic areas; therefore prime-boost strategy is the most realistic measure for control of tuberculosis in near future. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) shares significant antigenic repertoire with Mtb and BCG and has been shown to impart significant protection in animal models of tuberculosis. In this study, MIP was given as a booster to BCG vaccine which enhanced the BCG mediated immune response, resulting in higher protection...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864289/immunotherapy-for-arterial-ischaemic-stroke-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#3
Hannah B Edwards, Andrew A Mallick, Finbar J K O'Callaghan
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence about either prevention or treatment of childhood arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). However, drugs that regulate the immune and inflammatory response could theoretically prevent occurrence or recurrence of AIS. Additionally, as an acute treatment, they may limit the neurological damage caused by AIS. Here, we systematically review the evidence on the use of immunotherapy in childhood AIS. DESIGN: A systematic review of publications in databases Embase and Medline from inception...
November 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808041/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-at-birth-effects-on-early-childhood-infections-growth-and-development
#4
Jesper Kjærgaard
The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG), which is used to protect against tuberculosis, has been associated with a variety of other effects since it was developed almost 100 years ago. Most notably, observational studies and randomized clinical trials from low-income countries indicate that it protects against unrelated infections, i.e. a so-called non-specific effect. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted to study these effects in a high-income population. The immune response to BCG is not fully understood but involves a pro-inflammatory profiling of the immune system, also when exposed to unrelated pathogens...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753763/pediatric-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-clinical-spectrum-risk-factors-and-diagnostic-challenges-in-a-low-prevalence-region
#5
Begoña Santiago-García, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Jesús Ruíz-Contreras, Jose M Bellón, Maria A Muñoz-Fernández, María J Mellado-Peña
BACKGROUND: Children are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) dissemination and extrapulmonary disease, contributing greatly to TB-associated morbidity and long-term sequelae. However, there are very few studies that assess the impact and clinical spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in low-prevalence regions. METHODS: Children <18 years of age diagnosed with TB in Madrid region (2005-2013) were reviewed. We compared the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and the performance of diagnostic tests in childhood extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742642/partnerships-to-design-novel-regimens-to-treat-childhood-tuberculosis-sui-generis-the-road-ahead
#6
Tawanda Gumbo, Mamodikoe K Makhene, James A Seddon
There has been a recent expansion of preclinical models to predict the efficacy of regimens to treat adults with tuberculosis. Despite increasing global interest in childhood tuberculosis, these same tools have not been employed to develop pediatric regimens. Children differ from adults in bacillary burden, spectrum of disease, the metabolism and distribution of antituberculosis drugs, and the toxicity experienced. The studies documented in this series describe a proof-of-concept approach to pediatric regimen development...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742639/concentration-dependent-synergy-and-antagonism-of-linezolid-and-moxifloxacin-in-the-treatment-of-childhood-tuberculosis-the-dynamic-duo
#7
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Eric Nuermberger, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  No treatment regimens have been specifically designed for children, in whom tuberculosis is predominantly intracellular. Given their activity as monotherapy and their ability to penetrate many diseased anatomic sites that characterize disseminated tuberculosis, linezolid and moxifloxacin could be combined to form a regimen for this need. METHODS:  We examined microbial kill of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by the combination of linezolid and moxifloxacin multiple exposures in a 7-by-7 mathematical matrix...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742637/a-combination-regimen-design-program-based-on-pharmacodynamic-target-setting-for-childhood-tuberculosis-design-rules-for-the-playground
#8
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tania Thomas, Soumya Swaminathan, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
Children with tuberculosis are treated with drug regimens copied from adults despite significant differences in antibiotic pharmacokinetics, pathology, and the microbial burden between childhood and adult tuberculosis. We sought to develop a new and effective oral treatment regimen specific to children of different ages. We investigated and validated the concept that target drug concentrations associated with therapy failure and death in children are different from those of adults. On that basis, we proposed a 4-step program to rapidly develop treatment regimens for children...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741092/hospitalization-for-culture-confirmed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-era-of-childhood-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-immunization
#9
Vijay G Mammen, Ziyaad Dangor, David P Moore, Alane Izu, Natalie Beylis, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Children hospitalized with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) frequently present with acute symptoms, possibly because of superimposed pneumococcal pneumonia. We undertook a time-series analysis to determine whether routine immunization of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was temporally associated with changes in the incidence of hospitalization for PTB in South African children. METHODS: PCV was introduced in the South African public immunization program in April 2009, with coverage for the third dose of PCV of 10%, 64% and 89% in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740736/paediatric-tuberculosis-cases-increased-in-stockholm-from-1971-to-2015-following-the-rising-number-of-children-with-immigrant-backgrounds
#10
Rutger Bennet, Margareta Eriksson
AIM: This study described the epidemiology and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Stockholm over a 45-year period, when there was a resurge of tuberculosis concomitant with increased immigration. METHODS: We describe 220 children up to the age of 16 years with active TB, seen at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1971 to 2015. The study period was divided into three 15-year periods. RESULTS: Cases increased from ten children in 1971-1985 to 76 in 1986-2000 and 134 in 2001-2015, with overall incidence increasing from <1 to four per 100 000...
