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Candida colonization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932047/a-relationship-between-salivary-flow-rates-and-candida-counts-in-patients-with-xerostomia
#1
Suchetha Devendrappa Nadig, Deepak Timmasandra Ashwathappa, Muniraju Manjunath, Sowmya Krishna, Araleri Gopalkrishna Annaji, Praveen Kunigal Shivaprakash
CONTEXT: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915910/colonization-of-the-bovine-uterus-by-candida-kefyr
#2
Cecilia Christensen Karstrup, Bent Aalbæk, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim Kåre Jensen, Hanne Gervi Pedersen, Jørgen Steen Agerholm
BACKGROUND: While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. CASE PRESENTATION: Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid or within macrophages...
September 16, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911043/multidrug-resistant-candida-epidemiology-molecular-mechanisms-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Thomas F Patterson
Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904931/isolation-of-candida-species-from-gastroesophageal-lesions-among-pediatrics-in-isfahan-iran-identification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-clinical-isolates-by-e-test
#4
Fatemeh Salehi, Mehran Esmaeili, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. The aim of this study is collection and molecular identification of Candida species from gastroesophageal lesions among pediatrics in Isfahan, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges for clinical isolates...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904481/external-validation-of-risk-prediction-scores-for-invasive-candidiasis-in-a-medical-surgical-intensive-care-unit-an-observational-study
#5
Armin Ahmed, Arvind Kumar Baronia, Afzal Azim, Rungmei S K Marak, Reema Yadav, Preeti Sharma, Mohan Gurjar, Banani Poddar, Ratender Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to conduct external validation of risk prediction scores for invasive candidiasis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in a 12-bedded adult medical/surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to evaluate Candida score >3, colonization index (CI) >0.5, corrected CI >0.4 (CCI), and Ostrosky's clinical prediction rule (CPR). Patients' characteristics and risk factors for invasive candidiasis were noted. Patients were divided into two groups; invasive candidiasis and no-invasive candidiasis...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900419/enhanced-killing-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-encapsulated-cinnamaldehyde-against-candida-albicans
#6
Shahper N Khan, Shakir Khan, Jawed Iqbal, Rosina Khan, Asad U Khan
Candida sp. impelled opportunistic infection in immune-compromised patients ensuing from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms. Moreover, slow spread of Candida species inducing refractory mucosal and invasive infections brings acute resistance to antifungal drugs. Hence, here we probed the effect of encapsulated preparation of cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) in multilamellar liposomes (ML) against Candida albicans. The efficacy of ML-CNMA against Candida biofilm was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy and its percent inhibition, was determined by XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] and crystal violet assay...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894842/retroperitoneal-actinomycosis-a-rare-sequela-of-an-infected-obstructing-ureteral-stone
#7
Elizabeth Bearrick, Colby A Dixon, Joshua Rhein, Michael S Borofsky
Background: Actinomycosis is a condition in which Actinomyces, a normal component of the oral and gastrointenstial flora, becomes pathogenic in the setting of damaged tissue, leading to widespread tissue destruction across fascial planes. Prior literature describing this condition is rare, particularly cases involving the retroperitoneum. In this study, we report a case of retroperitoneal actinomycosis caused by an infected, obstructing ureteral stone. Case Presentation: A 48-year-old woman with a history of substance abuse, malnutrition, and gastric bypass presented to the emergency room with a 3-week history of abdominal pain and fevers...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888971/fungal-infection-in-neural-tissue-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Ruth Alonso, Diana Pisa, Ana M Fernández-Fernández, Alberto Rábano, Luis Carrasco
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and the main cause of motor neuron pathology. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, and no effective therapy exists to halt the disease or improve the quality of life. Here, we provide compelling evidence for the existence of fungal infection in ALS. Immunohistochemistry analysis using a battery of antifungal antibodies revealed fungal structures such as yeast and hyphae in the motor cortex, the medulla and the spinal cord, in eleven patients with ALS...
September 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877970/the-transcriptional-response-of-candida%C3%A2-albicans-to-weak-organic-acids-carbon-source-and-mig1%C3%A2-inactivation-unveils-a-role-for-hgt16-in-mediating-the-fungistatic-effect-of-acetic-acid
#9
Fabien Cottier, Alrina Shin Min Tan, Marina Yurieva, Webber Liao, Josephine Lum, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Norman Pavelka
Candida albicans is a resident fungus of the human intestinal microflora. Commonly isolated at low abundance in healthy people, C. albicans outcompetes local microbiota during candidiasis episodes. Under normal conditions, members of the human gastrointestinal microbiota were shown to keep C. albicans colonization under control. By releasing weak organic acids (WOAs), bacteria are able to moderate yeast growth. This mechanism displayed a synergistic effect in vitro with the absence of glucose in medium of culture, which underline the complex interaction that C...
September 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871606/risk-and-outcomes-of-pulmonary-fungal-infection-after-pediatric-lung-transplantation
#10
E Ammerman, S Sweet, M Fenchel, G A Storch, C Conrad, D Hayes, A Faro, S Goldfarb, E Melicoff, M Schecter, G Visner, N Williams, L Danziger-Isakov
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies to determine associated risk factors and related outcomes for pulmonary fungal infection (PFI) after pediatric lung transplant (PLT) are lacking. METHODS: NIH-sponsored Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children enrolled PLT candidates, collecting data prospectively for 2 years post-transplant. Demographics, signs/symptoms, radiology, pathology and microbiology were collected. Analyses evaluated for PFI-related risks and outcomes...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844452/characterization-of-virulence-factors-of-vaginal-and-anal-isolates-of-candida-albicans-sequentially-obtained-from-patients-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-in-north-east-brazil
#11
M Araújo Paulo de Medeiros, A P Vieira de Melo, A M Maia de Sousa, W P Silva-Rocha, E Pipolo Milan, G Maranhão Chaves
In order to better understand the pathogenesis of VVC, focusing on the role of C. albicans virulence factors in triggering this infirmity; we evaluated four virulence factors of 62 clinical isolates of C. albicans sequentially obtained from the vagina and anus of patients with sporadic and recurrent VVC. Virulence factors were phenotypically evaluated in vitro, including: adhesion capacity to epithelial cells obtained from healthy individuals, morphogenesis in the presence of fetal bovine serum, biofilm formation in polystyrene microtiter plates and proteinase activity using bovine serum albumin...
