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Candida colonization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342100/modulation-of-the-fungal-host-interaction-by-the-intra-species-diversity-of-c-albicans
#1
REVIEW
Christina Braunsdorf, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The incidence of human infections caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. The importance of the immune system in preventing overgrowth of the colonizing fungus and thereby limiting infection is well recognized and host protective mechanisms widely investigated. Only recently, it was recognized that the natural diversity in the fungal species could also influence the outcome of the interaction between the fungus and the host...
January 17, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339049/genotype-and-homology-analysis-of-pathogenic-and-colonization-strains-of-candida-albicans-from-hospitalized-neonates
#2
Jin-Zhen Su, Yu-Lan Yang, Rong Rong, Ben-Qing Wu
BACKGROUND: To detect the genotypes of pathogenic and colonization Candida albicans strains and to reveal whether there was a homologous relationship between these strains. METHODS: Pathogenic and colonization isolates were collected from infants in the NICU of Shenzhen People's Hospital (Shenzhen, People's Republic of China). rDNA identification, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and multi-loci variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were used for species confirmation, strain identification, phylogenetic tree clustering, and assessment of homology among the pathogenic and colonization strains...
December 26, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337983/wor1-establishes-opaque-cell-fate-through-inhibition-of-the-general-co-repressor-tup1-in-candida-albicans
#3
Selma S Alkafeef, Clinton Yu, Lan Huang, Haoping Liu
The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans can undergo phenotypic switching between two heritable states: white and opaque. This phenotypic plasticity facilitates its colonization in distinct host niches. The master regulator WOR1 is exclusively expressed in opaque phase cells. Positive feedback regulation by Wor1 on the WOR1 promoter is essential for opaque formation, however the underlying mechanism of how Wor1 functions is not clear. Here, we use tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry to identify Wor1-interacting proteins...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334476/biological-control-of-botrytis-cinerea-interactions-with-native-vineyard-yeasts-from-washington-state
#4
Xuefei Wang, Dean A Glawe, Elizabeth K Kramer, David M Weller, Patricia Ann Okubara
Native yeasts are of increasing interest to researchers, grape growers, and vintners because of their potential for biocontrol activity, and their contributions to the aroma, flavor and mouthfeel qualities of wines. To assess biocontrol activity, we tested 11 yeasts from Washington vineyards, representing isolates of Candida saitoana, Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, for ability to colonize 'Thompson Seedless' grape berries, inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and suppress disease symptoms on isolated berries...
January 15, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330184/microbiomes-in-dishwashers-analysis-of-the-microbial-diversity-and-putative-opportunistic-pathogens-in-dishwasher-biofilm-communities
#5
Prem Krishnan Raghupathi, Jerneja Zupančič, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Kurt Houf, Mette Burmølle, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Søren J Sørensen
Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also apply to man-made systems, for instance household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pH, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents and shear force from water during washing cycles define the microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers were investigated using next generation sequencing...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310582/identification-of-uncommon-oral-yeasts-from-cancer-patients-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#6
Narges Aslani, Ghasem Janbabaei, Mahdi Abastabar, Jacques F Meis, Mahasti Babaeian, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Teun Boekhout, Hamid Badali
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in cancer patients because of their inherent immunosuppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of yeast species from the oral cavity of patients during treatment for oncological and haematological malignancies. METHODS: MALDI-TOF was performed to identify yeasts isolated from the oral cavity of 350 cancer patients. Moreover, antifungal susceptibility testing was performed in according to CLSI guidelines (M27-A3)...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#7
