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Placenta acetylcholine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992678/nicotine-inhibits-lps-induced-cytokine-production-and-leukocyte-infiltration-in-rat-placenta
#1
Junjie Bao, Yuanyuan Liu, Jinying Yang, Qiu Gao, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
INTRODUCTION: Previous work conducted by our group has shown that nicotine reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory responses and protects fetuses in pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the influence of nicotine on rat placenta, including cytokine release, leukocyte infiltration, and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) expression. METHODS: Placental tissues of SD rats on gestation day 14 (GD14) were obtained and cultured in the presence or absence of LPS and/or nicotine...
March 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989568/seronegative-maternal-ocular-myasthenia-gravis-and-delayed-transient-neonatal-myasthenia-gravis
#2
Courtney Townsel, Rebecca Keller, Kendall Johnson, Naveed Hussain, Winston A Campbell
Background Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder with fluctuating muscle weakness, divided into generalized and localized (ocular) forms. Maternal antibodies to acetylcholine receptors cross the placenta and may cause transient neonatal myasthenia gravis (TNMG). We present a case of seronegative maternal ocular MG and delayed TNMG. Case A 29-year-old G3P1011 underwent cesarean birth of a male infant who developed oxygen desaturation requiring supplemental oxygen on day of life (DOL) 3. Based on the clinical course and after exclusion of other diagnoses, the infant was diagnosed with TNMG...
March 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26601765/characterization-of-choline-transporters-in-the-human-placenta-over-gestation
#3
Heidi K Baumgartner, Kinsey M Trinder, Carly E Galimanis, Annalisa Post, Tzu Phang, Randal G Ross, Virginia D Winn
INTRODUCTION: The developing fetus relies on the maternal blood supply to provide the choline it requires for making membrane lipids, synthesizing acetylcholine, and performing important methylation reactions. It is vital, therefore, that the placenta is efficient at transporting choline from the maternal to the fetal circulation. Although choline transporters have been found in term placenta samples, little is known about what cell types express specific choline transporters and how expression of the transporters may change over gestation...
December 2015: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26394667/functional-changes-in-the-uterine-artery-precede-the-hypertensive-phenotype-in-a-transgenic-model-of-hypertensive-pregnancy
#4
Victor M Pulgar, Liliya M Yamaleyeva, Jasmina Varagic, Carolynne McGee, Michael Bader, Ralf Dechend, K Bridget Brosnihan
The pregnant female human angiotensinogen (hAGN) transgenic rat mated with the male human renin (hREN) transgenic rat is a model of preeclampsia (TgA) with increased blood pressure, proteinuria, and placenta alterations of edema and necrosis at late gestation. We studied vascular responses and the role of COX-derived prostanoids in the uterine artery (UA) at early gestation in this model. TgA UA showed lower stretch response, similar smooth muscle α-actin content, and lower collagen content compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) UA...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26105867/pp007-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-the-pre-eclamptic-and-cigarette-smoke-exposed-human-placenta
#5
Emma Ghazavi, Rona David, Tina Hinton, Angela Makris, Annemarie Hennessy, Rita Machaalani
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, prematurity and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major constituent of cigarette smoke, binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To date, 16 mammalian nAChR subunits have been identified. The effect of smoking on these subunits in human placenta has not yet been determined. Smoking is also associated with reduced pre-eclampsia (PE) risk and its protective effects may occur via changes in nAChRs...
April 2013: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819434/acetylcholine-contributes-to-control-the-physiological-inflammatory-response-during-the-peri-implantation-period
#6
D Paparini, S Gori, E Grasso, W Scordo, G Calo, C Pérez Leirós, R Ramhorst, G Salamone
BACKGROUND: Maternal antigen-presenting cells attracted to the pregnant uterus interact with trophoblast cells and modulate their functional profile to favour immunosuppressant responses. Non-neuronal cholinergic system is expressed in human cytotrophoblast cells and in immune cells with homeostatic regulatory functions. AIM: The aim of this work was to evaluate whether non-neuronal acetylcholine conditions maternal monocyte and DC migration and activation profiles...
June 2015: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25699474/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachr-are-increased-in-the-pre-eclamptic-placenta
#7
Rita Machaalani, Emma Ghazavi, Rona Victoria David, Tina Hinton, Angela Makris, Annemarie Hennessy
OBJECTIVE: The role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in pre-eclampsia is unknown. Given that ACh levels are affected in pre-eclampsia, it has been suggested that compensatory changes in nAChR expression may ensue. This study aimed to determine the effects of pre-eclampsia on the mRNA and protein expression of 12 mammalian nAChR subunits. METHODS: Placentas were collected from healthy term pregnancies (n = 8) and pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (n = 7), both being non-cigarette smoke exposed to rule out any role of nicotine...
