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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793155/lessons-from-mosquitoes-painless-piercing
#1
Dev Gurera, Bharat Bhushan, Navin Kumar
Arthropods are the largest group of the living organisms. They attack other organisms by biting, stinging, or piercing and sucking. Among various medically important arthropods, which feed on living hosts, mosquitoes' piercing spread viruses which have been reported to cause the highest number of deaths annually. The primary cause of the deaths is malaria, which is spread by infected mosquitoes' piercing. This study aims at elucidating lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing. Mosquitoes pierce using their fascicle, which is a bundle of coherently functioning six stylets...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793090/anti-haemostatic-compounds-from-the-vampire-snail-cumia-reticulata-molecular-cloning-and-in-silico-structure-function-analysis
#2
Maria Vittoria Modica, Jonathan Reinoso Sánchez, Andrea Pasquadibisceglie, Marco Oliverio, Paolo Mariottini, Manuela Cervelli
Blood-feeding animals are known for their ability to produce bioactive compounds to impair haemostasis and suppress pain perception in the host. These compounds are extremely appealing for pharmacological development since they are generally very effective and specific for their molecular target. A preliminary RNA-Seq based characterization of the secretion from salivary and mid-oesophageal tissues of the vampire snail Cumia reticulata, revealed a complex mixture of feeding-related transcripts with potential anaesthetic and anticoagulant action...
May 16, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792927/bacillus-subtilis-as-probiotic-candidate-for-red-sea-bream-growth-performance-oxidative-status-and-immune-response-traits
#3
Amr I Zaineldin, Sayed Hegazi, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Abdulnasser Bakr, Abeer M S El-Keredy, Mahmoud A O Dawood, Serge Dossou, Weilong Wang, Zhang Yukun
The effects of dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, blood chemistry, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream (Pagrus major) were evaluated in the current study. Fish fed five different levels of B. subtilis at 0 (BS0), 1 × 104 (BS1), 1 × 106 (BS2), 1 × 108 (BS3) and 1 × 1010 (BS4) CFU kg-1 diet for 60 days. The obtained results showed that B. subtilis supplementation significantly improved growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR), feed utilization (FI, FCE, PER and PG) and whole-body protein content when compared to the control group (P < 0...
May 21, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792438/collimonins-a-d-unstable-polyynes-with-antifungal-or-pigmentation-activities-from-the-fungus-feeding-bacterium-collimonas-fungivorans-ter331
#4
Kenji Kai, Mai Sogame, Fumie Sakurai, Norihiro Nasu, Makoto Fujita
The isolation and structure elucidation of collimonins A-D (1-4) from the fungus-feeding bacterium Collimonas fungivorans Ter331 are reported. Collimonins are new derivatives of polyoxygenated hexadecanoic acid, including an ene-triyne moiety. Their absolute configurations were fully determined by combining spectroscopic, chemical, and crystalline sponge methods. Collimonins showed antifungal or pigmentation activities against the fungus Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029.
May 24, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792281/the-impact-of-body-weight-on-stapled-anastomosis-in-pediatric-patients
#5
Hizuru Amano, Yujiro Tanaka, Takahisa Tainaka, Akinari Hinoki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Tomo Kakihara, Kaori Morita, Hiroo Uchida
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to clarify the impact of body weight on outcomes of stapled anastomosis in pediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 253 pediatric patients who underwent intestinal anastomosis were classified according to body weight (<3.5 kg: light group, ≥3.5 kg: heavy group), and clinical outcomes of stapled and hand-sewn anastomoses were compared. RESULTS: The light and heavy groups included 77 (stapled: n = 13, hand-sewn: n = 64) and 176 (stapled: n = 58, hand-sewn: n = 118) patients, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792223/culex-flavivirus-infection-in-a-culex-pipiens-mosquito-colony-and-its-effects-on-vector-competence-for-rift-valley-fever-phlebovirus
#6
Sandra Talavera, Lotty Birnberg, Ana I Nuñez, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Ana Vázquez, Núria Busquets
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that affects domestic ruminants and humans. Culex flavivirus is an insect-specific flavivirus that naturally exists in field mosquito populations. The influence of Culex flavivirus on Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) vector competence of Culex pipiens has not been investigated. METHODS: Culex flavivirus infection in a Cx. pipiens colony was studied by Culex flavivirus oral feeding and intrathoracical inoculation...
