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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786923/biodiversity-of-the-human-oral-mycobiome-in-health-and-disease
#1
H M H N Bandara, C P Panduwawala, L P Samaranayake
The organisms that colonize the human body over a lifetime are diverse, extensive and gargantuan. A fair proportion of the microbiota that constitutes this human microbiome live within our oral cavities mostly as harmonious associates causing only sporadic disease. An important core constituent of the microbiome is the mycobiome, representing various fungal genera. Up until recently, only a few species of fungi, mainly Candida species, were thought to constitute the human oral mycobiome. The reasons for this are manifold, although the uncultivable nature of many fungi in conventional laboratory media, and their complex genetic composition seem to be the major factors which eluded their detection over the years...
May 22, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782688/oral-yeast-colonization-in-patients-with-primary-and-secondary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#2
Clarissa Castro Galvão Medeiros, Luiz Gustavo Dos Anjos Borges, Karen Cherubini, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum, Renata Medina da Silva, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the pattern of oral yeast colonization of Sjögren's syndrome patients and its correlation to salivary flow rates, age and time of the disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva and swab specimens were obtained from 45 patients (primary Sjögren's syndrome= 15/ secondary Sjögren's syndrome= 15/ healthy controls= 15). Yeast species were identified using culture method through chromogenic medium followed by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing...
May 21, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768730/biofilm-in-voice-prosthesis-a-prospective-cohort-study-and-laboratory-tests-using-sonication-and-sem-analysis
#3
Jacopo Galli, Lea Calo', Duino Meucci, Monica Giuliani, Daniela Lucidi, Gaetano Paludetti, Riccardo Torelli, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Claudio Parrilla
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the biofilm growing pattern and its morphological extent on silicone and a teflon-like material using a sonication process and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study and a laboratory study. SETTING: Otolaryngology -Head and Neck surgery Department and the Microbiology Institute. PARTICIPANTS: The participants included fifteen laryngectomized patients with phonatory prostheses, which were removed due to device failure, and two different kinds of phonatory prostheses from the laboratory (Provox 2 and ActiValve) that were artificially colonized by Candida albicans...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746380/one-year-incidence-of-infection-in-pediatric-intestine-transplantation
#4
Jared W Clouse, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Jonathan A Fridell, Richard S Mangus
BACKGROUND: This study reports the infection rate, location of infection, and pathogen causing bacterial, fungal, or viral infections in intestine transplant recipients at a pediatric transplant center. METHODS: Records from a pediatric center were reviewed for patients receiving an intestine transplant. Positive cultures and pathology reports were used to diagnose bacterial, fungal, and viral infections and also to determine location and infectious agent. Risk for infection was assessed based on liver or colon inclusion, and immunosuppression induction, as part of the intestine transplant...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742432/il-9-and-mast-cells-are-key-players-of-candida-albicans-commensalism-and-pathogenesis-in-the-gut
#5
Giorgia Renga, Silvia Moretti, Vasilis Oikonomou, Monica Borghi, Teresa Zelante, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Claudio Costantini, Marco De Zuani, Valeria Rachela Villella, Valeria Raia, Rachele Del Sordo, Andrea Bartoli, Monia Baldoni, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Angelo Sidoni, Enrico Garaci, Luigi Maiuri, Carlo Pucillo, Luigina Romani
Candida albicans is implicated in intestinal diseases. Identifying host signatures that discriminate between the pathogenic versus commensal nature of this human commensal is clinically relevant. In the present study, we identify IL-9 and mast cells (MCs) as key players of Candida commensalism and pathogenicity. By inducing TGF-β in stromal MCs, IL-9 pivotally contributes to mucosal immune tolerance via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. However, Candida-driven IL-9 and mucosal MCs also contribute to barrier function loss, dissemination, and inflammation in experimental leaky gut models and are upregulated in patients with celiac disease...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741145/tandem-mass-spectrometric-cell-wall-proteome-profiling-of-a-candida-albicans-hwp2-mutant-strain
#6
Andy Awad, Pamela El Khoury, Brigitte Wex, Roy A Khalaf
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is present as part of the normal gut flora and detected in the oral cavities and GI tracts of around fifty percent of adults. Benign colonization can turn pathogenic causing a variety of mild to severe infections. In a pathogen, the cell wall and cell surface proteins are major antigenic determinants and drug targets as they are the primary structures that contact the host. Cell surface proteins perform a variety of functions necessary for virulence such as adhesion, host degradation, resistance to oxidative stress, and drug resistance...
