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tuberculosis in childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#1
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438536/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#2
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391244/role-of-pcr-method-using-is6110-primer-in-detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-the-clinically-diagnosed-childhood-tuberculosis-patients-at-an-urban-hospital-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#3
Senjuti Kabir, Mohammad Khaja Mafij Uddin, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Tilka Fannana, Mohammad Enamul Haque, Muhammad Reaj Uddin, Sayera Banu, Tahmeed Ahmed
Better methods are warranted for precise childhood tuberculosis (TB) detection. We compared different laboratory tests and evaluated PCR IS6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) detection among clinically diagnosed child TB patients.
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363172/bcg-vaccination-drives-accumulation-and-effector-function-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-murine-lungs
#4
Pia Steigler, Naomi J Daniels, Tim R McCulloch, Brin M Ryder, Sarah K Sandford, Joanna R Kirman
The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents disseminated childhood TB, however fails to protect against the more prevalent pulmonary TB. Limited understanding of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, has hindered development of improved vaccines. Although memory CD4 T cells are considered the main mediators of protection against TB, recent studies suggest there are other key subsets that contribute to anti-mycobacterial immunity. To that end, innate cells may be involved in the protective response...
January 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326867/cavitary-lung-lesion-suspicious-for-malignancy-reveals-mycobacterium-xenopi
#5
Sumit Fogla, Vaishali M Pansare, Luis G Camero, Uzma Syeda, Naveen Patil, Arun Chaudhury
We report the case of a 68-year-old gentleman who presented with musculoskeletal chest pain which appeared suddenly when he bent over with his dog. The chest pain was localized to the left lower chest and increased with movement and deep breathing. The patient did not complain weight loss, night sweat, fever or chill. He complained of mild cough, with expectoration of whitish mucus. Imaging revealed cavitary chest lesion in the right upper lobe, which was initially suspected to be lung cancer. The patient had a 50-year-old history of smoking 2 packs per day...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298106/the-complications-of-treating-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-low-income-countries-of-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Frederik A van Gemert, Bruce J Kirenga, Tewodros Haile Gebremariam, George Nyale, Corina de Jong, Thys van der Molen
In most low and middle-income countries, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise. Areas covered: Unfortunately, COPD is a neglected disease in these countries. Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, in rural areas, COPD is even unknown regarding public awareness and public health planning. Programs for the management of COPD are poorly developed, and the quality of care is often of a low standard. Inhaled medication is often not available or not affordable. Tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for COPD...
January 3, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297424/household-context-and-psychosocial-impact-of-childhood-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#7
M Loveday, B Sunkari, I Master, A Daftary, V Mehlomakulu, S Hlangu, B J Marais
SETTING: Referral hospital for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We conducted interviews with primary care givers of children admitted with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) during a 3-month period in 2015 to identify broader household challenges. RESULTS: We interviewed 26 care givers, most of whom were women (85%). Most households had been decimated by TB/MDR-TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and were dependent upon government grants...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278611/utility-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Sabine Bélard, Charlotte C Heuvelings, Ebrahim Banderker, Lindy Bateman, Tom Heller, Savvas Andronikou, Lesley Workman, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) detects extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-infected adults but has not been evaluated in children despite their higher risk of EPTB. This study's aims were to investigate feasibility of POCUS for EPTB in children, frequency of POCUS findings suggestive of EPTB, and time to sonographic resolution of findings with treatment. METHODS: This prospective South African cohort study enrolled children with suspected PTB...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273539/effectiveness-of-who-s-pragmatic-screening-algorithm-for-child-contacts-of-tuberculosis-cases-in-resource-constrained-settings-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-uganda
#9
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Andreas Handel, Srijita Chakraburty, Catherine M Stein, LaShaunda L Malone, W Henry Boom, Frederick D Quinn, Moses L Joloba, Christopher C Whalen, Sarah Zalwango
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. We assessed the effectiveness of this screening approach and alternative symptom-based algorithms in identifying secondary tuberculosis in a prospectively followed cohort of Ugandan child contacts...
December 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258581/trend-and-outcome-of-notified-children-with-tuberculosis-during-2011-2015-in-kampala-uganda
#10
Eric Wobudeya, Moorine Sekadde-Kasirye, Derrick Kimuli, Frank Mugabe, Deus Lukoye
BACKGROUND: The road map for childhood tuberculosis launched in 2013 provided strong renewed efforts focused towards zero deaths due to tuberculosis in children. From 2010, there were efforts to improve childhood tuberculosis diagnosis in Kampala and this study aimed to document the trend and outcome of tuberculosis in children over the period. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of tuberculosis data for Kampala city for the period 2011-2015. We extracted data from the unit TB registers in the 52 Diagnostic and treatment units (DTUs) in the Kampala...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249072/surgical-approaches-to-upper-thoracic-pott-s-disease-with-spinal-instability-during-childhood-two-cases
#11
Gokhan Cavus, Yurdal Gezercan, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Orkun Tolunay, Tamer Çelik, Ali Arslan, Ümit Çelik
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis is a common disease worldwide that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is primarily a pulmonary disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are not uncommon, especially in children and adolescents. METHODS: We present two pediatric patients who underwent surgery in our clinic for Pott's disease in the upper thoracic region. The patients were investigated to describe their age, complaints, neurological examination results, disease location, surgical procedure, and complications...