May 23, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792205/distinct-correlations-between-lipogenic-gene-expression-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-subcutaneous-fat-among-cattle-breeds
#7
David Gamarra, Noelia Aldai, Aisaku Arakawa, Luis Javier R Barron, Andrés López-Oceja, Marian M de Pancorbo, Masaaki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) composition of adipose tissue influences the nutritional quality of meat products. The unsaturation level of FAs is determined by fatty acid desaturases such as stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs), which are under control of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). Differences in SCD genotype may thus confer variations in lipid metabolism and FA content among cattle breeds. This study investigated correlations between FA composition and lipogenic gene expression levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of beef cattle breeds of different gender from the Basque region of northern Spain...
May 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792195/histamine-activates-inflammatory-response-and-depresses-casein-synthesis-in-mammary-gland-of-dairy-cows-during-sara
#8
Guangjun Chang, Lailai Wang, Nana Ma, Wenwen Zhang, Huanmin Zhang, Hongyu Dai, Xiangzhen Shen
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidences observed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by high concentration (HC) diet increases the translocation of histamine from digestive tract into circulation causing a diverse of diseases in dairy cows. However, it is largely unknown how it does affect the function of mammary gland and milk quality. Hence, this study aims to observe the effects of histamine derived from the digestive tract on the inflammatory response and casein synthesis in the mammary glands during SARA...
May 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791888/boosted-nutritional-quality-of-food-by-co-2-enrichment-fails-to-offset-energy-demand-of-herbivores-under-ocean-warming-causing-energy-depletion-and-mortality
#9
Jonathan Y S Leung, Ivan Nagelkerken, Bayden D Russell, Camilo M Ferreira, Sean D Connell
The CO2 -boosted trophic transfer from primary producers to herbivores has been increasingly discovered at natural CO2 vents and in laboratory experiments. Despite the emerging knowledge of this boosting effect, we do not know the extent to which it may be enhanced or dampened by ocean warming. We investigated whether ocean acidification and warming enhance the nutritional quality (C:N ratio) and energy content of turf algae, which is speculated to drive higher feeding rate, greater energy budget and eventually faster growth of herbivores...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791885/multi-barrier-approach-for-removing-organic-micropollutants-using-mobile-water-treatment-systems
#10
Youngbeom Yu, Yang Hun Choi, Jaewon Choi, Soohoon Choi, Sung Kyu Maeng
The diversity of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in aquatic environments has been increasing rapidly during the last decade. Therefore, it is important to monitor and attenuate emerging contaminants before they can negatively affect the aquatic environment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of OMPs, there are limitations to using a single method for treating a combination of these pollutants. To address this issue, a mobile water treatment system (MWTS) equipped with different treatment units was designed to remove OMPs under field conditions...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791839/ubiquitylation-dynamics-of-the-clock-cell-proteome-and-timeless-during-a-circadian-cycle
#11
Áron Szabó, Christian Papin, David Cornu, Elisabeth Chélot, Zoltán Lipinszki, Andor Udvardy, Virginie Redeker, Ugo Mayor, François Rouyer
Circadian clocks have evolved as time-measuring molecular devices to help organisms adapt their physiology to daily changes in light and temperature. Transcriptional oscillations account for a large fraction of rhythmic protein abundance. However, cycling of various posttranslational modifications, such as ubiquitylation, also contributes to shape the rhythmic protein landscape. In this study, we used an in vivo ubiquitin labeling assay to investigate the circadian ubiquitylated proteome of Drosophila melanogaster...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791809/phagocytosis-what-s-on-the-menu
#12
Charlene E Lancaster, Cheuk Y Ho, Victoria E B Hipolito, Roberto J Botelho, Mauricio R Terebiznik
Phagocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved process. In Protozoa, phagocytosis fulfills a feeding mechanism, while in Metazoa, phagocytosis diversified to play multiple organismal roles, including immune defence, tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Accordingly, phagocytes display a high level of plasticity in their capacity to recognize, engulf and process targets that differ in composition and morphology. Here, we review how phagocytosis adapts to its multiple roles and discuss in particular the effect of target morphology in phagocytic uptake and phagosome maturation...
May 23, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791746/molecular-and-cellular-characterization-of-nachr-subtypes-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#13
Cali A Calarco, Zhiying Li, Seth R Taylor, Somin Lee, Wenliang Zhou, Jeffrey M Friedman, Yann S Mineur, Cecilia Gotti, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine, acting through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), increases the firing rate of both orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), yet nicotine and other nAChR agonists decrease food intake in mice. Viral-mediated knockdown of β4 nAChR subunit in all neuronal cell types in the ARC prevents the nicotinic agonist cytisine from decreasing food intake, but it is not known whether the β4 subunit is selectively expressed in anorexogenic neurons or how other nAChR subtypes are distributed in this nucleus...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791620/intervention-time-until-discharge-for-newborns-on-transition-from-gavage-to-exclusive-oral-feeding
#14
Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros, Blenda Karen Batista Ramos, Déborah Letticia Santana Santos Bomfim, Conceição Lima Alvelos, Talita Cardoso da Silva, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto, Felipe Batista Santos, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
Purpose Measure the intervention time required for transition from gavage to exclusive oral feeding, comparing newborns exposed exclusively to the mother's breast with those who, in addition to breastfeeding, received supplementation using a cup or baby bottle. Methods Analytical, longitudinal, cohort study conducted with 165 newborns (NB) divided into groups according to severity of medical complications (G1-with no complications; G2-with significant complications), and into subgroups according to feeding mechanism (A and B)...
