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Placenta acetylcholine

Atqiya Aishah, Tina Hinton, Rita Machaalani
The β1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is a muscle type subunit of this family and as such, is found predominantly in muscle. Recent reports document its expression in other tissues and cell lines including adrenal glands, carcinomas, lung and brain. However, the majority of studies were of tissue lysates, thus the cellular distribution was not determined. This study aimed to determine the cellular distribution of the β1 nAChR subunit in the brain, at both the mRNA and protein levels, using non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively, and to compare it to two muscle tissue types, skeletal and placenta...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Ignaz Wessler, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Bacteria and archaea synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). Thus it can be postulated that ACh was created by nature roughly 3 billion years ago. Therefore, the wide expression of ACh in nature (i.e. in bacteria, archaea, unicellular organisms, plants, fungi, non-vertebrates and vertebrates and the abundance of non-neuronal cells of mammals) is not surprising. The term non-neuronal ACh and non-neuronal cholinergic system have been introduced to describe the auto- and paracrine, i.e. local regulatory actions of cells not innervated by neuronal cholinergic fibers to communicate among themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas DE Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Yuanyuan Liu, Jinying Yang, Junjie Bao, Xiaolan Li, Aihua Ye, Guozheng Zhang, Huishu Liu
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) exerts a more intense systemic inflammatory response than normal pregnancy. Recently, the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in regulating inflammation has been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying it. METHODS: Rats were administered LPS (1...
January 2017: Placenta
Junjie Bao, Yuanyuan Liu, Jinying Yang, Qiu Gao, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
INTRODUCTION: Previous work conducted by our group has shown that nicotine reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory responses and protects fetuses in pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the influence of nicotine on rat placenta, including cytokine release, leukocyte infiltration, and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) expression. METHODS: Placental tissues of SD rats on gestation day 14 (GD14) were obtained and cultured in the presence or absence of LPS and/or nicotine...
March 2016: Placenta
Courtney Townsel, Rebecca Keller, Kendall Johnson, Naveed Hussain, Winston A Campbell
Background Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder with fluctuating muscle weakness, divided into generalized and localized (ocular) forms. Maternal antibodies to acetylcholine receptors cross the placenta and may cause transient neonatal myasthenia gravis (TNMG). We present a case of seronegative maternal ocular MG and delayed TNMG. Case A 29-year-old G3P1011 underwent cesarean birth of a male infant who developed oxygen desaturation requiring supplemental oxygen on day of life (DOL) 3. Based on the clinical course and after exclusion of other diagnoses, the infant was diagnosed with TNMG...
March 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Heidi K Baumgartner, Kinsey M Trinder, Carly E Galimanis, Annalisa Post, Tzu Phang, Randal G Ross, Virginia D Winn
INTRODUCTION: The developing fetus relies on the maternal blood supply to provide the choline it requires for making membrane lipids, synthesizing acetylcholine, and performing important methylation reactions. It is vital, therefore, that the placenta is efficient at transporting choline from the maternal to the fetal circulation. Although choline transporters have been found in term placenta samples, little is known about what cell types express specific choline transporters and how expression of the transporters may change over gestation...
December 2015: Placenta
Victor M Pulgar, Liliya M Yamaleyeva, Jasmina Varagic, Carolynne McGee, Michael Bader, Ralf Dechend, K Bridget Brosnihan
The pregnant female human angiotensinogen (hAGN) transgenic rat mated with the male human renin (hREN) transgenic rat is a model of preeclampsia (TgA) with increased blood pressure, proteinuria, and placenta alterations of edema and necrosis at late gestation. We studied vascular responses and the role of COX-derived prostanoids in the uterine artery (UA) at early gestation in this model. TgA UA showed lower stretch response, similar smooth muscle α-actin content, and lower collagen content compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) UA...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Emma Ghazavi, Rona David, Tina Hinton, Angela Makris, Annemarie Hennessy, Rita Machaalani
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, prematurity and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major constituent of cigarette smoke, binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To date, 16 mammalian nAChR subunits have been identified. The effect of smoking on these subunits in human placenta has not yet been determined. Smoking is also associated with reduced pre-eclampsia (PE) risk and its protective effects may occur via changes in nAChRs...
April 2013: Pregnancy Hypertension
D Paparini, S Gori, E Grasso, W Scordo, G Calo, C Pérez Leirós, R Ramhorst, G Salamone
BACKGROUND: Maternal antigen-presenting cells attracted to the pregnant uterus interact with trophoblast cells and modulate their functional profile to favour immunosuppressant responses. Non-neuronal cholinergic system is expressed in human cytotrophoblast cells and in immune cells with homeostatic regulatory functions. AIM: The aim of this work was to evaluate whether non-neuronal acetylcholine conditions maternal monocyte and DC migration and activation profiles...
