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Candida colonization

Yujie Zhou, Min Liao, Chengguang Zhu, Yao Hu, Ting Tong, Xian Peng, Mingyun Li, Mingye Feng, Lei Cheng, Biao Ren, Xuedong Zhou
The hyphal development of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has been considered as an essential virulent factor for host cell damage. However, the missing link between hyphae and virulence of C. albicans is also been discovered. Here, we identified that the null mutants of ERG3 and ERG11, two key genes in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, can form typical hyphae but failed to cause the oral mucosal infection in vitro and in vivo for the first time. In particular, the erg3Δ/Δ and erg11Δ/Δ strains co-cultured with epithelial cells significantly reduced the adhesion, damage, and cytokine (interleukin-1α (IL-1α)) production, whereas the invasion was not affected in vitro...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Johannes Stein, Stefan Latz, Jörg Ellinger, Guido Fechner, Maher Safi, Philipp Krausewitz, Simone Müller, Karin Weyer, Stefan C Müller
BACKGROUND: Renal fungal bezoars are remarkably rare and mostly occur in immunodeficient patients. Only a small number of cases with immunocompetent patients have been published so far. The published treatment approaches comprised systemic antimycotic therapy and surgical or minimal invasive removal of the fungal balls. In some cases irrigation of the renal duct system with amphotericin B was performed. By obstruction of the urinary tract bezoars can lead to infected hydronephrosis and severe urosepsis with high lethality...
March 16, 2018: BMC Urology
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
P Kooshki, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A Z Mahmoudabadi
OBJECTIVE: Usually, 7-20% of preterm neonates colonized by Candida species present invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans, and several non-albicans species cause invasive infection with C. albicans being the most dominant agent. In the last two decades, infection due to non-albicans have been increased dramatically due to their low sensitivity to antifungal drugs such as fluconazole. The aim of present study was to evaluate Candida colonization pattern and antifungal susceptibility among preterm neonates from Khorramabad, South west of Iran...
March 9, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Xiao-Yu Yu, Fei Fu, Wen-Na Kong, Qian-Kun Xuan, Dong-Hua Wen, Xiao-Qing Chen, Yong-Ming He, Li-Hua He, Jian Guo, Ai-Ping Zhou, Yang-Hong Xi, Li-Jun Ni, Yu-Feng Yao, Wen-Juan Wu
Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans often co-colonize the female genital tract, and under certain conditions induce mucosal inflammation. The role of the interaction between the two organisms in candidal vaginitis is not known. In this study, we found that co-infection with S. agalactiae significantly attenuated the hyphal development of C. albicans , and that EFG1 -Hwp1 signal pathway of C. albicans was involved in this process. In a mouse model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), the fungal burden and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α showed a increase on co-infection with S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mubashshir Rasheed, Anamika Battu, Rupinder Kaur
A family of 11 cell surface-associated aspartyl proteases (CgYps1-11), also referred as yapsins, is a key virulence factor in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. However, the mechanism by which CgYapsins modulate immune response and facilitate survival in the mammalian host, remains to be identified. Here, using RNA-Seq analysis, we report that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are differentially regulated in the Cgyps1-11Δ mutant. Consistently, the mutant contained lower β-glucan and mannan levels and exhibited increased chitin content in the cell wall...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mafalda Cavalheiro, Miguel Cacho Teixeira
Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Parisa Badiee, Maral Choopanizadeh, Abdolkarim Ghadimi Moghadam, Ali Hossaini Nasab, Hadis Jafarian, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Jafar Soltani
Background and Objectives: Colonization of Candida species is common in pediatric patients admitted to hematology-oncology wards. The aim of this study was to identify colonized Candida species and their susceptibility patterns in hematologic pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from mouth, nose, urine and stool of the patients admitted to five university hospitals and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolates were identified by API 20 C AUX system and their susceptibility patterns were evaluated by CLSI M27-A3 and S4...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Josephine Kam Tai Dermawan, Subha Ghosh, M Kelly Keating, K V Gopalakrishna, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Candida is frequently isolated from the respiratory tract and usually reflects airway colonization. True Candida pneumonia is rare. Our aim is to document a case of Candida pneumonia confirmed by cultures, molecular techniques, and surgical lung biopsy, and to highlight a previously unreported pathologic manifestation of this infection. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presented with dry cough, low-grade fever, and progressive dyspnea...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ewa Jabłońska-Stencel, Wojciech Pakieła, Anna Mertas, Elżbieta Bobela, Jacek Kasperski, Grzegorz Chladek
Colonization of silicone-based soft lining materials by pathogenic yeast-type fungi is a common problem associated with the use of dentures. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate (SSHZP) was introduced into polydimethylsiloxane-based material as an antimicrobial filler at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14% ( w / w ). The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy was investigated. Candida albicans was used as a characteristic representative of pathogenic oral microflora. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as the typical Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, respectively...
