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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637420/bioinformatics-insights-on-targets-receptors-of-amiodarone-in-human-and-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#1
Abdul Baig, Zohaib Rana, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Amiodarone is prescribed for certain cardiac arrhythmias in medical practice. The drug targets and inhibits voltage dependent sodium (Na+v), calcium (Ca+2v), potassium (K+v) channels, and enzymes like cytochrome P450 and oxidosqualene cyclase. Past studies have shown that amiodarone exerts anti-amoebic effects against Trypanosoma cruzi and Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The presence of aforementioned targets and the type of cell death induced by amiodarone in these pathogenic eukaryotes like Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be verified...
June 21, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579986/hiv-aspartic-peptidase-inhibitors-modulate-surface-molecules-and-enzyme-activities-involved-with-physiopathological-events-in-fonsecaea-pedrosoi
#2
Vanila F Palmeira, Daniela S Alviano, Lys A Braga-Silva, Fátima R V Goulart, Marcela Q Granato, Sonia Rozental, Celuta S Alviano, André L S Santos, Lucimar F Kneipp
Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shown anti-F. pedrosoi activity their exact mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four HIV-PIs on crucial virulence attributes expressed by F...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530827/overexpression-of-the-squalene-epoxidase-gene-alone-and-in-combination-with-the-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-a-gene-increases-ganoderic-acid-production-in-ganoderma-lingzhi
#3
De-Huai Zhang, Lu-Xi Jiang, Na Li, Xuya Yu, Peng Zhao, Tao Li, Jun-Wei Xu
The squalene epoxidase (SE) gene from the biosynthetic pathway of ganoderic acid (GA) was cloned and overexpressed in Ganoderma lingzhi. The strain that overexpressed the SE produced approximately 2 times more GA molecules than the wild-type (WT) strain. Moreover, SE overexpression upregulated lanosterol synthase gene expression in the biosynthetic pathway. These results indicated that SE stimulates GA accumulation. Then, the SE and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMGR) genes were simultaneously overexpressed in G...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483956/the-tetrazole-vt-1161-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-trichophyton-rubrum-through-its-inhibition-of-t-rubrum-cyp51
#4
Andrew G S Warrilow, Josie E Parker, Claire L Price, Edward P Garvey, William J Hoekstra, Robert J Schotzinger, Nathan P Wiederhold, W David Nes, Diane E Kelly, Steven L Kelly
Prior to characterization of antifungal inhibitors that target this enzyme, Trichophyton rubrum CYP51 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. T. rubrum CYP51 bound lanosterol, obtusifoliol and eburicol with similar affinities (Kd values 22.7, 20.3 and 20.9 μM), but displayed substrate specificity insofar as only eburicol was demethylated in CYP51 reconstitution assays (turnover number 1.55 min(-1), Km value 2 μM). The investigational agent VT-1161 bound tightly to T. rubrum CYP51 (Kd = 242 nM) with similar affinity as clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole (Kd values 179, 173, 312, and 304 nM, respectively), and with lower affinity than itraconazole (Kd = 53 nM)...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479228/design-strategies-of-oxidosqualene-cyclase-inhibitors-targeting-the-sterol-biosynthetic-pathway
#5
REVIEW
Vitor Won-Held Rabelo, Nelilma Correia Romeiro, Paula Alvarez Abreu
Targeting the sterol biosynthesis pathway has been explored for the development of new bioactive compounds. Among the enzymes of this pathway, oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) which catalyzes lanosterol cyclization from 2,3-oxidosqualene has emerged as an attractive target. In this work, we reviewed the most promising OSC inhibitors from different organisms and their potential for the development of new antiparasitic, antifungal, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer drugs. Different strategies have been adopted for the discovery of new OSC inhibitors, such as structural modifications of the natural substrate or the reaction intermediates, the use of the enzyme's structural information to discover compounds with novel chemotypes, modifications of known inhibitors and the use of molecular modeling techniques such as docking and virtual screening to search for new inhibitors...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472585/real-time-imaging-of-the-azole-class-of-antifungal-drugs-in-live-candida-cells
#6
Raphael I Benhamou, Maayan Bibi, Kfir B Steinbuch, Hamutal Engel, Maayan Levin, Yael Roichman, Judith Berman, Micha Fridman
Azoles are the most commonly used class of antifungal drugs, yet where they localize within fungal cells and how they are imported remain poorly understood. Azole antifungals target lanosterol 14α-demethylase, a cytochrome P450, encoded by ERG11 in Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen. We report the synthesis of fluorescent probes that permit visualization of antifungal azoles within live cells. Probe 1 is a dansyl dye-conjugated azole, and probe 2 is a Cy5-conjugated azole. Docking computations indicated that each of the probes can occupy the active site of the target cytochrome P450...