December 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737841/diagnostic-test-accuracy-in-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-bayesian-latent-class-analysis
#11
Samuel G Schumacher, Maarten van Smeden, Nandini Dendukuri, Lawrence Joseph, Mark P Nicol, Madhukar Pai, Heather J Zar
Evaluation of tests for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (CPTB) is complicated by the absence of an accurate reference test. We present a Bayesian latent class analysis in which we evaluated the accuracy of 5 diagnostic tests for CPTB. We used data from a study of 749 hospitalized South African children suspected to have CPTB from 2009 to 2014. The following tests were used: mycobacterial culture, smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid Inc.), tuberculin skin test (TST), and chest radiography...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730659/understanding-the-effects-of-conditional-dependence-in-research-studies-involving-imperfect-diagnostic-tests
#12
Zhuoyu Wang, Nandini Dendukuri, Lawrence Joseph
When two imperfect diagnostic tests are carried out on the same subject, their results may be correlated even after conditioning on the true disease status. While past work has focused on the consequences of ignoring conditional dependence, the degree to which conditional dependence can be induced has not been systematically studied. We examine this issue in detail by introducing a hypothetical missing covariate that affects the sensitivities of two imperfect dichotomous tests. We consider four forms for this covariate, normal, uniform, dichotomous and trichotomous...
October 11, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716523/layer-by-layer-nanocoating-of-live-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-mycobacteria-with-poly-i-c-and-chitosan-enhances-pro-inflammatory-activation-and-bactericidal-capacity-in-murine-macrophages
#13
Martin Tobias Speth, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major disease burden globally causing more than 1.5 million deaths per year. The attenuated live vaccine strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although providing protection against childhood TB, is largely ineffective against adult pulmonary TB. A major aim therefore is to increase the potency of the BCG vaccine to generate stronger and more sustained immunity against TB. Here, we investigated the use of layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating of the surface of live BCG with several layers of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a strong inducer of cell-mediated immunity, and the biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan to enhance BCG immunogenicity...
December 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704508/childhood-tuberculosis-a-descriptive-study-in-a-pneumo-pediatrics-department-in-tunisia
#14
Houda Snène, Anissa Berraies, Besma Hamdi, Jamel Ammar, Hanadi Ouali, Agnes Hamzaoui
Objective to assess the different localizations of tuberculosis (TB) in children in a pneumopediatric department in Tunisia and to describe its diagnosis tools since clinical investigations of childhood TB are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. Methods Forty-six cases of TB in children were studied between 2008 and 2013. Clinical history, examination and chest radiography were reported. Several investigations have been conducted to confirm the diagnosis of TB such as: tuberculin skin test (TST), bacteriological and histological investigations...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696351/poundbury-camp-in-context-a-new-perspective-on-the-lives-of-children-from-urban-and-rural-roman-england
#15
Anna Rohnbogner, Mary Elizabeth Lewis
OBJECTIVES: The current understanding of child morbidity in Roman England is dominated by studies of single sites/regions. Much of the data are derived from third to fifth century AD Poundbury Camp, Dorchester, Dorset, considered an unusual site due to high levels of non-adult morbidity. There is little understanding of children in rural areas, and whether Poundbury Camp was representative of Romano-British childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study provides the first large scale analysis of child health in urban and rural Roman England, adding to the previously published intra-site analysis of non-adult paleopathology at Poundbury Camp...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694091/tuberculosis-in-children-in-togo-epidemiology-diagnosis-treatment-and-outcome
#16
K A R Segbedji, K E Djadou, O-B Tchagbele, M Kpegouni, L K Bessi Kama, K D Azoumah, A D Agbèrè
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most lethal communicable diseases in the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). New strategies must be implemented to meet targets for 2035. OBJECTIVE: Describe the epidemiological and therapeutic aspects of tuberculosis in children in Togo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, descriptive cross-sectional study examined the files of children younger than 15 years who were diagnosed with TB and treatment in the Maritime region from 2008 to 2011...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685837/cd163-levels-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-of-monocytes-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Esin Aktas Cetin, Leyla Pur Ozyigit, Yusuf Metin Gelmez, Erkan Cakir, Ahmet Hakan Gedik, Gunnur Deniz
OBJECTIVES: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) comprises an important part of the world's TB burden. Monocytes set up the early phase of infection because of innate immune responses. Understanding the changes in monocyte subsets during multisystem infectious diseases may be important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monocyte phenotype together with the cytokine secretion profiles of children with pulmonary tuberculosis...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669564/the-epidemiology-of-meningitis-among-adults-in-a-south-african-province-with-a-high-hiv-prevalence-2009-2012
#18
Erika Britz, Olga Perovic, Claire von Mollendorf, Anne von Gottberg, Samantha Iyaloo, Vanessa Quan, Verushka Chetty, Charlotte Sriruttan, Nazir A Ismail, Ananta Nanoo, Alfred Musekiwa, Carl Reddy, Karien Viljoen, Cheryl Cohen, Nelesh P Govender
INTRODUCTION: Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665228/measuring-the-health-related-sustainable-development-goals-in-188-countries-a-baseline-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). METHODS: We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651243/radiological-patterns-of-childhood-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-a-developed-country-a-single-institution-s-experience-on-217-255-cases
#20
Paolo Tomà, Laura Lancella, Laura Menchini, Roberta Lombardi, Aurelio Secinaro, Alberto Villani
The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing in the developed world and children in particular represent a high-risk group for developing the disease. The aim of this review is to analyse the spectrum of radiological signs as reported in the recent literature, in light of our series over a 15-year period, to pinpoint the most common radiological patterns in a developed country and to determine the role played by the different chest imaging techniques in diagnosis improvement. Lung TB was present in 217 out of 255 patients (85 %): 146 patients were under 5 years of age (76 under 2 years) and 71 over 5 years (41 over 10 years)...
September 20, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
keyword
keyword
105406
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"