February 22, 2018: Materials
Rogatien Charlet, Youri Pruvost, Gael Tumba, Fabian Istel, Daniel Poulain, Karl Kuchler, Boualem Sendid, Samir Jawhara
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota acts a natural barrier to the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Candida glabrata is an opportunistic yeast pathogen that has adapted to colonize all segments of the human GI tract. We observed an increase in Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides vulgatus populations, and a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Bifidobacterium animalis in mice with DSS-induced colitis. This reduction was more pronounced for L. johnsonii during C...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shanshan Li, Xiaoyu Yu, Wenjuan Wu, Daniel Z Chen, Ming Xiao, Xinhua Huang
Candida albicans is a commensal fungal species that commonly colonizes a heterogeneous mixture of human body where it intimately interacts with other microbes in the host environment such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Most studies in fungal-bacterial interactions are about synergistic or antagonistic effects of bacterial functions on fungal physiological activities including pathogenicity. Very few studies have been demonstrated about the role of fungi on bacteria. In this study, we investigated the interactions between C...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Gilbert Gerard Ghislain Donders, G Bellen, Kateryna Ruban, Ben Van Bulck
BACKGROUND: Recurrent vulvovaginal infections are a frequent complaint in young women in need of contraception. However, the influence of the contraceptive method on the course of the disease is not well known. AIM: To investigate the influence of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine-system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microflora. METHODS: Short-term (3 months) and long-term (1 to 5 years) changes of vaginal microbiota were compared with pre-insertion values in 252 women presenting for LNG-IUS insertion...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
J N Vieira, A M Feijó, M E Bueno, C L Gonçalves, R G Lund, J F Mendes, J P V Villarreal, M M Villela, P S Nascente
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours...
February 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Rafat Afifi Khattab, Mohamed Elbandy, Andrew Lawrence, Tim Paget, Jung Rae-Rho, Yaser S Binnaser, Imran Ali
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produced a diversity of biological important natural compounds which are unpresented in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (anti-bacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
María C Tarifa, Jorge E Lozano, Lorena I Brugnoni
Membrane separation systems represent a hot - spot for biofilm formation in juice industries. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been traditionally the disinfectant of choice; however, its effectiveness over well-established biofilms is limited. In this work the study of biofilm formation on ultrafiltration membranes was proposed. The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection procedures commonly used in juice industry was tested on the removal and killing of cells. The species used (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from ultrafiltration modules of a clarified apple juice industry...
March 2018: Food Research International
Isabele Carrilho Jarros, Érika Okuno, Maiara Ignacio Costa, Flávia Franco Veiga, Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Melyssa Fernanda Norman Negri, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski
In recent decades, the prognosis for burn patients has improved considerably with the development of specialized care. The acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a totally artificial acellular device that functions to control water loss, prevent penetration by bacteria and allow migration of endothelial cells and fibroblasts from patient tissues. However, little is known about its effectiveness against yeasts. The present study evaluated the capacity of colonization and migration of some human commensal yeasts. Three clinical isolates from skin scales, identified as Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, were used...
February 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Marco Fiore, Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Vincenzo Schiavone, Maria Caterina Pace
Fungal infections of the liver, most commonly caused by Candida spp., often occur in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with chemotherapy. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to be the main origin of dissemination of Candida ; mucositis and neutropenia facilitate the spread of Candida from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. Hepatic involvement due to other fungi is a less common infectious complication in this setting. Fungal infections represent a less common cause of hepatic abscesses in non-oncohematologic population and the trend appears to be decreasing in recent years...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Alina Mariela Murgu, Irina Geanina Crişcov, Silvia Fotea, Ginel Baciu, Anca Chiriac, Elena Tarca, Violeta Streanga
RATIONALE: Collodion baby is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It can be the first expression of some forms of ichthyosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The authors present the case of a newborn diagnosed with severe Collodion baby syndrome who required prolonged hospitalization in the intensive care unit because of infectious complications like the fungal sepsis and other bacterial superinfections. DIAGNOSES: The case has many diagnostic and therapeutic particularities and management difficulties...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
A H Smith, T G Rehberger
Microbial colonization of the intestinal tract of commercial poultry is highly variable, likely due to the fact that poults and chicks are hatched and raised without exposure to adult birds and their microbiota. In industrial poultry production, it is hypothesized that most of the microbiota is obtained through horizontal transmission from the environment and very little by maternal transmission. The initial gut microbiota will therefore differ between flocks and companies based on environmental conditions at the hatchery...
January 29, 2018: Poultry Science
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