June 2015: Acta Physiologica
Rita Machaalani, Emma Ghazavi, Rona Victoria David, Tina Hinton, Angela Makris, Annemarie Hennessy
OBJECTIVE: The role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in pre-eclampsia is unknown. Given that ACh levels are affected in pre-eclampsia, it has been suggested that compensatory changes in nAChR expression may ensue. This study aimed to determine the effects of pre-eclampsia on the mRNA and protein expression of 12 mammalian nAChR subunits. METHODS: Placentas were collected from healthy term pregnancies (n = 8) and pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (n = 7), both being non-cigarette smoke exposed to rule out any role of nicotine...
May 2015: Hypertension in Pregnancy
Vijayakumar Chinnathambi, Chellakkan S Blesson, Kathleen L Vincent, George R Saade, Gary D Hankins, Chandra Yallampalli, Kunju Sathishkumar
Elevated testosterone levels increase maternal blood pressure and decrease uterine blood flow in pregnancy, resulting in abnormal perinatal outcomes. We tested whether elevated testosterone alters uterine artery adaptations during pregnancy, and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors such as nitric oxide, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and prostacyclin, or endothelium-independent mechanisms such as angiotensin II (Ang-II). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=20) or testosterone propionate (0...
August 2014: Hypertension
R Machaalani, E Ghazavi, T Hinton, K A Waters, A Hennessy
Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8)...
May 1, 2014: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Anna M Lavezzi, Melissa F Corna, Graziella Alfonsi, Luigi Matturri
BACKGROUND: It is well known that maternal smoking during pregnancy is very harmful to the fetus. Prenatal nicotine absorption, in particular, is associated with alterations in lung development and functions at birth and with respiratory disorders in infancy. Many of the pulmonary disorders are mediated by the interaction of nicotine with the nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), above all with the α7 nAChR subunits that are widely expressed in the developing lung. To determine whether the lung hypoplasia frequently observed in victims of sudden fetal and neonatal death with a smoker mother may result from nicotine interacting with lung nicotinic receptors, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the possible presence of the α7 nAChR subunit overexpression in these pathologies...
2014: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Sean Leonard, Patricia D A Lima, B Anne Croy, Coral L Murrant
Dynamic control of maternal blood flow to the placenta is critical for healthy pregnancy. In many tissues, microvasculature arteries control the flow. The uterine/endometrial vascular bed changes during pregnancy include physiological remodeling of spiral arteries from constricted artery-like structures to dilated vein-like structures between Gestation Day 8 (gd8) and gd12 in mice and wk 12-16 in humans. These changes occur, in part, due to local environmental changes such as decidualization, recruitment of maternal uterine natural killer cells, and invasion of conceptus-derived trophoblasts...
December 2013: Biology of Reproduction
Natalia I Gokina, Siu-Lung Chan, Abbie C Chapman, Karen Oppenheimer, Thomas L Jetton, Marilyn J Cipolla
Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity is thought to have a major role in preeclampsia through abnormal placental development. However, the role of PPARγ in adaptation of the uteroplacental vasculature that may lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy is not known. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11/group) were treated during the second half of pregnancy with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day in food) or vehicle. Pregnancy outcome and PPARγ mRNA, vasodilation and structural remodeling were determined in maternal uterine and mesenteric arteries...
2013: Frontiers in Physiology
Norie Arima, Yoshimi Uchida, Ruoxing Yu, Koh Nakayama, Hiroshi Nishina
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) are critical components of the cholinergic system, which is the key regulator of both the central and peripheral nervous systems in mammals. Interestingly, several components of the cholinergic system, including mAchRs and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), have recently been found to be expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and human placenta. These results raise the intriguing possibility that mAchRs play physiological roles in the regulation of early embryogenesis...
June 7, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Giovanni Piedimonte, Cheryl Walton, Lennie Samsell
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposure to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of respiratory infections in infants, but it remains unknown whether this infection is transmitted transplacentally from the lungs of infected mothers to the offspring. We sought to test the hypothesis that RSV travels from the respiratory tract during pregnancy, crosses the placenta to the fetus, persists in the lung tissues of the offspring, and modulates pre- and postnatal expression of growth factors, thereby predisposing to airway hyperreactivity...
2013: PloS One
Natalia I Gokina, Adrian D Bonev, Alexander P Gokin, Gabriela Goloman
Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy is associated with impaired endothelium-mediated dilatation of maternal arteries, although the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that diabetes during rat gestation attenuates agonist-induced uterine vasodilation through reduced endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+) elevations and impaired smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperpolarization and SMC intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) responses. Diabetes was induced by an injection of streptozotocin to second-day pregnant rats and confirmed by the development of maternal hyperglycemia...
April 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Xinyin Jiang, Haim Y Bar, Jian Yan, Sara Jones, Patsy M Brannon, Allyson A West, Cydne A Perry, Anita Ganti, Eva Pressman, Srisatish Devapatla, Francoise Vermeylen, Martin T Wells, Marie A Caudill
This study investigated the influence of maternal choline intake on the human placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy pregnant women (n=26, wk 26-29 gestation) were randomized to 480 mg choline/d, an intake level approximating the adequate intake of 450 mg/d, or 930 mg/d for 12 wk. Maternal blood and placental samples were retrieved at delivery. Whole genome expression microarrays were used to identify placental genes and biological processes impacted by maternal choline intake...
March 2013: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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