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Candida colonization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149965/comparision-of-ureteral-stent-colonization-between-deceased-and-live-donor-renal-transplant-recipients
#1
M Sarier, D Seyman, S Tekin, I Duman, B Uygun, M Demir, E Kukul, A H Yavuz
BACKGROUND: The use of a ureteral stent can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI), although it reduces urologic complications. UTIs are associated with a higher rate of ureteral stent colonization (USC). The aim of this study was to compare USC in living and deceased donor renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 48 patients who underwent renal transplantation between January and December 2016. The stents were removed aseptically, the inner surface of proximal and distal ends of stents were irrigated with liquid culture medium, and then they were vortexed for bacteriological investigation...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143452/engineering-improved-variants-of-the-antifungal-peptide-histatin-5-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-candida-albicans-secreted-aspartic-proteases-and-enhanced-antimicrobial-potency
#2
Svetlana P Ikonomova, Parisa Moghaddam-Taaheri, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk, Yan Wang, Amy J Karlsson
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a commensal organism that commonly colonizes mucosal surfaces, including those inside the human mouth. To help control C. albicans, human saliva contains the antifungal peptide histatin 5 (Hst-5), which has strong antifungal activity against C. albicans. However, the pathogen produces secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) that cleave Hst-5 at lysine residues and eliminate its antifungal properties. We designed variants of Hst-5 with its lysine residues substituted with arginine or leucine to evaluate the effect on proteolysis by Saps...
November 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142649/adherence-of-candida-to-complete-denture-surfaces-in-vitro-a-comparison-of-conventional-and-cad-cam-complete-dentures
#3
Afnan F Al-Fouzan, Lamya A Al-Mejrad, Ahmed M Albarrag
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to compare the adhesion of Candida albicans to the surfaces of CAD/CAM and conventionally fabricated complete denture bases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty discs of acrylic resin poly (methyl methacrylate) were fabricated with CAD/CAM and conventional procedures (heat-polymerized acrylic resin). The specimens were divided into two groups: 10 discs were fabricated using the CAD/CAM procedure (Wieland Digital Denture Ivoclar Vivadent), and 10 discs were fabricated using a conventional flasking and pressure-pack technique...
October 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142078/candida-auris-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Anna Jeffery-Smith, Surabhi K Taori, Silke Schelenz, Katie Jeffery, Elizabeth M Johnson, Andrew Borman, Rohini Manuel, Colin S Brown
The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on five continents. Genetic analysis indicates the simultaneous emergence of separate clades of this organism in different geographical locations. Invasive infection and colonization have been detected predominantly in patients in high-dependency settings and have garnered attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and transmission within units instituting a range of infection prevention and control measures. Issues with the identification of C...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141400/antifungal-treatment-with-echinocandins-a-10-year-clinical-experience
#5
R Poves-Alvarez, B Cano-Hernández, S Balbás-Alvarez, P Román-García, M Heredia-Rodríguez, E Gómez-Sánchez, E Gómez-Pesquera, M Lorenzo-López, B Martínez-Rafael, M F Muñoz-Moreno, J M Eiros, E Tamayo
OBJECTIVE: The number of studies evaluating the use of echinocandins, whether or not its indication meets international guidelines, in clinical practice is limited. The objective of the present study was to determine the use of echinocandins in a tertiary Spanish hospital in 10 years of clinical practice, and to evaluate its impact on prognosis. METHODS: This retrospective study involved adult nonneutropenic ill patients with suspicion of fungal invasion who started treatment with echinocandins between 2006 and 2015...
November 10, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132935/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-candidemia-caused-by-candida-parapsilosis-complex-in-a-medical-center-in-northern-taiwan
#6
Yen-Mu Wu, Po-Yen Huang, Jang-Jih Lu, Shian-Sen Shie, Jung-Jr Ye, Ting-Shu Wu, Ching-Tai Huang
To investigate the risk factors and outcomes associated with Candida parapsilosis candidemia, a retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan. Patients with C. parapsilosis candidemia and corresponding controls with C. albicans candidemia were chosen and their demographics, comorbidities, risk factors, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric system. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry was used to classify the genomic species...