2018: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791584/risk-factors-for-early-onset-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients
#15
J B Cui, Q Q Chen, T T Liu, S J Li
This study aimed to investigate the risk factors related to ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. From January 2011 to December 2015, a single-center retrospective study including 200 SAH patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) ≥48 h was performed. The clinical data of these patients were collected and analyzed. The age range of the patients were 41-63 and 72 (36%) were male. The Glasgow coma scale score range was 5-15 and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II range was 31-52...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791497/xenin-is-a-novel-anorexigen-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#16
Brent Kerbel, Kimberly Badal, Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Ayelen Blanco, Suraj Unniappan
Xenin, a highly conserved 25 amino acid peptide cleaved from the N-terminus of the coatomer protein alpha (COPA), is emerging as a food intake regulator in mammals and birds. To date, no research has been conducted on xenin biology in fish. This study aims to identify the copa mRNA encoding xenin in goldfish (Carassius auratus) as a model, to elucidate its regulation by feeding, and to describe the role of xenin on appetite. First, a partial sequence of copa cDNA, a region encoding xenin, was identified from goldfish brain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791447/development-of-an-rp-uhplc-pda-method-for-quantification-of-free-gossypol-in-cottonseed-cake-and-fungal-treated-cottonseed-cake
#17
Aparecido Almeida Conceição, Clemente Batista Soares Neto, José Antônio de Aquino Ribeiro, Felix Gonçalves de Siqueira, Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Simone Mendonça
Cottonseed cake biomass, which is a residue of oil extraction, is potentially appropriate for use as animal feed, given the high mineral, fibre and protein content. The presence of free gossypol, however, a toxic pigment in the glands of the cotton plant, limits use of this biomass for monogastric livestock. A promising method to detoxify cottonseed cake relies on fermentation by fungi, which can eliminate up to 100% of gossypol. In order to quantify trace levels of free gossypol in different cotton materials, including cottonseed cake treated with macrofungi, a simple and rapid chromatographic detection method was developed and validated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791386/single-frequency-3d-synthetic-aperture-imaging-with-dynamic-metasurface-antennas
#18
Michael Boyarsky, Timothy Sleasman, Laura Pulido-Mancera, Aaron V Diebold, Mohammadreza F Imani, David R Smith
Through aperture synthesis, an electrically small antenna can be used to form a high-resolution imaging system capable of reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) scenes. However, the large spectral bandwidth typically required in synthetic aperture radar systems to resolve objects in range often requires costly and complex RF components. We present here an alternative approach based on a hybrid imaging system that combines a dynamically reconfigurable aperture with synthetic aperture techniques, demonstrating the capability to resolve objects in three dimensions (3D), with measurements taken at a single frequency...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791305/commercial-frozen-mice-used-by-owners-to-feed-reptiles-are-highly-externally-contaminated-with-salmonella-enteritidis-pt8
#19
Clara Marin, Francesca Martelli, André Rabie, Robert Davies
Salmonella remains one of the most prevalent zoonoses worldwide. Although salmonellosis is commonly associated with the consumption of contaminated food, it has been estimated that up to 11% of Salmonella infections overall are acquired from direct or indirect contact with animals, including reptiles. In 2016, an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis involving multiple cases, especially children, associated with reptile contact and contaminated feeder mice was reported in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate Salmonella external and internal contamination of stored commercial frozen feeder mice used to feed reptiles and obtained from the same supplier involved in the outbreak...
May 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791248/ddy-mice-fed-10-fat-diet-exhibit-high-p27kip-expression-and-delayed-hepatocyte-dna-synthesis-during-liver-regeneration
#20
Yohei Saito, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yumi Yamamoto, Masatoshi Suzuki, Manabu Fukumoto, Fumihiko Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Excessive intake of a high-calorie diet has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several studies have investigated the effect of NAFLD on liver regeneration, but the effects of simple steatosis have been found to be inconsistent. We aimed to assess whether the initial phase of diet-induced lipid accumulation, induced by a diet containing moderate levels of fat, impairs liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) of mice. METHODS: Male ddY mice are prone to obesity, even when fed a relatively low-fat diet (FD)...
May 23, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
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