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asthma and pollution

N Lomtatidze, G Dumbadze, M Chkhaidze, R Khakhnelidze
This paper presents statistical data of 2012-2015 on the diseases caused by the atmospheric air and water pollutions in Ajara region. The research on the content of dust, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide as well as carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air was held together with the National Environment Agency Ajara Monitoring Service. The results of the research have shown that the average content of the dust reached its maximum in 2012 (0.60 mg/m3) and it dropped to the minimum in 2015 (0.441 mg/m3). As for average content of carbon monoxide the maximum was observed in 2013 (3...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Engi F Attia, Robert F Miller, Rashida A Ferrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of pulmonary infections has declined dramatically with improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, but chronic lung disease (CLD) is an increasingly recognized but poorly understood complication in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, abnormal spirometry and chest radiographic abnormalities among HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, wherein 90% of the world's HIV-infected children live...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Juhwan Noh, Jungwoo Sohn, Jaelim Cho, Seong-Kyung Cho, Yoon Jung Choi, Changsoo Kim, Dong Chun Shin
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients' prior history of allergic diseases. METHODS: Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Rakesh Pore, Swati Biswas, Srirupa Das
PURPOSE: The aim of the survey was to understand the prevailing practice pattern for the management of dry cough among primary care physicians in Indian clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This single visit, cross-sectional, non-interventional, interview based physician survey was conducted over a period of 3 months where 500 registered physicians with at least 6 months of clinical practice and willing to participate in the survey were interviewed in their clinic or hospital from June to August 2015...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mariana Matera Veras, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Lais Fajersztajn, Paulo Saldiva
Various environmental contaminants are known to impair the growth trajectories of major organs, indirectly (gestational exposure) or directly (postnatal exposure). Evidence associates pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, prematurity) and with a wide range of diseases in childhood and later in life. In this review, we explore the way that pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollution affects lung development. We present results in topics underlining epidemiological and toxicological evidence...
October 10, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Hye-Kyung Park, Kai-Chung Cheng, Afua O Tetteh, Lynn M Hildemann, Kari C Nadeau
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution is correlated with morbidity caused by allergic diseases. We evaluated the effectiveness of reducing the levels of indoor fine particulate matter < 2.5 micrometer diameter (PM2.5) in Fresno, California using air purifiers on health outcomes in children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: The active group (with air purifiers) and the control group consisted of eight houses each. Air purifiers were installed in the living rooms and bedrooms of the subjects in the active group during the entire 12-week study duration...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Sandeep Puranik, Erick Forno, Andrew Bush, Juan C Celedón
Severe exacerbations negatively impact the quality of life and education of children with asthma, while also causing substantial healthcare costs. Preventing severe asthma exacerbations requires identifying patients at high risk, in order to develop personalized care protocols to prevent such exacerbations. In this review, we assess and discuss recently published data on risk factors and predictive tools for severe asthma exacerbations in childhood. Although few genome-wide association studies have focused on severe asthma exacerbations, one such study recently identified cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3, implicated on integrity of the airway epithelium), as a susceptibility gene for recurrent severe asthma exacerbations in young children...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Medhi Alizadeh, Leila Ghasemi Hashtroodi, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Nima Rezaei
Asthma is one of the most common diseases in childhood, which has been increased during last decade because of epidemiological pattern changes with climate and industrialization of the communities. There are some controversies on the relationship between air pollution and asthma. Tehran, as the capital of Iran, is one of the densest populations and is one of the most polluted cities in the world. This study was performed to search effects of various air pollutants using GIS-based modeling on the rate of hospitalizations due to asthma in children in Tehran...