October 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110065/fungi-in-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-human-and-mice-from-community-to-functions
#7
REVIEW
Jiayan Li, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Gang Tian, Zhiqing Huang, Yuheng Luo
Fungi are often ignored in studies on gut microbes because of their low level of presence (making up only 0.1% of the total microorganisms) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of monogastric animals. Recent studies using novel technologies such as next generation sequencing have expanded our understanding on the importance of intestinal fungi in humans and animals. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on the fungal community, the so-called mycobiome, and their functions from recent studies in humans and mice...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109176/candidalysin-drives-epithelial-signaling-neutrophil-recruitment-and-immunopathology-at-the-vaginal-mucosa
#8
Jonathan P Richardson, Hubertine M E Willems, David L Moyes, Saeed Shoaie, Katherine S Barker, Shir Lynn Tan, Glen E Palmer, Bernhard Hube, Julian R Naglik, Brian M Peters
Unlike other forms of candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, is a disease of immunocompetent and otherwise healthy women. Despite its prevalence, the fungal factors responsible for initiating symptomatic infection remain poorly understood. One of the hallmarks of vaginal candidiasis is the robust recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection, which seemingly do not clear the fungus, but rather exacerbate disease symptomatology. Candidalysin, a newly discovered peptide toxin secreted by C...
November 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069103/the-yeast-form-of-the-fungus-candida-albicans-promotes-persistence-in-the-gut-of-gnotobiotic-mice
#9
Lena Böhm, Sanda Torsin, Su Hlaing Tint, Marie Therese Eckstein, Tobias Ludwig, J Christian Pérez
Many microorganisms that cause systemic, life-threatening infections in humans reside as harmless commensals in our digestive tract. Yet little is known about the biology of these microbes in the gut. Here, we visualize the interface between the human commensal and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and the intestine of mice, a surrogate host. Because the indigenous mouse microbiota restricts C. albicans settlement, we compared the patterns of colonization in the gut of germ free and antibiotic-treated conventionally raised mice...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065840/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-2-pyridinyl-methylene-1-tetralone-chalcones-for-anticancer-and-antimicrobial-activity
#10
Maya Z Gibson, Minh A Nguyen, Sarah K Zingales
BACKGROUND: Chalcones, natural products produced by plants as a natural defense mechanisms against various pathogens, are molecules with structures that include two aromatic rings joined by an α, β unsaturated carbonyl system. Previous research has demonstrated that chalcones exhibit a wide variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antifungal, and antibiotic properties. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to synthesize novel heterocyclic-containing chalcones and have their biological activities evaluated...
October 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062072/development-and-regulation-of-single-and-multi-species-candida-albicans-biofilms
#11
REVIEW
Matthew B Lohse, Megha Gulati, Alexander D Johnson, Clarissa J Nobile
Candida albicans is among the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota and asymptomatically colonizes healthy individuals. However, it is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe, and often fatal, bloodstream infections. The medical impact of C. albicans typically depends on its ability to form biofilms, which are closely packed communities of cells that attach to surfaces, such as tissues and implanted medical devices. In this Review, we provide an overview of the processes involved in the formation of C...
October 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047302/a-self-assembled-clavanin-a-coated-amniotic-membrane-scaffold-for-the-prevention-of-biofilm-formation-by-ocular-surface-fungal-pathogens
#12
Santi M Mandal, Jahangir Khan, Denial Mahata, Suman Saha, Jayangshu Sengupta, Osmar N Silva, Subhayan Das, Mahitosh Mandal, Octavio L Franco
Amniotic membrane (AM) is frequently used in ophthalmologic surgery for rapid ocular surface reconstruction. Sometimes it may create a major problem with associated infections after biofilm formation over the membrane. To overcome this problem, AM was coated with the antimicrobial peptide clavanin A. The antifungal activity of clavanin A in the native and self-assembled form was determined against the common ocular surface pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. Biofilm formation over the coated surface was significantly reduced in comparison with the uncoated membrane...
October 19, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043360/synthesis-photophysical-and-biological-properties-of-a-new-oxazolone-fluorescent-probe-for-bioimaging-an-experimental-and-theoretical-study
#13
Przemysław Krawczyk, Beata Jędrzejewska, Piotr Cysewski, Tomasz Janek
In this study, a new oxazolone derivative 4-{N,N-bis[2-phenyl-4-benzylidene-1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-one]amino}benzaldehyde (PB3) was synthesized and investigated as a fluorescent dye. The spectroscopic properties in different solvents were thoroughly studied. The experimental data were supported by quantum-chemical calculations using density functional theory. Measurements and theoretical calculations showed that the PB3 dye is characterized by non-monotonic solvatochromism, a strongly polar charge transfer excited state, a large Stokes' shift, a high fluorescence quantum yield and a high fluorescence lifetime...