May 2015: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24842922/elevated-testosterone-levels-during-rat-pregnancy-cause-hypersensitivity-to-angiotensin-ii-and-attenuation-of-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-uterine-arteries
#8
Vijayakumar Chinnathambi, Chellakkan S Blesson, Kathleen L Vincent, George R Saade, Gary D Hankins, Chandra Yallampalli, Kunju Sathishkumar
Elevated testosterone levels increase maternal blood pressure and decrease uterine blood flow in pregnancy, resulting in abnormal perinatal outcomes. We tested whether elevated testosterone alters uterine artery adaptations during pregnancy, and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors such as nitric oxide, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and prostacyclin, or endothelium-independent mechanisms such as angiotensin II (Ang-II). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=20) or testosterone propionate (0...
August 2014: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24607864/cigarette-smoking-during-pregnancy-regulates-the-expression-of-specific-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunits-in-the-human-placenta
#9
R Machaalani, E Ghazavi, T Hinton, K A Waters, A Hennessy
Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8)...
May 1, 2014: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24484641/possible-role-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors-in-mediating-nicotine-s-effect-on-developing-lung-implications-in-unexplained-human-perinatal-death
#10
Anna M Lavezzi, Melissa F Corna, Graziella Alfonsi, Luigi Matturri
BACKGROUND: It is well known that maternal smoking during pregnancy is very harmful to the fetus. Prenatal nicotine absorption, in particular, is associated with alterations in lung development and functions at birth and with respiratory disorders in infancy. Many of the pulmonary disorders are mediated by the interaction of nicotine with the nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), above all with the α7 nAChR subunits that are widely expressed in the developing lung. To determine whether the lung hypoplasia frequently observed in victims of sudden fetal and neonatal death with a smoker mother may result from nicotine interacting with lung nicotinic receptors, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the possible presence of the α7 nAChR subunit overexpression in these pathologies...
2014: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24174571/gestational-modification-of-murine-spiral-arteries-does-not-reduce-their-drug-induced-vasoconstrictive-responses-in-vivo
#11
Sean Leonard, Patricia D A Lima, B Anne Croy, Coral L Murrant
Dynamic control of maternal blood flow to the placenta is critical for healthy pregnancy. In many tissues, microvasculature arteries control the flow. The uterine/endometrial vascular bed changes during pregnancy include physiological remodeling of spiral arteries from constricted artery-like structures to dilated vein-like structures between Gestation Day 8 (gd8) and gd12 in mice and wk 12-16 in humans. These changes occur, in part, due to local environmental changes such as decidualization, recruitment of maternal uterine natural killer cells, and invasion of conceptus-derived trophoblasts...
December 2013: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23888144/inhibition-of-ppar%C3%AE-during-rat-pregnancy-causes-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-attenuation-of-uterine-vasodilation
#12
Natalia I Gokina, Siu-Lung Chan, Abbie C Chapman, Karen Oppenheimer, Thomas L Jetton, Marilyn J Cipolla
Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity is thought to have a major role in preeclampsia through abnormal placental development. However, the role of PPARγ in adaptation of the uteroplacental vasculature that may lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy is not known. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11/group) were treated during the second half of pregnancy with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day in food) or vehicle. Pregnancy outcome and PPARγ mRNA, vasodilation and structural remodeling were determined in maternal uterine and mesenteric arteries...
2013: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23665324/acetylcholine-receptors-regulate-gene-expression-that-is-essential-for-primitive-streak-formation-in-murine-embryoid-bodies
#13
Norie Arima, Yoshimi Uchida, Ruoxing Yu, Koh Nakayama, Hiroshi Nishina
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) are critical components of the cholinergic system, which is the key regulator of both the central and peripheral nervous systems in mammals. Interestingly, several components of the cholinergic system, including mAchRs and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), have recently been found to be expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and human placenta. These results raise the intriguing possibility that mAchRs play physiological roles in the regulation of early embryogenesis...
June 7, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23637810/vertical-transmission-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-modulates-pre-and-postnatal-innervation-and-reactivity-of-rat-airways
#14
Giovanni Piedimonte, Cheryl Walton, Lennie Samsell
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposure to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of respiratory infections in infants, but it remains unknown whether this infection is transmitted transplacentally from the lungs of infected mothers to the offspring. We sought to test the hypothesis that RSV travels from the respiratory tract during pregnancy, crosses the placenta to the fetus, persists in the lung tissues of the offspring, and modulates pre- and postnatal expression of growth factors, thereby predisposing to airway hyperreactivity...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23376827/role-of-impaired-endothelial-cell-ca-2-signaling-in-uteroplacental-vascular-dysfunction-during-diabetic-rat-pregnancy
#15
Natalia I Gokina, Adrian D Bonev, Alexander P Gokin, Gabriela Goloman
Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy is associated with impaired endothelium-mediated dilatation of maternal arteries, although the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that diabetes during rat gestation attenuates agonist-induced uterine vasodilation through reduced endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+) elevations and impaired smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperpolarization and SMC intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) responses. Diabetes was induced by an injection of streptozotocin to second-day pregnant rats and confirmed by the development of maternal hyperglycemia...