August 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Torsten Zuberbier, Mark B Abelson, Cezmi A Akdis, Claus Bachert, Uwe Berger, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Georg Boelke, Jean Bousquet, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Thomas B Casale, Marek Jutel, Marek L Kowalski, Enzo Madonini, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Oliver Pfaar, Torsten Sehlinger, Karl-Christian Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Field clinical trials of pollen allergy are impacted by the impossibility to predict and to determine individual allergen exposure, due to many factors (e.g., pollen season, atmospheric variations, pollutants, lifestyles). Environmental exposure chambers (EEC), delivering a fixed amount of allergens in a controlled environmental setting, can overcome these limitations. EECs are currently already used in phase 2, 3, and even 4 trials. Unfortunately, few chambers exist in the world, and this makes it difficult to perform large, multicenter clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Kyung Hwa Jung, Andrew G Rundle, Lori A Hoepner, Joshua B Bautista, Frederica P Perera, Steven N Chillrud, Matthew S Perzanowski, Rachel L Miller
OBJECTIVE: Regular physical activity can improve cardiopulmonary health; however, increased respiratory rates and tidal volumes during activity may increase the effective internal dose of air pollution exposure. Our objective was to investigate the impact of black carbon (BC) measured by personal sampler on the relationship between physical activity and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a marker of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that higher personal BC would attenuate the protective effect of physical activity on airway inflammation...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Research
Ling Ding, Daojuan Zhu, Donghong Peng, Yao Zhao
Data on particulate matter of diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the city of Chongqing were first announced in 2013. We wished to assess the effects of pollutants on asthmatic children in Chongqing, China. Daily numbers of hospital visits because of asthma attacks in children aged 0-18 years in 2013 were collected from the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Data on pollutants were accessed from the nine air quality-monitoring stations in Chongqing. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied and conditional logistic regression was undertaken to analyze the data...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Insa Korten, Kathryn Ramsey, Philipp Latzin
Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Sheetu Singh, Bharat Bhushan Sharma, Sundeep Salvi, Jugesh Chhatwal, Kailash Chandra Jain, Lata Kumar, Mohan Keshav Joshi, Suresh Babu Pandramajal, Shally Awasthi, Sheila Bhave, Sylvan Rego, Thevaruparambil Unny Sukumaran, Vasant A Khatav, Virendra Singh, Surendra Kumar Sharma, Mohammed Sabir
OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe the data collected from India during phase 3 of the International study of asthma and allergy in childhood (ISAAC) study. Prevalence, severity, and population characteristics associated with rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema were assessed. METHODS: Children from two age groups (6-7 and 13-14 years) were included in the study as per the ISAAC protocol. The symptoms of allergy and associated features were assessed using a questionnaire...
September 24, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Hani Harb, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Holger Garn, Harald Renz, Daniel P Potaczek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review was to systematically analyze recent studies updating our knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in childhood asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic literature search was conducted that identified 23 fresh articles published within the last 5 years reporting the results of human studies on the relationships between epigenetic modifications and childhood asthma or its/related phenotypes. In almost all these studies, meaningful associations between levels of epigenetic marks (DNA methylation and/or histone modifications) and pediatric asthma or its/related phenotypes have been observed...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
B Barratt, J K Quint
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Thorax
Stephan Gabet, Jocelyne Just, Rémy Couderc, Nathalie Seta, Isabelle Momas
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitisation is poorly documented in infants. This study aims to provide new insights into allergic sensitisation patterns and related factors in infancy. METHODS: This study concerns 1860 infants involved in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) population-based birth cohort who had a standardised health examination when 18 months old, from 2004 to 2008. Sensitisation was assessed by measurements of serum specific IgE to 12 food and 4 inhalant allergens and defined by IgE≥0...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Joana Madureira, Inês Paciência, João Cavaleiro-Rufo, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes
Allergic diseases have been on the rise in many countries over the past few decades and indoor exposure may be a possible cause. An overall investigation of children's health status and residential indoor air pollutants known or suspected to affect respiratory health was conducted in the homes of primary schoolchildren during winter in Porto, Portugal. In a case-control study (30 case children with asthma and 38 controls) and over a 1-wk monitoring period, air sample collection was conducted in children's bedrooms for the analysis of 12 volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, particulate matter (PM)2...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Marieke B A Dijkema, Robert T van Strien, Saskia C van der Zee, Sanne F Mallant, Paul Fischer, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Ulrike Gehring
BACKGROUND: Air pollution episodes are associated with increased cardiopulmonary hospital admissions. Cohort studies showed associations of spatial variation in traffic-related air pollution with respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. Much less is known in particular about associations with cardiovascular morbidity. We explored the relation between spatial variation in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions. METHODS: This ecological study was based on hospital admissions data (2001-2004) from the National Medical Registration and general population data for the West of the Netherlands (population 4...
November 2016: Environmental Research
Iny Jhun, Jonathan M Gaffin, Brent A Coull, Michelle F Huffaker, Carter R Petty, William J Sheehan, Sachin N Baxi, Peggy S Lai, Choong-Min Kang, Jack M Wolfson, Diane R Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Wanda Phipatanakul
BACKGROUND: Home-based interventions to improve indoor air quality have demonstrated benefits for asthma morbidity, yet little is known about the effect of environmental interventions in the school setting. OBJECTIVE: We piloted the feasibility and effectiveness of a classroom-based air cleaner intervention to reduce particulate pollutants in classrooms of children with asthma. METHODS: In this pilot randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effect of air cleaners on indoor air particulate pollutant concentrations in 18 classrooms (9 control, 9 intervention) in 3 urban elementary schools...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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