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Candida colonization

T Didbaridze, L Saginashvili, L Akhmeteli, B Iremashvili, N Gogokhia
This study provides a contemporary epidemiology of aspirates taken during surgery from the abdominal cavity among patients with bacterial peritonitis to identify the isolates and study their sensitivity to antibiotics. Our bacteriology investigations included isolation of poor cultures, and detection of microbes was conducted using a rapid identification system (API20E, API Staph, API Strep, API Ana, BioMerieux). Rapid tests for detection of oxidase and catalase activity were also used. Susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics was defined by the disc-diffusion method using standard discs (EUCAST guidelines 2015) according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) protocols (ATB strips: ATB G, ATB Staph, ATBANA, ATBPse, ATBStrep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Ricardo Ferrer, Rafael Zaragoza, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Llinares, Santiago Grau, Francisco Álvarez-Lerma, Guillermo Quindós, Miguel Salavert, Rafael Huarte
BACKGROUND: Although the management of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding the approach to invasive fungal infection in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. AIMS: To identify the essential clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus necessary for the management of IFI in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. METHODS: A prospective, Spanish questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists (intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases) in IFI and belonging to six scientific national societies...
October 18, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Tchana Martinez Brandolt, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Laura Riffel Bitencourt, Ana Maria Barral de Martinez, Josiara Furtado Mendes, Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Frank Schwarz, Kathrin Becker, Sebastian Rahn, Andrea Hegewald, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
BACKGROUND: The potential role of fungal organisms and their co-aggregation with either periodontopathogens or opportunistic pathogens at peri-implantitis sites is unknown. The aim of the present study was to qualitatively/quantitatively analyze and correlate fungal organisms and bacterial species at peri-implantitis sites. METHODS: In a total of 29 patients, submucosal/subgingival plaque samples were collected at peri-implantitis and healthy implant sites as well as teeth with a history of periodontitis (controls)...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Heather E Hallen-Adams, Mallory J Suhr
Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented foods but cannot grow at human body temperature), while still others have dietary or environmental sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation agent and sometime probiotic; Aspergillus species, ubiquitous molds) yet are likely to impact gut ecology...
October 13, 2016: Virulence
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Vandana Sharma, Rajaram Purushotham, Rupinder Kaur
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and produces PI3P, has been implicated in protein trafficking, intracellular survival and virulence in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata Here, we demonstrate PI3-kinase (CgVps34) to be essential for maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis. We examine how CgVps34 regulates the fundamental process of iron acquisition, and underscore its function in vesicular trafficking as a central determinant. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed iron homeostasis genes to be differentially expressed upon CgVps34 disruption...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Dhammika H M L P Navarathna, Ruvini U Pathirana, Michail S Lionakis, Kenneth W Nickerson, David D Roberts
Formation of chlamydospores by Candida albicans was an established medical diagnostic test to confirm candidiasis before the molecular era. However, the functional role and pathological relevance of this in vitro morphological transition to pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. We compared the physical properties of in vitro-induced chlamydospores with those of large C. albicans cells purified by density gradient centrifugation from Candida-infected mouse kidneys. The morphological and physical properties of these cells in kidneys of mice infected intravenously with wild type C...
2016: PloS One
Elisenda Martori, Raúl Ayuso-Montero, Eva Willaert, Miguel Viñas, Maria Peraire, Jordi Martinez-Gomis
PURPOSE: Colonization by Candida is related to wearing a denture. How denture type, status, and maintenance play a role in determining Candida colonization remains unknown. This work evaluated removable denture status in an elderly population and explored the association between denture-related factors and oral Candida colonization as determined by systemic and local factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Socio-demographic, general health, and behavioral data and oral factors were registered by means of a questionnaire...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Wei Liu, Zui Zou, Xin Huang, Hui Shen, Li Juan He, Si Min Chen, Li Ping Li, Lan Yan, Shi Qun Zhang, Jun Dong Zhang, Zheng Xu, Guo Tong Xu, Mao Mao An, Yuan Ying Jiang
Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. While the function of inositol deacylation of GPI-APs in mammalian cells has been previously characterized the impact of inositol deacylation in fungi and implications to host infection remains largely unexplored. Herein we describe our identification of BST1, an inositol deacylase of GPI-Aps in Candida albicans, was critical for GPI-APs cell wall attachment and host infection. BST1-deficient C...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Manpreet K Dhami, Thomas Hartwig, Tadashi Fukami
Priority effects, in which the order of species arrival dictates community assembly, can have a major influence on species diversity, but the genetic basis of priority effects remains unknown. Here, we suggest that nitrogen scavenging genes previously considered responsible for starvation avoidance may drive priority effects by causing rapid resource depletion. Using single-molecule sequencing, we de novo assembled the genome of the nectar-colonizing yeast, Metschnikowia reukaufii, across eight scaffolds and complete mitochondrion, with gap-free coverage over gene spaces...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jean-Francois Timsit, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Muriel Cornet, Bertrand Souweine, Kada Klouche, Samir Jaber, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Fabrice Bruneel, Laurent Argaud, Joel Cousson, Ferhat Meziani, Didier Gruson, Adeline Paris, Michael Darmon, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Jean-Christophe Navellou, Arnaud Foucrier, Bernard Allaouchiche, Vincent Das, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Stéphane Ruckly, Daniele Maubon, Vincent Jullien, Michel Wolff
Importance: Although frequently used in treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis, empirical antifungal therapy, initiated for suspected fungal infection, has not been shown to improve outcome. Objective: To determine whether empirical micafungin reduces invasive fungal infection (IFI)-free survival at day 28. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study of 260 nonneutropenic, nontransplanted, critically ill patients with ICU-acquired sepsis, multiple Candida colonization, multiple organ failure, exposed to broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, and enrolled between July 2012 and February 2015 in 19 French ICUs...