May 9, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726837/fracture-resistant-antibiofilm-adherent-self-assembled-pmma-zno-nanoformulations-for-biomedical-applications-physico-chemical-and-biological-perspectives-of-nano-reinforcement
#7
Indu Raj, Miran Mozetic, Jayachandran V Prabhu, Jiya Jose, Sabu Thomas, Nandakumar Kalarikkal
Antimicrobial, antibiofilm adherent, fracture resistant nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO NP) formulations based on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix were developed by ex situ compression moulding technique in a facile manner. These formulations demonstrated potent, long-term biofilm-resisting effects against Candida Albicans (9000 CFU to 1000CFU) and Streptococcal Mutans. Proposed mechanism of biofilm resistance was the release of metallic ions/metal oxide by 'particle-corrosion'. MTT and cellular proliferation assays confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively equal human skin fibroblast cell line proliferations (approximately 75%) on both PMMA/ZnO formulation and on neat PMMA...
May 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718650/metal-tio2-nanotube-layers-for-the-treatment-of-dental-implant-infections
#8
Agata Roguska, Anna Belcarz, Justyna Zalewska, Marcin Holdynski, Mariusz Andrzejczuk, Marcin Pisarek, Grazyna Ginalska
Titanium oxide nanotubes layers with silver and zinc nanoparticles are attracting increasing attention in the design of bone and dental implants, due to their antimicrobial potential and their ability to control host cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. However, recent reports indicate that the etiology of dental infections is more complex than has been previously considered. Therefore, the antimicrobial potential of dental implants should be evaluated against at least several different microorganisms cooperating in human mouth colonization...
May 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713190/recurrent-candidal-intertrigo-challenges-and-solutions
#9
REVIEW
Ahmet Metin, Nursel Dilek, Serap Gunes Bilgili
Intertrigo is a common inflammatory dermatosis of opposing skin surfaces that can be caused by a variety of infectious agents, most notably candida, under the effect of mechanical and environmental factors. Symptoms such as pain and itching significantly decrease quality of life, leading to high morbidity. A multitude of predisposing factors, particularly obesity, diabetes mellitus, and immunosuppressive conditions facilitate both the occurrence and recurrence of the disease. The diagnosis of candidal intertrigo is usually based on clinical appearance...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706945/-candida-auris-disinfectants-and-implications-for-infection-control
#10
REVIEW
Tsun S N Ku, Carla J Walraven, Samuel A Lee
Candida auris is a rapidly emerging pathogen and is able to cause severe infections with high mortality rates. It is frequently misidentified in most clinical laboratories, thus requiring more specialized identification techniques. Furthermore, several clinical isolates have been found to be multidrug resistant and there is evidence of nosocomial transmission in outbreak fashion. Appropriate infection control measures will play a major role in controlling the management and spread of this pathogen. Unfortunately, there are very few data available on the effectiveness of disinfectants against C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705201/fungal-communities-associated-with-evernia-prunastri-ramalina-fastigiata-and-pleurosticta-acetabulum-three-epiphytic-lichens-potentially-active-against-candida-biofilms
#11
Aurélie Lagarde, Patricia Jargeat, Mélanie Roy, Marion Girardot, Christine Imbert, Marion Millot, Lengo Mambu
Fungal communities associated to three epiphytic lichens active against Candida, were investigated using culture-based methods We hypothetized that associated fungi would contribute to lichens activities. The ability of specific fungi to grow inside or outside lichens was investigated. To detect biogenesis pathways involved in the production of secondary metabolites, genes coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase I (PKS I) were screened by PCR from fungal DNA extracts. Both endo and epilichenic communities were isolated from two fructicose (Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata) and one foliose (Pleurosticta acetabulum) lichens...
