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Positive airway pressure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149468/pneumoparotitis-as-a-complication-of-long-term-oronasal-positive-airway-pressure-for-sleep-apnea
#1
Andrew J Goates, Daniel J Lee, Joan E Maley, Phillip C Lee, Henry T Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Parotid swelling is rarely caused by pneumoparotitis from retrograde insufflation of air into Stensen's duct. Previous reports have identified occupational exposures, self-induced habits, exercise, spirometry, and short-term positive pressure airway ventilation as causes of salivary duct insufflation. METHODS: We present 2 cases of pneumoparotitis in patients on long-term oronasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea...
November 17, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146604/the-effect-of-treatment-for-sleep-apnoea-on-determinants-of-blood-pressure-control
#2
Raquel Casitas, Elisabet Martínez-Cerón, Raúl Galera, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, María Jesús González-Villalba, Isabel Fernández-Navarro, Begoña Sánchez, Aldara García-Sánchez, Ester Zamarrón, Francisco García-Río
Our aim was to assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the nocturnal evolution of peripheral chemosensitivity, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, sympathetic tone and endothelial biomarkers in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients with isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) or day-night sustained hypertension (D-NSH).In a crossover randomised trial, 32 OSA patients newly diagnosed with hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of CPAP or sham CPAP...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144160/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-in-adults-an-evidence-based-assessment
#3
Matthew G Drake
High flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices due to its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance from the upper airway reduce work of breathing and can better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141525/hyperacute-hemodynamic-effects-of-bipap-noninvasive-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-and-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-in-emergency-department
#4
Cinzia Moret Iurilli, Natale Daniele Brunetti, Paola Rita Di Corato, Giuseppe Salvemini, Matteo Di Biase, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Vito Procacci
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency department (ED); severe hypoxemic AHF may be treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Despite the demonstrated clinical efficacy of NIV in relieving symptoms of AHF, less is known about the hyperacute effects of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation on hemodynamics of patients admitted to ED for AHF. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of BiPAP ventilation on principal hemodynamic, respiratory, pulse oximetry, and microcirculation indexes in patients admitted to ED for AHF, needing NIV...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140632/grain-entrapment-pressure-on-the-torso-can-you-breathe-while-buried-in-grain
#5
Kevin G Moore, Carol L Jones
The pressure applied to the chest and back of a simulated grain entrapment victim was measured. Pressure sensors were attached to the chest and back of a manikin that was buried in grain in the vertical position. Measurements were made in four grain types at four grain depths ranging from the top of the manikin's shoulders to 0.61 m (24 in.) over the head. The pressure ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 kPa (0.23 to 0.57 psi). Based on available physiological information, this amount of pressure is unlikely to limit the respiration of an otherwise healthy adult male victim...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135775/adjustment-for-variable-adherence-under-hierarchical-structure-instrumental-variable-modeling-through-compound-residual-inclusion
#6
Tyson H Holmes, Donna M Zulman, Clete A Kushida
BACKGROUND: Variable adherence to assigned conditions is common in randomized clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: A generalized modeling framework under longitudinal data structures is proposed for regression estimation of the causal effect of variable adherence on outcome, with emphasis upon adjustment for unobserved confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN: A nonlinear, nonparametric random-coefficients modeling approach is described. Estimates of local average treatment effects among compliers can be obtained simultaneously for all assigned conditions to which participants are randomly assigned within the trial...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134245/esophageal-pressure-research-or-clinical-tool
#7
REVIEW
E Baedorf Kassis, S H Loring, D Talmor
Esophageal manometry has traditionally been utilized for respiratory physiology research, but clinicians have recently found numerous applications within the intensive care unit. Esophageal pressure (PEs) is a surrogate for pleural pressures (PPl), and the difference between airway pressure (PAO) and PEs provides a good estimate for the pressure across the lung also known as the transpulmonary pressure (PL). Differentiating the effects of mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing on the respiratory system, chest wall, and across the lung allows for improved personalization in clinical decision making...
November 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132179/comparative-study-of-the-effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-nasal-high-flow-therapy-on-diaphragmatic-dimensions-in-preterm-infants
#8
Mohamed El-Mogy, Hanan El-Halaby, Gehan Attia, Hesham Abdel-Hady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131398/response-to-cognitive-processing-therapy-in-veterans-with-and-without-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
Franklin Mesa, Benjamin D Dickstein, Virgil D Wooten, Kathleen M Chard
Recent studies have called attention to the need for enhancing treatment outcome in trauma-focused psychotherapies, such as cognitive processing therapy (CPT), with veterans. Given the prevalence of posttraumatic-related sleep disturbances, and the role of sleep in emotional learning and processing, sleep quality may be a target for improving CPT outcome. Elevated rates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been reported in samples of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the impact of OSA on response to CPT is unclear...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129030/effects-of-cpap-and-mandibular-advancement-device-treatment-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Martha Schwartz, Luis Acosta, Yuan-Lung Hung, Mariela Padilla, Reyes Enciso
The purpose of this review is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) in improving the quality of life (sleepiness, cognitive, and functional outcomes) in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Authors identified randomized, placebo-controlled studies from MEDLINE through PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were assessed for inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as risk of bias...
