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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346533/density-of-emerald-ash-borer-coleoptera-buprestidae-adults-and-larvae-at-three-stages-of-the-invasion-wave
#1
Stephen J Burr, Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346316/chronic-dietary-intake-of-enniatin-b-in-broiler-chickens-has-low-impact-on-intestinal-morphometry-and-hepatic-histology-and-shows-limited-transfer-to-liver-tissue
#2
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Richard Ducatelle, Michael Rychlik, Gunther Antonissen
The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B) is a so-called emerging mycotoxin frequently contaminating poultry feed. To investigate the impact of chronic ENN B exposure on animal health, broiler chickens were fed either a diet naturally contaminated with ENN B (2352 µg/kg) or a control diet (135 µg/kg) for 2, 7, 14, or 21 days. ENN B concentrations were determined in plasma and liver using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry UHPLC-MS/MS method. Liver was evaluated histologically, and the villus length and crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured...
January 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346196/effectiveness-of-centeringpregnancy-on-breast-feeding-initiation-among-african-americans-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Karen Robinson, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Lisa Hanson
While breast-feeding initiation rates for African American mothers are low, an innovative model of group prenatal care, CenteringPregnancy, holds promise to increase breast-feeding rates. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of CenteringPregnancy versus individual prenatal care on breast-feeding initiation among African American mothers. Using a systematic approach and PRISMA guidelines, 4 electronic databases were used to search the literature. English-language studies, comparing CenteringPregnancy and individual prenatal care, including African American participants, and specifying breast-feeding initiation as an outcome were screened for inclusion...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345603/association-between-household-food-security-and-infant-feeding-practices-in-urban-informal-settlements-in-nairobi-kenya
#4
T N Macharia, S Ochola, M K Mutua, E W Kimani-Murage
Studies in urban informal settlements show widespread inappropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and high rates of food insecurity. This study assessed the association between household food security and IYCF practices in two urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study adopted a longitudinal design that involved a census sample of 1110 children less than 12 months of age and their mothers aged between 12 and 49 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on: IYCF practices and household food security...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345396/performance-rumen-fermentation-and-blood-metabolites-of-dairy-calves-fed-starter-mixtures-supplemented-with-herbal-plants-essential-oils-or-monensin
#5
M Akbarian-Tefaghi, E Ghasemi, M Khorvash
This study evaluated the supplementation effects of three herbal plants (thyme [THY], eucalyptus [EUC] and celery [CEL]), a commercial phytogenic additive ‎containing essential oils (PFA-EO, Digestarom® P.E.P.) and monensin (MON) in calf starter on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during pre- (days 3-55) and post-weaning (days 56-70). Sixty-six Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age, 41.2 ± 3 kg of BW) were allocated to one of six starters supplemented with: (i) no additives (CON), (ii) MON (30 mg/kg), (iii) THY (23 g/kg), (iv) CEL (23 g/kg), (v) EUC (23 g/kg) and (vi) PFA-EO (3 g/kg)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345219/transcriptional-changes-when-myxococcus-xanthus-preys-on-escherichia-coli-suggest-myxobacterial-predators-are-constitutively-toxic-but-regulate-their-feeding
#6
Paul G Livingstone, Andrew D Millard, Martin T Swain, David E Whitworth
Predation is a fundamental ecological process, but within most microbial ecosystems the molecular mechanisms of predation remain poorly understood. We investigated transcriptome changes associated with the predation of Escherichia coli by the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus using mRNA sequencing. Exposure to pre-killed prey significantly altered expression of 1319 predator genes. However, the transcriptional response to living prey was minimal, with only 12 genes being significantly up-regulated. The genes most induced by prey presence (kdpA and kdpB, members of the kdp regulon) were confirmed by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR to be regulated by osmotic shock in M...