October 31, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042733/effect-of-melaleuca-alternifolia-mixed-with-tissue-conditioners-in-varying-doses-on-colonization-and-inhibition-of-candida-albicans-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Siva Kumar Vankadara, Rajendra Basavaraj Hallikerimath, Viraj Patil, Kishore Bhat, Mallikarjun Hanumantappa Doddamani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to evaluate the Colonization & Inhibition of Candida albicans in selected commercially available denture lining materials material by mixing them with varying concentrations and doses of tea tree oil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five test discs of 10mm diameter and 1.5mm thickness were prepared using commercially available soft denture lining materials (Viscogel and GC-soft). Tea tree oil of varying concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and doses (0...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030877/candida-albicans-possess-a-highly-versatile-and-dynamic-high-affinity-iron-transport-system-important-for-its-commensal-pathogenic-lifestyle
#15
Zeinab Mamouei, Guisheng Zeng, Yan-Ming Wang, Yue Wang
Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all organisms, but iron overdose is toxic. The human commensal-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans traverses host niches with markedly different iron availability. During systemic infection, C. albicans must activate the high-affinity iron permease Ftr1 to acquire iron sequestered by the host's iron-withholding defense and suppresses iron uptake while residing in the iron-rich gut to avoid toxicity. Ftr1 associates with a ferroxidase to form an iron transporter. C. albicans contains four permease and five ferroxidase homologs, suggesting 20 possible subunit combinations...
October 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029700/lipid-components-of-bile-increase-the-protective-effect-of-conjugated-bile-salts-against-antifungal-drugs
#16
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Matthias Brock
Fungi and bacteria can persist in the human gall bladder. Previous studies have shown that bile protects Candida albicans in this cryptic host niche from antifungals, providing a reservoir for intestinal re-colonization after discontinuation of antifungal therapy. Bile and conjugated bile salts trap antifungals in micelles, thereby reducing their bioavailability and possibly promoting the development of drug resistance. Here we show that the protective effect of bile and conjugated bile salts is not limited to C...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022661/-candida-in-urine-colonization-infection-when-and-how-to-treat
#17
Laurent Christin
Candida is frequently found in urine cultures. Deciding whether this represents simple colonization or true infection is often difficult since Candida is a normal genital and urinary tract commensal. Urinary tract colonization is facilitated by well identified risk factors. The diagnostic of a true infection relies upon the identification of the usual clinical signs which cannot be attributed to another pathogen ; also, plasma level of beta-D-glucan can contribute to confirm the diagnostic. Treatment success depends upon the possibility to correct the risk factors and appropriate anti-fungal therapy according to in vitro susceptibility testing...
October 11, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020224/approach-to-the-investigation-and-management-of-patients-with-candida-auris-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-yeast
#18
Sharon Tsay, Alexander Kallen, Brendan R Jackson, Tom M Chiller, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread in healthcare settings. It can cause invasive infections with high mortality and is difficult to identify using traditional yeast identification methods. C. auris has been reported in over a dozen countries, and as of July 2017, 99 clinical cases have been reported in the United States;.C. auris can colonize skin and persist in the healthcare environment, allowing for transmission between patients. Prompt investigation and aggressive interventions, including notification of public health agencies, implementation of contact precautions, thorough environmental cleaning and disinfection, infection control assessments, contact tracing and screening contacts to assess for colonization, and retrospective review of microbiology records and prospective surveillance for cases at laboratories are all needed to limit the spread of C...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992352/in-vivo-pathogenicity-of-trichosporon-asahii-isolates-with-different-in-vitro-enzymatic-profiles-in-an-immunocompetent-murine-model-of-systemic-trichosporonosis
#19
Alexandra M Montoya, Carolina E Luna-Rodríguez, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Miguel Becerril-García, Raquel G Ballesteros-Elizondo, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Gloria M González
Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic yeastlike fungus that colonizes the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and human skin. Although it is an important cause of disseminated infections by non-Candida species, there are a few reports related to its virulence factors and their possible role in in vivo pathogenicity. We developed a murine model of disseminated trichosporonosis in immunocompetent mice for the evaluation of the in vivo pathogenicity of 6 T. asahii isolates with different in vitro virulence factor profiles...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971865/the-gastrointestinal-tract-is-a-major-source-of-echinocandin-drug-resistance-in-a-murine-model-of-candida-glabrata-colonization-and-systemic-dissemination
#20
Kelley R Healey, Yoji Nagasaki, Matthew Zimmerman, Milena Kordalewska, Steven Park, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Candida species are a part of the human microbiome and can cause systemic infection upon immune suppression. C. glabrata infections are increasing and have greater rates of antifungal resistance compared to other species. Here, we present a C. glabrata gastrointestinal (GI) colonization model to explore whether colonized yeast exposed to caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal, develop characteristic resistance mutations, and upon immunosuppression, breakthrough causing systemic infection. Daily therapeutic dosing (5 mg/kg) of caspofungin resulted in no reduction in fecal burdens, organ breakthrough rates similar to control groups, and resistance rates (0-10%) similar to those reported clinically...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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