December 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239568/spatiotemporal-transmission-and-socio-climatic-factors-related-to-paediatric-tuberculosis-in-north-western-ethiopia
#12
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Archie C A Clements
The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in children reflects continuing and recent transmission within a population. This study aimed to identify spatiotemporal and socio-climatic factors associated with paediatric TB in north-western Ethiopia. Multivariate Poisson regression models were computed using a Bayesian framework. Estimates of parameters were generated using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. A total of 2,240 children aged under 15 years diagnosed with TB during the years 2013- 2016 were included in the analysis...
November 27, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230061/boosting-with-recombinant-mva-expressing-m-tuberculosis-%C3%AE-crystallin-antigen-augments-the-protection-imparted-by-bcg-against-tuberculosis-in-guinea-pigs
#13
Prachi Nangpal, Ritika Kar Bahal, Anil K Tyagi
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major causes of mortality all over the globe. BCG, the only vaccine available against this disease has been successful in preventing the severe forms of childhood TB. However, the unsatisfactory performance of BCG in controlling the adult pulmonary tuberculosis has made the development of an effective vaccine against M. tuberculosis a prime objective of the TB research. In this study, a genetically stable, marker-free recombinant MVA expressing α-crystallin of M. tuberculosis (rMVA...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228220/the-burden-of-presumed-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
Villa Watch, Jimmy Aipit, Tina Kote-Yarong, Allanie Rero, John W Bolnga, Elvin Lufele, Moses Laman
Background: In Papua New Guinea, TB is considered to be a major public health problem, but little is known about the prevalence and prognosis of presumed TB in children. Methods: As part of a prospective hospital-based surveillance on the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, the authors investigated the admission prevalence and case fatality rate associated with presumed TB over a 6-year period (2011-2016). All children admitted who were diagnosed with TB were followed-up until discharge or death...
December 8, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201655/childhood-tuberculosis-in-mauritania-2010-2015-diagnosis-and-outcomes-in-nouakchott-and-the-rest-of-the-country
#15
B Aw, S Ade, S G Hinderaker, N Dlamini, K C Takarinda, K Chiaa, A Feil, A Traoré, T Reid
Setting: The National Tuberculosis Programme, Mauritania. Objective: To compare the diagnosis and treatment outcomes of childhood tuberculosis (TB) cases (aged <15 years) registered between 2010 and 2015 inside and outside Nouakchott, the capital city. Design: This was a retrospective comparative cohort study. Results: A total of 948 children with TB were registered. The registration rate was 10 times higher in Nouakchott. The proportion of children among all TB cases was higher inside than outside Nouakchott (7...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194073/update-on-trends-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#16
Samantha Fry, Shaun Barnabas, Mark F Cotton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although tuberculosis (TB) causes much morbidity and mortality in children, diagnosis and treatment remain challenging. Recently, children have gained increasing attention in research and clinical trials driving improved contact management, case identification and treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. This review highlights some recent advances. RECENT FINDINGS: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used test to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187248/operational-research-within-the-national-tuberculosis-control-programme-in-benin
#17
Serge Ade, Dissou Affolabi, Mênonli Adjobimey, Gabriel Ade, Sévérin Anagonou, Ajay M V Kumar, Anthony D Harries
OBJECTIVE: To document whether the placement of operational research (OR) fellows within disease control programmes in low and middle income countries leads to the implementation of operational research and improvements in policy and practice. RESULT: In 2012, an OR fellow was placed within the National TB Programme, Benin, to strengthen the implementation of operational research. From 2012 to 2015, eight OR projects were implemented, of which three contributed to changes in programme practice and five provided information which was not previously available from quarterly/annual reports...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183553/childhood-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-the-european-union-and-european-economic-area-an-analysis-of-tuberculosis-surveillance-data-from-2007-to-2015
#18
Csaba Ködmön, Martin van den Boom, Phillip Zucs, Marieke Johanna van der Werf
BackgroundConfirming tuberculosis (TB) in children and obtaining information on drug susceptibility is essential to ensure adequate treatment. We assessed whether there are gaps in diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in children in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), quantified the burden of MDR TB in children and characterised cases. Methods: We analysed surveillance data from 2007 to 2015 for paediatric cases younger than 15 years. Results: In that period, 26 EU/EEA countries reported 18,826 paediatric TB cases of whom 4,129 (21...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181956/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2015
#19
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181136/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-tuberculosis-active-case-finding-among-children-living-with-tuberculosis-relatives-a-cross-sectional-study-in-guinea-bissau
#20
L Bosa, L Da Silva, D V Mendes, A Sifna, M Sargento Mendes, F Riccardi, R Colombatti
Background and objectives: The World Health Organization End tuberculosis (TB) Strategy, approved in 2014, aims at a 90% reduction in TB deaths and an 80% reduction in TB incidence rate by 2030. One of the suggested interventions is the systematic screening of people with suspected TB, belonging to specific risk groups. The Hospital Raoul Follereau (HRF) in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, is the National Reference Hospital for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease of the country. We performed an active case-finding program among pediatric age family members and cohabitants of admitted adult TB patients, from January to December 2013...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
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