April 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23195033/a-higher-maternal-choline-intake-among-third-trimester-pregnant-women-lowers-placental-and-circulating-concentrations-of-the-antiangiogenic-factor-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-sflt1
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Xinyin Jiang, Haim Y Bar, Jian Yan, Sara Jones, Patsy M Brannon, Allyson A West, Cydne A Perry, Anita Ganti, Eva Pressman, Srisatish Devapatla, Francoise Vermeylen, Martin T Wells, Marie A Caudill
This study investigated the influence of maternal choline intake on the human placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy pregnant women (n=26, wk 26-29 gestation) were randomized to 480 mg choline/d, an intake level approximating the adequate intake of 450 mg/d, or 930 mg/d for 12 wk. Maternal blood and placental samples were retrieved at delivery. Whole genome expression microarrays were used to identify placental genes and biological processes impacted by maternal choline intake...
March 2013: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22683430/subcellular-distribution-of-choline-acetyltransferase-by-immunogold-electron-microscopy-in-non-neuronal-cells-placenta-airways-and-murine-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Ignaz Wessler, Rosmarie Michel-Schmidt, Christoph Brochhausen, Charles James Kirkpatrick
AIMS: Acetylcholine is synthesized in more or less all mammalian cells. However, little is known about the subcellular location of acetylcholine synthesis. Therefore, in the present experiments the subcellular location of the synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was investigated by anti-ChAT immunogold electron microscopy in human placenta and airways as well as in a murine embryonic stem cell line (CGR8 cell line). MAIN METHODS: Human tissue was obtained as so-called surplus tissue (after delivery/surgical removal because of lung tumor); the CGR8 stem cell line was cultured under standard conditions...
November 27, 2012: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22205043/protocadherin-12-deficiency-leads-to-modifications-in-the-structure-and-function-of-arteries-in-mice
#18
C Philibert, S Bouillot, P Huber, G Faury
We studied the role of protocadherin-12 on arterial function. This protein belongs to the cadherin superfamily and is located at the intercellular junctions of endothelial cells where it promotes homotypic cellular adhesion. We previously showed that mice deficient for PCDH12 exhibited developmental growth retardation owing to placenta defects without altering neither survival nor fertility. Here, we investigated the effects of PCDH12 deficiency on the structural, mechanical properties and functionality of arteries from adult mice...
February 2012: Pathologie-biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22068864/placental-ischemia-impairs-middle-cerebral-artery-myogenic-responses-in-the-pregnant-rat
#19
Michael J Ryan, Emily L Gilbert, Porter H Glover, Eric M George, C Warren Masterson, Gerald R McLemore, Babbette LaMarca, Joey P Granger, Heather A Drummond
One potential mechanism contributing to the increased risk for encephalopathies in women with preeclampsia is altered cerebral vascular autoregulation resulting from impaired myogenic tone. Whether placental ischemia, a commonly proposed initiator of preeclampsia, alters cerebral vascular function is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia in pregnant rats (caused by reduced uterine perfusion pressure [RUPP]) leads to impaired myogenic responses in middle cerebral arteries. Mean arterial pressure was increased by RUPP (135±3 mm Hg) compared with normal pregnant rats (103±2 mm Hg) and nonpregnant controls (116±1 mm Hg)...
December 2011: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21890691/endothelial-growth-factor-therapy-improves-preeclampsia-like-manifestations-in-a-murine-model-induced-by-overexpression-of-svegfr-1
#20
Julio Mateus, Egle Bytautiene, Fangxian Lu, Esther H Tamayo, Ancizar Betancourt, Gary D V Hankins, Monica Longo, George R Saade
This study examines the effects of VEGF-121 therapy in an animal model of preeclampsia induced by overexpression of soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1). At day 8 of gestation, CD-1 mice were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic pumps containing either VEGF-121 or vehicle and fitted with telemetric blood pressure (BP) catheters for continuous BP monitoring (days 8-18 of gestation). On day 9, the animals in the VEGF-121 group were randomly allocated for injection with adenovirus carrying sVEGFR-1 or the murine immunoglobulin G2α Fc fragment (mFc) as virus control (Adv-sVEGFR-1; Adv-mFc)...
November 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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