August 24, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827996/apigenin-7-o-glucoside-versus-apigenin-insight-into-the-modes-of-anticandidal-and-cytotoxic-actions
#12
Marija Smiljkovic, Danijela Stanisavljevic, Dejan Stojkovic, Isidora Petrovic, Jelena Marjanovic Vicentic, Jelena Popovic, Simona Golic Grdadolnik, Dejan Markovic, Snežana Sankovic-Babice, Jasmina Glamoclija, Milena Stevanovic, Marina Sokovic
Bioactive potential of apigenin derivative apigenin-7-O-glucoside related to its antifungal activity on Candida spp. and cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cells was studied and compared with bioactive potential of apigenin. Antifungal activity was tested on 14 different isolates of Candida spp. using membrane permeability assay, measuring inhibition of reactive oxidative species and inhibition of CYP51 C. albicans enzyme. Cytotoxic potential of apigenin-7-O-glucoside was tested on colon cancer HCT116 cells by measuring cell viability, apoptosis rate and apoptosis- and colon cancer-related gene expression...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814819/marinocyanins-cytotoxic-bromo-phenazinone-meroterpenoids-from-a-marine-bacterium-from-the-streptomycete-clade-mar4
#13
Ratnakar N Asolkar, Ahilya Singh, Paul R Jensen, William Aalbersberg, Brad K Carté, Klaus-D Feussner, Ramesh Subramani, Antonio DiPasquale, Arnold L Rheingold, William Fenical
Six cytotoxic and antimicrobial metabolites of a new bromo-phenazinone class, the marinocyanins A-F (1-6), were isolated together with the known bacterial metabolites 2-bromo-1-hydroxyphenazine (7), lavanducyanin (8, WS-9659A) and its chlorinated analog WS-9659B (9). These metabolites were purified by bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts of our MAR4 marine actinomycete strains CNS-284 and CNY-960. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic methods and marinocyanin A (1) was confirmed by crystallographic methods...
April 20, 2017: Tetrahedron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#14
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807392/candidemia-and-colonization-by-candida-auris-a-diagnostic-challenge
#15
Lourdes Viñuela-Sandoval, Iker Falces-Romero, Julio García-Rodríguez, José María Eiros-Bouza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802173/fungicidal-activity-of-copper-sputtered-flexible-surfaces-under-dark-and-actinic-light-against-azole-resistant-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata
#16
Myriam K S Ballo, Sami Rtimi, John Kiwi, César Pulgarin, José M Entenza, Alain Bizzini
Candida spp. are able to survive on hospital surfaces and causes healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Since surface cleaning and disinfecting interventions are not totally effective to eliminate Candida spp., new approaches should be devised. Copper (Cu) has widely recognized antifungal activity and the use of Cu-sputtered surfaces has recently been proposed to curb the spread of HCAIs. Moreover, the activity of Cu under the action of actinic light remains underexplored. We investigated the antifungal activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces (Cu-PES) against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata under dark and low intensity visible light irradiation (4...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799153/-fungi-in-the-gut-the-gut-mycobiome
#17
Herbert Hof
Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792381/effects-of-tea-extracts-on-the-colonization-behaviour-of-candida-species-attachment-inhibition-and-biofilm-enhancement
#18
Yi Wang, H M H N Bandara, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Lakshman P Samaranayake
PURPOSE: We assessed the effects of four different types of tea extracts (green, oolong, black and pu-erh tea) on cellular surface properties (hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation) and the colonization attributes (attachment and biofilm formation) of four strains of Candida albicans and three strains of Candida krusei. METHODOLOGY: The cellular surface properties were determined using spectrophotometry. The colonization activities were quantified using colorimetric viability assays and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783506/nanoscale-silver-depositions-inhibit-microbial-colonization-and-improve-biocompatibility-of-titanium-abutments
#19
Supriya Kheur, Nimisha Singh, Dhananjay Bodas, Jean-Yves Rauch, Shantanu Jambhekar, Mohit Kheur, Jyutika Rajwade
Although titanium dental implants are biocompatible, exhibit excellent corrosion resistance and high mechanical resistance, the material fails in providing resistance to infection because it exhibits poor antimicrobial activity. To address these issues, we deposited silver onto titanium abutments (Grade 5 titanium discs) using direct current (DC) sputtering and assessed the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of the modified implant material. Atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to investigate the concentration and elemental composition of the deposited silver...
July 29, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776040/grf10-and-bas1-regulate-transcription-of-adenylate-and-one-carbon-biosynthesis-genes-and-affect-virulence-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#20
Tanaporn Wangsanut, Anup K Ghosh, Peter G Metzger, William A Fonzi, Ronda J Rolfes
Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes superficial fungal infections and lethal systemic infections. To colonize and establish infections, C. albicans coordinates the expression of virulence and metabolic genes. Previous work showed that the homeodomain transcription factor Grf10 is required for formation of hyphae, a virulence factor. Here we report global gene expression analysis of a grf10Δ strain using a DNA microarray and identify genes for de novo adenylate biosynthesis (ADE genes), one-carbon metabolism, and a nucleoside permease (NUP)...
July 2017: MSphere
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