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296188/alterations-in-the-mucosa-associated-fungal-microbiota-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#8
Xinyun Qiu, Jingjing Ma, Chunhua Jiao, Xiaqiong Mao, Xiaojing Zhao, Meijiao Lu, Kai Wang, Hongjie Zhang
Background: Fungi colonize the human gut and might play a key role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, studies on the fungal composition in the gut (especially adhering to the intestinal mucosa) of UC patients is limited. Results: The number of fungi decreased significantly in inflamed mucosa compared with that in HS mucosa. Fifteen major genera were examined, among which Wickerhamomyces, unidentified genus of Saccharomycetales, Aspergillus, Sterigmatomyces, and Candida showed increasing trends, whereas Exophiala, Alternaria, Emericella, Epicoccum, Acremonium, Trametes, and Penicillium showed decreasing trends in UC patients compared to the HS...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274212/drug-susceptibility-of-fungi-isolated-from-icu-patients
#9
Barbara D Modrzewska, Anna J Kurnatowska,, Katarzyna Khalid
Candida species can be a reason of infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. The risk of invasive candidosis for patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) is increased due to immunosuppressive states, prolonged length of stay, broad-spectrum antibiotics and Candida colonization. The aim of the study was to determine selected properties of fungi isolated from patients treated in the ICUs of hospitals in Lodz. The materials were collected from the oral cavity, the tracheostomy or endotracheal tube and urine from 16 children and 35 adult...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274036/synthesis-characterization-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-2-1h-benzo-d-imidazol-2-ylthio-n-substituted-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl-acetamides
#10
Snehlata Yadav, Balasubramanian Narasimhan, Siong M Lim, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Mani Vasudevan, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Manikandan Selvaraj
BACKGROUND: A series of 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)-N-(substituted 4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl) acetamides was synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by tube dilution method. The in vitro cytotoxicity study of the compounds was carried out against human colorectal (HCT116) cell line...
December 22, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259175/nlrp3-inflammasome-is-a-key-player-in-human-vulvovaginal-disease-caused-by-candida-albicans
#11
Elena Roselletti, Stefano Perito, Elena Gabrielli, Antonella Mencacci, Eva Pericolini, Samuele Sabbatini, Antonio Cassone, Anna Vecchiarelli
The expression of host inflammatory and Candida albicans putative virulence factors was studied in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; twenty) or colonized by the fungus but asymptomatic (carriers; fifteen) or non-colonized asymptomatic (ten subjects). Overexpression of genes encoding NLRP3 and caspase-1 inflammasome components sharply differentiated VVC patients from asymptomatic colonized or non-colonized women. Inflammasome expression was coupled with neutrophils recruitment in the vagina of VVC women and IL-1β and IL-8 production...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258349/genomic-identification-of-microbial-species-adhering-to-maxillofacial-prostheses-and-susceptibility-to-different-hygiene-protocols
#12
Juliana Barchelli Pinheiro, Marina Peris Vomero, Cássio do Nascimento, Evandro Watanabe, Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos, Neide Pena Coto, Reinaldo Brito Dias, Viviane Cássia de Oliveira, Cláudia Helena Silva-Lovato
This study investigated the microbial colonization of maxillofacial prostheses and support tissues using the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method, and the efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 10% Ricinus communis solutions, or brushing, on colony forming unit (CFU) reduction in monospecies biofilms (Candida glabrata, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) formed on two silicones (MDX 4-4210 and Bio-Skin). Biofilm was harvested from 43 maxillofacial prosthesis wearers for detection of 38 species of microorganisms...