June 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691333/community-development-between-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-candida-albicans-mediated-by-inlj-and-als3
#12
Maryta N Sztukowska, Lindsay C Dutton, Christopher Delaney, Mark Ramsdale, Gordon Ramage, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, Richard J Lamont
The pleiomorphic yeast Candida albicans is a significant pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. In the oral cavity, C. albicans is an inhabitant of polymicrobial communities, and interspecies interactions promote hyphal formation and biofilm formation. C. albicans colonizes the subgingival area, and the frequency of colonization increases in periodontal disease. In this study, we investigated the interactions between C. albicans and the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis C. albicans and P...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686781/salivary-metals-age-and-gender-correlate-with-cultivable-oral-candida-carriage-levels
#13
Hannah L Norris, Justin Friedman, Ziqiang Chen, Sumant Puri, Gregory Wilding, Mira Edgerton
Background : Little is known about the normal range of metal levels in unstimulated saliva, nor whether these might impact Candida carriage in healthy individuals. Both are important in determining which populations are at risk for candidiasis, as the availability of metal ions can influence the growth and pathogenesis of Candida albicans . Objective : We quantified salivary metals of healthy individuals to determine the correlation with C. albicans oral colonization. Design : Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from healthy adults and plated to determine fungal carriage, and metal content was measured using ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686548/evaluating-predictors-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-patients-with-and-without-candidemia-on-micafungin
#14
Amy Carr, Peter Colley, Mezgebe Berhe, Hoa L Nguyen
Numerous risk factors have been linked to invasive candidiasis; however, they are nonspecific and often trigger empiric antifungal therapy in a large number of patients. Identification of more precise predictors could promote judicious use of empiric echinocandins. In this retrospective review, 127 patients with blood cultures positive for Candida spp. were compared to a randomly selected cohort of 134 patients on empiric micafungin for ≥3 days and with blood cultures negative for Candida spp. Factors associated with candidemia included total parenteral nutrition (TPN; 26...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680749/syntheses-and-structure-activity-relationships-on-antibacterial-and-anti-ulcerative-colitis-properties-of-quaternary-13-substituted-palmatines-and-8-oxo-13-substituted-dihydropalmatines
#15
Li Song, Hai-Jing Zhang, An-Jun Deng, Jia Li, Xiang Li, Zhi-Hong Li, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Lian-Qiu Wu, Sheng-Qi Wang, Hai-Lin Qin
In this study, quaternary palmatine is used as a lead compound to design and synthesize derivatives to evaluate bioactivities, with twenty-seven compounds of four series being obtained. Antibacterial activity was examined by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, three series of derivatives being found to exhibit activity in vitro with significant structure-activity relationship (SAR). Elongating the carbon chain led to the antibacterial activity increased, with quaternary 13-hexanoylpalmatine chloride, quaternary 13-(ω-ethoxycarbonyl)heptylpalmatine chloride, and 8-oxo-13-(N-n-nonyl)aminomethyldihydropalmatine, all of which possess the longest aliphatic carbon chain in the corresponding series of derivatives, showing the MIC values of 62...
April 11, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668945/the-activity-of-bacterial-peptidylarginine-deiminase-is-important-during-formation-of-dual-species-biofilm-by-periodontal-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-opportunistic-fungus-candida-albicans
#16
Karkowska-Kuleta Justyna, Dominika Bartnicka, Marcin Zawrotniak, Gabriela Zielinska, Anna Kieronska, Oliwia Bochenska, Izabela Ciaston, Joanna Koziel, Jan Potempa, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium critically involved in the development of human periodontitis, belongs to the late colonizers of the oral cavity. The success of this pathogen in the host colonization and infection results from the presence of several virulence factors, including extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme that converts protein arginine residues to citrullines. A common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is also frequently identified among microorganisms that reside at subgingival sites...
April 12, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668124/a-reduced-dose-of-fluconazole-as-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-hla-identical-sibling
#17
B Sarina, J Mariotti, S Bramanti, L Morabito, R Crocchiolo, A Rimondo, F Tordato, D Pocaterra, E Casari, Chiara De Philippis, C Carlo-Stella, A Santoro, L Castagna
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a common side effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), resulting in increased non relapse mortality (NRM) and reduced overall survival (OS) rates. 75-days of Fluconazole 400 mg/day represents the standard primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) after allo-SCT, especially for low-risk transplants. However, the ideal dosage of fluconazole has never been tested. METHODS: Here we report the experience of our institution on 113 consecutive patients receiving an allo-SCT from a HLA identical sibling between 1999 and 2015, where PAP consisted of fluconazole 100 mg/day only during the pre-engraftment phase...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#18
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665838/fungal-infections-in-adult-patients-on-extracorporeal-life-support
#19
Yiorgos Alexandros Cavayas, Hakeem Yusuff, Richard Porter
BACKGROUND: Patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are often among the most severely ill in the intensive care unit. They are often receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics; they have multiple entry points for pathogens; and their immune system is impaired by blood circuit interaction. These factors are thought to predispose them to fungal infections. We thus aimed to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of fungal infections in adults on ECMO. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry, which compiles data on ECMO use from hundreds of international centers...
April 17, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661462/donor-derived-candida-dubliniensis-resulting-in-perigraft-abscesses-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient-proven-by-whole-genome-sequencing-a-case-report
#20
Y E Teh, M L T Ang, M V La, V Gunalan, C K Tan, A L Tan, R T P Lin, T T Tan, P R Jeyaraj, S Cumaraswamy, B H Tan
BACKGROUND: The transmission of fungi via transplant, although well-known, has not often been molecularly proven. We describe a case of donor-derived candidiasis verified by whole genome sequencing. CASE DESCRIPTION: The multiorgan donor was a 42-year-old woman with subdural hemorrhage. Procurement of the thoracic organs was performed followed by the abdominal organs. Tissue from the left bronchus grew Candida dubliniensis. The liver recipient was a 63-year-old woman with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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