May 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462697/insight-mechanism-of-the-selective-lanosterol-synthase-inhibitor-molecular-modeling-docking-and-density-functional-theory-approaches
#7
Suramanian Karunagaran, Chandrasekaran Meganathan, Rengarajan Kavitha, Muthu Vadivelu, Kuen Woo Lee
BACKGROUND: Lanosterol synthase (Oxidosqualene cyclase) is an enzyme, plays a central role in cholesterol and sterols biosynthesis. Lanosterol synthase drugs used to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood and treat wide variety of diseases like atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases etc. OBJECTIVE: There is a great interest in the identification of drugs that target this enzyme for anticholesteraemic agent using insilico tools. METHODS: Ligand based pharmacophore model was developed using Discovery Studio 2...
April 26, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336949/induction-of-apoptosis-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-camp-signaling-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#8
Bang-Jau You, Ni Tien, Miin-Huey Lee, Bo-Ying Bao, Yih-Shyuan Wu, Tsung-Chi Hu, Hong-Zin Lee
Apoptosis is an essential physiological process that controls many important biological functions. However, apoptosis signaling in relation to secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants and fungi remains a mystery. The fungus Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine worldwide, but the biosynthetic regulation of its active ingredients (ganoderic acids, GAs) is poorly understood. We investigated the role of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in fungal apoptosis and GA biosynthesis in G...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322148/effects-of-exogenous-salicylic-acid-on-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-and-the-expression-of-key-genes-in-the-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes
#9
Peng-Fei Cao, Chen-Gao Wu, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314390/oxysterols-in-cosmetics-determination-by-planar-solid-phase-extraction-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#10
S Schrack, C Hohl, W Schwack
Sterol oxidation products (SOPs) are linked to several toxicological effects. Therefore, investigation of potential dietary uptake sources particularly food of animal origin has been a key issue for these compounds. For the simultaneous determination of oxysterols from cholesterol, phytosterols, dihydrolanosterol and lanosterol in complex cosmetic matrices, planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) was applied as clean-up tool. SOPs were first separated from more non-polar and polar matrix constituents by normal phase thin-layer chromatography and then focussed into one target zone...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303159/antifungal-activity-of-the-ethanol-extract-from-flos-rosae-chinensis-with-activity-against-fluconazole-resistant-clinical-candida
#11
Lulu Zhang, Hui Lin, Wei Liu, Baodi Dai, Lan Yan, YongBing Cao, Yuan-Ying Jiang
This study was designed to investigate the antifungal activity of a hydroalcoholic extract from Flos Rosae Chinensis (FRC) combined with fluconazole (FCZ) against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to FCZ. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of FRC was determined using a checkerboard microdilution assay. The synergistic effects of the combination of FRC and FCZ against clinical isolates of C. albicans resistant to FCZ were further confirmed by constructing time-growth curves and performing an agar diffusion test...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294269/%C3%AE-amyrin-biosynthesis-catalytic-mechanism-and-substrate-recognition
#12
REVIEW
Tsutomu Hoshino
The enzymatic polycyclization reactions catalyzed by oxidosqualene (OXSQ) cyclases (OSCs) proceed with complete regio- and stereospecificity, leading to the formation of new C-C bonds and chiral centers and to the generation of diverse polycyclic sterols and triterpenoids. The diverse structural array is remarkable, and approximately 150 different carbon frameworks have been found. Detailed investigations on squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC) and lanosterol synthase (LaS) have been reported, but progress in the study of β-amyrin synthase, which is ubiquitously found in plants, has lagged in comparison...
March 15, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264842/contributions-of-both-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-and-cyp51a-proteins-are-essential-for-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#13
Sanjoy Paul, Daniel Diekema, W Scott Moye-Rowley
While azole drugs targeting the biosynthesis of ergosterol are effective antifungal agents, their extensive use has led to the development of resistant organisms. Infections involving azole-resistant forms of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are often associated with genetic changes in the cyp51A gene encoding the lanosterol α14 demethylase target enzyme. Both a sequence duplication in the cyp51A promoter (TR34) and a substitution mutation in the coding sequence (L98H) are required for the full expression of azole resistance...