January 18, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345218/mitochondrial-dna-suggests-cryptic-speciation-in-prodiplosis-longifila-gagn%C3%A3-diptera-cecidomyiidae-associated-with-geographic-distance-and-host-specialization
#7
D N Duque-Gamboa, M F Castillo-Cárdenas, L M Hernández, Y C Guzmán, M R Manzano, N Toro-Perea
Prodiplosis longifila is reported as a pest of a wide range of species cultivated in America, including citrus, solanaceous species and asparagus. This species has different behavioural traits that are primarily centred on the oviposition habit and the feeding of larvae, which can change depending on the host. However, scarce information is available on population studies and the natural history of this insect, and uncertainty exists about the taxonomic identity and the geographic distribution of this species...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345135/the-deposition-and-elimination-of-glucosinolates-metabolites-derived-from-rapeseed-meal-in-eggs-of-laying-hens
#8
Liping Zhu, Jianping Wang, Xuemei Ding, Shiping Bai, Qiufeng Zeng, Zhuowei Su, Yue Xuan, Keying Zhang
This study was to investigate the deposition and elimination of glucosinolates metabolites including 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) and thiocyanate ion (SCN-) derived from rapeseed meal (RSM) in hen eggs. During 12 weeks accumulation phase, the serum triiodothyronine, thyronine, blood urea nitrogen, kidney index and thyroid index linearly increased with the RSM at week 12 (P < 0.05). The thyroid histopathology revealed a sign of hyperplastic goiter in hens fed with 17.64-29.40% RSM. The 5-VOT content of eggs (Y, ng/g) was correlated with 5-VOT intake (X2, µg/d...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345105/modulates-brassinosteroids-mediated-growth-regulation-and-influences-architecture-and-grain-shape
#9
Yan-Jie Zhang, Yu Zhang, Liang-Li Zhang, Hui-Ya Huang, Bao-Jun Yang, Sheng Luan, Hong-Wei Xue, Wen-Hui Lin
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important crop and feeds more than half of the world population. The architecture of rice, including height, leaf inclination, and tiller number, is important for rice planting and yield. Plant hormone, brassinosteroids (BR), plays crucial roles in modulating plant architecture and seed yield. But BR cannot be applied in agriculture production directly because BR regulated multiple processes and could not be transcriptional regulated in different tissues. This article is protected by copyright...
January 18, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344835/genetic-evidence-for-the-role-of-a-rice-vacuolar-invertase-as-a-molecular-sink-strength-determinant
#10
Shamitha Rao Morey, Tatsuro Hirose, Yoichi Hashida, Akio Miyao, Hirohiko Hirochika, Ryu Ohsugi, Junko Yamagishi, Naohiro Aoki
BACKGROUND: Rice is a major crop feeding the majority of the global population, and increasing its sink strength is one of the modes to alleviate the declining availability of food for the rapidly growing world population. We demonstrate a role for an important rice vacuolar invertase isoform, OsINV3, in sink strength determination. RESULTS: OsINV3 mutants showed shorter panicles with lighter and smaller grains, owing to a smaller cell size on the outer and inner surfaces of the palea and lemma as observed by scanning electron microscopy...
January 17, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344818/dietary-chromium-picolinate-supplementation-affects-growth-whole-body-composition-and-gene-expression-related-to-glucose-metabolism-and-lipogenesis-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#11
Mingchun Ren, Ahmed Mokrani, Hualiang Liang, Ke Ji, Jun Xie, Xianping Ge, Bo Liu
An 11-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of supplemented chromium picolinate (Cr-Pic) on the growth, whole-body composition, and relative mRNA expression related to lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in juvenile blunt snout bream. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with graded Cr supplementation levels were fed to triplicate groups. The final weight (FW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and specific growth rate (SGR) were improved with increasing dietary Cr supplementation levels up to 0...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344801/toxoplasma-gondii-in-sympatric-domestic-and-wild-ungulates-in-the-mediterranean-ecosystem
#12
S Almería, O Cabezón, J Paniagua, D Cano-Terriza, S Jiménez-Ruiz, A Arenas-Montes, J P Dubey, I García-Bocanegra
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan of worldwide distribution. The present study provides information on risk factors affecting T. gondii infection in domestic and free-ranging wild ungulates sharing habitats in Mediterranean ecosystems in Spain. Serum samples from 482 extensively reared domestic ruminants and 2351 wild ungulates were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was 41.2% of 194 sheep, 18.6% of 199 cattle and 5...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344712/usefulness-of-hydrogel-coated-coils-in-embolization-of-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#13
Masashi Shimohira, Tatsuya Kawai, Takuya Hashizume, Masahiro Muto, Masanori Kitase, Yuta Shibamoto
PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of hydrogel-coated coils for preventing recanalization after coil embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven consecutive patients with 57 untreated PAVMs underwent coil embolization with hydrogel-coated coils between January 2013 and Jun 2017. The mean age was 49 years (range 9-83 years), and there were seven male patients and 30 female patients. The median size of the feeding artery was 3...