December 20, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250055/the-microbiome-of-potentially-malignant-oral-leukoplakia-exhibits-enrichment-for-fusobacterium-leptotrichia-campylobacter-and-rothia-species
#13
Abdrazak Amer, Sheila Galvin, Claire M Healy, Gary P Moran
Oral leukoplakia presents as a white patch on the oral mucosa and is recognized as having significant malignant potential. Although colonization of these patches with Candida albicans is common, little is known about the bacterial microbiota of these patches. In the current study we analyzed the microbiome of oral leukoplakia in 36 patients compared to healthy mucosal tissue from the same patients and healthy control subjects to determine if specific microbial enrichments could be identified early in the malignant process that could play a role in the progression of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242834/novel-its1-fungal-primers-for-characterization-of-the-mycobiome
#14
Mykhaylo Usyk, Christine P Zolnik, Hitesh Patel, Michael H Levi, Robert D Burk
Studies of the human microbiome frequently omit characterization of fungal communities (the mycobiome), which limits our ability to investigate how fungal communities influence human health. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the eukaryotic ribosomal cluster has features allowing for wide taxonomic coverage and has been recognized as a suitable barcode region for species-level identification of fungal organisms. We developed custom ITS1 primer sets using iterative alignment refinement. Primer performance was evaluated using in silico testing and experimental testing of fungal cultures and human samples...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228383/oral-fungal-bacterial-biofilm-models-in-vitro-a-review
#15
Marlene Chevalier, Stephane Ranque, Isabelle Prêcheur
Inclusion of fungi as commensals in oral biofilm is an important innovation in oral biology, and this work aimed to review the literature on the available biofilm and related disease in vitro models. Actually, thousands of bacterial and around one hundred of fungal phylotypes can colonize the oral cavity. Taxonomic profiling combined with functional expression analysis has revealed that Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and prominent periodontopathogens are not always present or numerically important in candidiasis, caries, or periodontitis lesions...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221859/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-pact-using-toluidine-blue-o-inhibits-the-viability-of-biofilm-produced-by-candida-albicans-at-different-stages-of-development
#16
Ana Paula Pinto, Isabela Bueno Rosseti, Moisés Lopes Carvalho, Bruna Graziele Marques da Silva, Carlos Alberto-Silva, Maricilia Silva Costa
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus producing both superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It has been demonstrated that C. albicans ability to form biofilms is a crucial process for colonization and virulence. Furthermore, a correlation between the development of drug resistance and biofilm maturation at Candida biofilms has been shown. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a non-toxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells...
December 5, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211119/study-of-microbial-interaction-formed-by-candida-krusei-and-candida-glabrata-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#17
Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Fernanda Freire, Jéssica Diane Dos Santos, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Recently, the non-albicans Candida species have become recognized as an important source of infection and oral colonization by association of different species in a large number of immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilms formed in vitro and their ability to colonize the oral cavity of mouse model. Monospecies and mixed biofilms were developed of each strain, on 96-well microtiter plates for 48 h. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) and by determining cell viability, using the XTT hydroxide colorimetric assay...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210685/continuous-treatment-of-acid-red-b-with-activated-sludge-bioaugmented-by-a-yeast-candida-tropicalis-tl-f1-and-microbial-community-dynamics
#18
Jing Liu, Li Song, Tingting Jiang, Xuan Jia, Liang Tan
Continuous treatment of Acid Red B (ARB) with activated sludge (AS) bioaugmented by an azo-degrading yeast Candida tropicalis TL-F1 under aerobic conditions was investigated in the form of sequencing batch tests. Dynamics of both bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method. The results showed that bioaugmentation with the yeast TL-F1 improved the performance of AS for continuously decolorizing, degrading and detoxifying ARB...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208056/importation-mitigation-and-genomic-epidemiology-of-candida-auris-at-a-large-teaching-hospital
#19
Emil P Lesho, Melissa Z Bronstein, Patrick McGann, Jason Stam, Yoon Kwak, Rosslyn Maybank, Jodi McNamara, Megan Callahan, Jean Campbell, Mary K Hinkle, Edward E Walsh
OBJECTIVE Candida auris (CA) is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen associated with increased mortality. The environment may play a role, but transmission dynamics remain poorly understood. We sought to limit environmental and patient CA contamination following a sustained unsuspected exposure. DESIGN Quasi-experimental observation. SETTING A 528-bed teaching hospital. PATIENTS The index case patient and 17 collocated ward mates. INTERVENTION Immediately after confirmation of CA in the bloodstream and urine of a patient admitted 6 days previously, active surveillance, enhanced transmission-based precautions, environmental cleaning with peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light, and patient relocation were undertaken...
December 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199660/a-study-of-changes-in-the-oral-fungal-flora-of-patients-on-radiotherapy-for-head-and-neck-malignancies-and-their-correlation-with-funguria-and-fungemia
#20
S Raj, D Sharma, P Mate, M R Capoor, K T Bhowmik
BACKGROUND: Patients of head and neck malignancies often develop oral mucositis and invite various pathogens to colonize over it. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify the fungi isolated from patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer, to determine the antifungal susceptibility of these isolates and to determine the time and week of fungal colonization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three specimens (throat, urine, and blood) were collected from each of the head and neck cancer patients, who were advised RT...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
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