October 5, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Carina Ferreira, Bruna Gonçalves, Diana Vilas Boas, Hugo Oliveira, Mariana Henriques, Joana Azeredo, Sónia Silva
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to investigate the role of pH on C. tropicalis virulence determinants, namely the ability to form biofilms and to colonize/invade reconstituted human vaginal epithelia. METHODS: Biofilm formation was evaluated by enumeration of cultivable cells, total biomass quantification and structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. C. tropicalis human vaginal epithelium colonization and invasiveness were examined qualitatively by epifluorescence microscopy and quantitatively by a novel qPCR protocol for Candida quantification in tissues...
October 4, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Kevin Felipe Cruz Martho, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Juliana Possato Fernandes Takahashi, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Dayane Cristina da Silva Santos, Sônia Ueda Purisco, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Raquel Dos Anjos Fazioli, Clerlune Phanord, Patrícia Sartorelli, Marcelo A Vallim, Renata C Pascon
Fungal opportunistic pathogens colonize various environments, from plants and wood to human and animal tissue. Regarding human pathogens, one great challenge during contrasting niche occupation is the adaptation to different conditions, such as temperature, osmolarity, salinity, pressure, oxidative stress and nutritional availability, which may constitute sources of stress that need to be tolerated and overcome. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. neoformans faces exactly these situations during the transition from the environment to the human host, encountering nutritional constraints...
2016: PloS One
Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Ry Martin, Inês Correia, Ana Cecilia Mesa Arango, Rebeca Alonso-Monge, Oscar Zaragoza, Jesús Pla
AIM: To investigate the role of Cat1 overproduction in Candida albicans. MATERIALS & METHODS: Strains overproducing the CAT1 gene were constructed. RESULTS: Cells overproducing CAT1 were found to be more resistant to some oxidants and mammalian phagocytic cells. They also showed reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by amphotericin B or ciclopirox olamine. CAT1 overproduction did not change the minimum inhibitory concentration of fungal cells to fungistatic or fungicidal azoles nor to amphotericin B although increased twofold the minimum inhibitory concentration to caspofungin...
October 3, 2016: Future Microbiology
Ana L Costa, Branca M A Silva, Rui Soares, Diana Mota, Vera Alves, Alice Mirante, João C Ramos, João Maló de Abreu, Manuel Santos-Rosa, Francisco Caramelo, Teresa Gonçalves
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is considered a risk factor associated with oral yeast infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yeast oral carriage (in saliva and mucosal surface) of children with T1D and potential relation with host factors, particularly the subset of CD4+ T cells. Yeasts were quantified and identified in stimulated saliva and in cheek mucosal swabs of 133 diabetic T1D and 72 healthy control subjects. Salivary lymphocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The presence of yeasts in the oral cavity (60% of total patients) was not affected by diabetes, metabolic control, duration of the disease, salivary flow rate or saliva buffer capacity, by age, sex, place of residence, number of daily meals, consumption of sweets or frequency of tooth brushing...
September 24, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Cen Jiang, Zhen Li, Lihua Zhang, Yuan Tian, Danfeng Dong, Yibing Peng
Recently, the proportion of Candida tropicalis in clinical isolates has significantly increased. Some C. tropicalis strains colonize the skin or mucosal surfaces as commensals; others trigger invasive infection. To date, the pathogenicity of C. tropicalis has not been thoroughly researched. This study reports several virulence factors, including biofilm and hyphae formation, proteinase, phospholipase, lipase and hemolytic activity, in 52 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis collected from five hospitals in four provinces of China...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Weini Xin, Katherine Chiu Man Leung, Edward Chin Man Lo, Mo Yin Mok, Moon Ho Leung
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients are prone to caries development due to reduction of salivary flow. Topical fluoride is commonly prescribed for caries prevention. METHODS: In this 24-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, SS patients were randomly assigned to receive either fluoride varnish or placebo gel quarterly. Development and arrest of caries at the coronal and root surfaces were recorded at 12-month and 24-month and compared to that of the baseline...
2016: BMC Oral Health
Isadora Clark-Ordóñez, Olga A Callejas-Negrete, Elva T Aréchiga-Carvajal, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez
Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of carriers of Candida, Candida species diversity, and in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In 297 HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico, Candida strains were identified by molecular methods (PCR-RFLP) from isolates of oral rinses of patients in Tijuana, Mexicali, and Ensenada. 56.3% of patients were colonized or infected with Candida In Tijuana, there was a significantly higher percentage of carriers (75...
September 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Michael B Winter, Eugenia C Salcedo, Matthew B Lohse, Nairi Hartooni, Megha Gulati, Hiram Sanchez, Julie Takagi, Bernhard Hube, David R Andes, Alexander D Johnson, Charles S Craik, Clarissa J Nobile
UNLABELLED: Candida albicans is a fungal species that is part of the normal human microbiota and also an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans cells proliferate in a planktonic (suspension) state, but they also form biofilms, organized and tightly packed communities of cells attached to a solid surface. Biofilms colonize many niches of the human body and persist on implanted medical devices, where they are a major source of new C. albicans infections...
2016: MBio
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