January 17, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344559/infant-feeding-regimens-and-gastrointestinal-tolerance-a-multicenter-prospective-observational-cohort-study-in-china
#14
Meng Mao, Lan Zhang, John Ge, Jian Yan, Robert Northington, Manjiang Yao, Joyce Nowacki, Nicholas P Hays
To study feeding tolerance in infants fed formula with increased sn-2 palmitate and oligofructose (sn-2+OF) in a real-world setting, healthy Chinese infants were enrolled in this 48-day observational study on their current feeding regimens: exclusively breastfed (BF; n = 147), exclusively sn-2+OF formula-fed (FF; n = 150), or mixed-fed with breast milk and sn-2+OF formula (MF; n = 163). Throughout the study, incidence (90% confidence interval) of hard stools was ≤2.1% (0.0-5.3) in FF and 0.8% (0.0-3.5) in MF, with no hard stools in BF...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344353/effects-of-tnf-receptor-blockade-on-in-vitro-cell-survival-and-response-to-negative-energy-balance-in-dairy-cattle
#15
C A Martel, L K Mamedova, J E Minton, M Garcia, C Legallet, B J Bradford
Background: Associative data and some controlled studies suggest that the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α can induce fatty liver in dairy cattle. However, research demonstrating that TNFα is a necessary component in the etiology of bovine fatty liver is lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether blocking TNFα signaling with a synthetic cyclic peptide (TNF receptor loop peptide; TRLP) would improve liver metabolic function and reduce triglyceride accumulation during feed restriction...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344352/the-use-of-feed-grade-amino-acids-in-lactating-sow-diets
#16
Laura Greiner, Pairat Srichana, James L Usry, Casey Neill, Gary L Allee, Joseph Connor, Kevin J Touchette, Christopher D Knight
Background: The use of feed grade amino acids can reduce the cost of lactation feed. With changing genetics, increasing feed costs, and higher number of pigs weaned with heavier wean weights further evaluation of higher inclusion levels of feed-grade amino acid in lactation diets than previously published is warranted. Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the optimal inclusion level of L-lysine HCl to be included in swine lactation diets while digestible lysine levels remain constant across dietary treatments and allowing feed grade amino acids to be added to the diet to maintain dietary ratios relative to lysine to maximize litter growth rate and sow reproductive performance...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344209/the-effect-of-royal-jelly-on-the-growth-of-breast-cancer-in-mice
#17
Shuang Zhang, Qiqi Shao, Haiyang Geng, Songkun Su
Due to various pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties, royal jelly (RJ) has been widely consumed in daily diets in numerous countries. In the present study, the effect of RJ on 4T1-bearing mice was investigated. The study was performed by feeding 4T1-bearing mice with RJ using either the prophylactic-therapeutic (PTRJ) or therapeutic (TRJ) method. The experimental results for the PTRJ group demonstrated that the weight of tumor was significantly reduced (RJ 0...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343694/sertraline-paroxetine-and-chlorpromazine-are-rapidly-acting-anthelmintic-drugs-capable-of-clinical-repurposing
#19
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, Heather Currey, Phurpa Wangchuk, Ramon M Eichenberger, Aleen D Saxton, Thomas D Bird, Brian C Kraemer, Alex Loukas, John M Hawdon, Conor R Caffrey, Nicole F Liachko
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343313/eucalyptus-leaves-powder-antibiotic-and-probiotic-addition-to-broiler-diets-effect-on-growth-performance-immune-response-blood-components-and-carcass-traits
#20
H Mashayekhi, M Mazhari, O Esmaeilipour
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of eucalyptus powder (EP), virginiamycin and probiotic on performance, immunity, blood components and carcass traits of broiler chickens. A total of 250, 1-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five treatments with five replicates and 10 chicks each, as a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of: basal diet (BD), BD+0.25% EP, BD+0.5% EP, BD+0.01% of diet probiotic (Protexin), BD+0.02% of diet antibiotic (virginiamycin)...
January 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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