November 11, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128780/apnea-testing-using-the-oxygen-insufflation-method-for-diagnosis-of-brain-death-may-compromise-pulmonary-function
#11
Joanna Sołek-Pastuszka, Marcin Sawicki, Waldemar Iwańczuk, Klaudyna Kojder, Wojciech Saucha, Zenon Czajkowski, Kornel Chełstowski, Romuald Bohatyrewicz
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to compare the reliability and safety of the classical I-AT with the continuous positive airway pressure apnea test (CPAP-AT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the group of 48 patients (group O), an I-AT was performed at the end of BD diagnostic procedures, and approximately 1-1.5h later CPAP-AT with 100% FiO2 and CPAP of 10cm H2O, provided by ventilator in CPAP mode. After pre‑oxygenation with 100% FiO2 for 10min, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was recorded prior to I-AT at time-point one (T1) and prior to CPAP-AT at time-point two (T2)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124031/successful-lung-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-myasthenia-gravis
#12
Kangmin Kim, Hyun Joo Lee, Samina Park, Yoohwa Hwang, Young Whan Kim, Young Tae Kim
A 47-year-old man with myasthenia gravis (MG) was admitted for a lung transplant. He had bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to acute myeloid leukemia. MG developed after stem cell transplantation. Bilateral sequential lung transplantations and a total thymectomy were performed. The patient underwent right diaphragmatic plication simultaneously due to preoperatively diagnosed right diaphragmatic paralysis. A tracheostomy was performed and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) was applied on postoperative days 8 and 9, respectively...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123902/influence-of-body-position-during-heimlich-maneuver-to-relieve-supralaryngeal-obstruction-a-manikin-study
#13
Michitaro Ichikawa, So Oishi, Katsunori Mochizuki, Kenichi Nitta, Kazufumi Okamoto, Hiroshi Imamura
Aim: HASH(0x33015c0) To study the most effective body position for Heimlich maneuver. Methods: A choking simulation manikin was connected to a laryngeal model of a child or an adult, and a differential pressure transducer recorded the airway pressure and waveform during the maneuver. A konjac jelly was placed on the larynx to mimic complete supralaryngeal obstruction. The maneuver (five successive compressions) was carried out six times each in standing, prone, and supine positions...
October 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122399/-sleep-apneas-metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-risk-data-from-the-pays-de-la-loire-sleep-cohort
#14
REVIEW
F Gagnadoux, P Priou, T Urban, N Meslier, W Trzepizur
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a prevalent disease characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of upper airway during sleep. Untreated moderate to severe OSAHS is recognized as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Data from the Pays de la Loire sleep cohort and other clinic- or population-based cohorts demonstrate a strong association between OSAHS and the different components of the metabolic syndrome including systemic hypertension, diabetes and impaired lipid metabolism...
November 6, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120932/an-update-on-preoperative-assessment-and-preparation-of-surgical-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#15
Poorna Madhusudan, Jean Wong, Arun Prasad, Elena Sadeghian, Frances F Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the surgical population, however, a significant proportion of patients are undiagnosed. The Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine (SASM) has issued recent guidelines for preoperative assessment and preparation of patients with known or suspected OSA. The purpose of this review is to highlight key points in the new guidelines and explore the possibilities of different strategies in optimizing patients with OSA preoperatively...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117889/confusing-signals-during-a-positive-airway-pressure-titration
#16
Richard B Berry, Scott Ryals, Mary H Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117795/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-without-cardiovascular-diseases-efficacy-of-cpap-treatment
#17
Xiao-Bin Zhang, Hui-Qing Zeng, Yan-Ping Du, Zhi Lyu, Feng-Fu Zhan
The aims of this article were to determine the levels of serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Snorers referred for polysomnography (PSG) for the investigation of OSA were eligible and hs-cTnT levels measured in our pilot study. Hs-cTnT was measured again after 3 months of CPAP treatment in participants with severe OSA. A total of 93 participants recruited after PSG...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115949/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-nava-or-pressure-support-ventilation-psv-during-spontaneous-breathing-trials-in-critically-ill-patients-a-crossover-trial
#18
Juliana C Ferreira, Fabia Diniz-Silva, Henrique T Moriya, Adriano M Alencar, Marcelo B P Amato, Carlos R R Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) is a proportional ventilatory mode that uses the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) to offer ventilatory assistance in proportion to patient effort. NAVA has been increasingly used for critically ill patients, but it has not been evaluated during spontaneous breathing trials (SBT). We designed a pilot trial to assess the feasibility of using NAVA during SBTs, and to compare the breathing pattern and patient-ventilator asynchrony of NAVA with Pressure Support (PSV) during SBTs...
November 7, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114887/cough-strength-and-expiratory-force-in-aspirating-and-nonaspirating-postradiation-head-and-neck-cancer-survivors
#19
Katherine A Hutcheson, Martha P Barrow, Carla L Warneke, Yiqun Wang, George Eapen, Stephen Y Lai, Denise A Barringer, Emily K Plowman, Jan S Lewin
OBJECTIVE: Expiratory functions that clear aspiration from the airway are compromised in patients with neurogenic dysphagia for whom cough and expiratory force may be impaired by the primary disease process. The relationship between expiratory function, cough, and aspiration is less clear in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors for whom the disease process does not directly impact the lower respiratory system. Our objective was to compare mechanisms of airway clearance (expiratory force and cough) with aspiration status in postradiated HNC survivors...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114011/albuterol-delivery-efficiency-in-a-pediatric-model-of-noninvasive-ventilation-with-double-limb-circuit
#20
Jeanne Velasco, Ariel Berlinski
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is used to treat respiratory failure in patients with concomitant need for aerosol delivery. Limited pediatric data are available on aerosol delivery efficiency, and none at all regarding aerosol delivery efficiency with a double-limb circuit. We compared the effect of position in the double-limb ventilator circuit, types of nebulizer, and ventilator settings on aerosol delivery efficiency in a pediatric model of NIV. We hypothesized that placing a vibrating mesh nebulizer at the ventilator and using the highest inspiratory pressures would increase aerosol delivery efficiency...
November 7, 2017: Respiratory Care
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