May 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258022/probes-for-protein-adduction-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis-disorders-alkynyl-lanosterol-as-a-viable-sterol-precursor
#14
Keri A Tallman, Hye-Young H Kim, Zeljka Korade, Thiago C Genaro-Mattos, Phillip A Wages, Wei Liu, Ned A Porter
The formation of lipid electrophile-protein adducts is associated with many disorders that involve perturbations of cellular redox status. The identities of adducted proteins and the effects of adduction on protein function are mostly unknown and an increased understanding of these factors may help to define the pathogenesis of various human disorders involving oxidative stress. 7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), the immediate biosynthetic precursor to cholesterol, is highly oxidizable and gives electrophilic oxysterols that adduct proteins readily, a sequence of events proposed to occur in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a human disorder resulting from an error in cholesterol biosynthesis...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250360/a-new-amino-acid-substitution-at-g150s-in-lanosterol-14-%C3%AE-demethylase-erg11-protein-in-multi-azole-resistant-trichosporon-asahii
#15
Hisako Kushima, Issei Tokimatsu, Hiroshi Ishii, Rie Kawano, Kentaro Watanabe, Jun-Ichi Kadota
The mechanisms of azole resistance in Trichosporon asahii have not yet been fully clarified. We previously showed that T. asahii has the ERG11 gene, coding lanosterol 14-α-demethylase (Erg11 protein; Erg11p), which is the primary target of azoles. A single amino acid substitution at G453R in Erg11p was found to induce changes in the affinity of this enzyme for azoles, especially fluconazole, in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the DNA sequences of the ERG11 gene using six different strains of clinically isolated T...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242548/new-azole-derivatives-showing-antimicrobial-effects-and-their-mechanism-of-antifungal-activity-by-molecular-modeling-studies
#16
İnci Selin Doğan, Selma Saraç, Suat Sari, Didem Kart, Şebnem Eşsiz Gökhan, İmran Vural, Sevim Dalkara
Azole antifungals are potent inhibitors of fungal lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) and have been used for eradication of systemic candidiasis clinically. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of 1-phenyl/1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol esters. Many of these derivatives showed fungal growth inhibition at very low concentrations. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 15 was 0.125 μg/mL against Candida albicans. Additionally, some of our compounds, such as 19 (MIC: 0...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224386/%C3%AE-bisabolol-inhibits-aspergillus-fumigatus-af239-growth-via-affecting-microsomal-%C3%A2-24-sterol-methyltransferase-as-a-crucial-enzyme-in-ergosterol-biosynthesis-pathway
#17
Zahra Jahanshiri, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Farnoush Asghari-Paskiabi, Reza Saghiri, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
Finding new compounds with antifungal properties is an important task due to the side effects of common antifungal drugs and emerging antifungal resistance in fungal strains. ∆(24)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) is a crucial enzyme that plays important roles in fungal ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and is not found in humans. In the present study, the effects of α-bisabolol on Aspergillus fumigatus Af239 growth and ergosterol synthesis on the base of 24-SMT enzyme activity were studied; in addition, the expression of erg6, the gene encoded 24-SMT, was considered...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202290/effect-of-psychotropic-drug-treatment-on-sterol-metabolism
#18
Željka Korade, Wei Liu, Emily B Warren, Kristan Armstrong, Ned A Porter, Christine Konradi
Cholesterol metabolism is vital for brain function. Previous work in cultured cells has shown that a number of psychotropic drugs inhibit the activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in cholesterol biosynthesis. This leads to the accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), a molecule that gives rise to oxysterols, vitamin D, and atypical neurosteroids. We examined levels of cholesterol and the cholesterol precursors desmosterol, lanosterol, 7DHC and its isomer 8-dehydrocholesterol (8DHC), in blood samples of 123 psychiatric patients on various antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs, and 85 healthy controls, to see if the observations in cell lines hold true for patients as well...
February 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106743/design-synthesis-and-antifungal-activity-evaluation-of-new-thiazolin-4-ones-as-potential-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-inhibitors
#19
Anca Stana, Dan C Vodnar, Radu Tamaian, Adrian Pîrnău, Laurian Vlase, Ioana Ionuț, Ovidiu Oniga, Brînduşa Tiperciuc
Twenty-three thiazolin-4-ones were synthesized starting from phenylthioamide or thiourea derivatives by condensation with α-monochloroacetic acid or ethyl α-bromoacetate, followed by substitution in position 5 with various arylidene moieties. All the synthesized compounds were physico-chemically characterized and the IR (infrared spectra), ¹H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance), (13)C NMR (carbon nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data were consistent with the assigned structures...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102469/lanosterol-suppresses-the-aggregation-and-cytotoxicity-of-misfolded-proteins-linked-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Arun Upadhyay, Ayeman Amanullah, Ribhav Mishra, Amit Kumar, Amit Mishra
Accumulation of misfolded or aberrant proteins in neuronal cells is linked with neurodegeneration and other pathologies. Which molecular mechanisms fail and cause inappropriate folding of proteins and what is their relationship to cellular toxicity is not well known. How does it happen and what are the probable therapeutic or molecular approaches to counter them are also not clear. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of lanosterol diminishes aberrant proteotoxic aggregation and mitigates their cytotoxicity via induced expression of co-chaperone CHIP and elevated autophagy...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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