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Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646954/development-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccines-for-infants
#1
Hannah E Gerretsen, Charles J Sande
2017 will mark the 60(th) anniversary since the first isolation of RSV in children. In spite of concerted efforts over all these years, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against paediatric RSV disease has remained elusive. One of the main hurdles standing in the way of an effective vaccine is the fact that the age incidence of severe disease peaks within the first 3 months of life, providing limited opportunity for intervention. In addition to this complexity, the spectre of failed historical vaccines, which increased the risk of illness and death upon subsequent natural infection, has substantially increased the safety criteria against which modern vaccines will be assessed...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624306/preclinical-assessment-of-safety-of-maternal-vaccination-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-in-cotton-rats
#2
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Stefanie N Vogel, Marina S Boukhvalova
Maternal immunization directed to control RSV infection in newborns and infants is an appealing vaccination strategy currently under development. In this work we have modeled maternal vaccination against RSV in cotton rats (CR) to answer two fundamental questions on maternal vaccine safety. We tested (i), whether a known, unsafe RSV vaccine (i.e., FI-RSV Lot 100 vaccine) induces vaccine enhanced disease in the presence of passively transferred, RSV maternal immunity, and (ii) whether the same FI-RSV vaccine could induce vaccine enhanced disease in CR litters when used to immunize their RSV-primed mothers...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605562/microorganisms-associated-with-pneumonia-in-children-5-years-of-age-in-developing-and-emerging-countries-the-gabriel-pneumonia-multicenter-prospective-case-control-study
#3
Thomas Bénet, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Tekchheng Eap, Jianwei Wang, Kunling Shen, Jean-William Pape, Vanessa Rouzier, Shally Awasthi, Nitin Pandey, Ashish Bavdekar, Sonali Sanghavi, Annick Robinson, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Maryam Sylla, Souleymane Diallo, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Nymadawaagiin Naranbat, Graciela Russomando, Wilma Basualdo, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Philippe Vanhems, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Background.: Pneumonia, the leading infectious cause of child mortality globally, mainly afflicts developing countries. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the microorganisms associated with pneumonia in children aged <5 years in developing and emerging countries. Methods.: A multicenter, case-control study by the GABRIEL (Global Approach to Biological Research, Infectious diseases and Epidemics in Low-income countries) network was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Cambodia, China, Haiti, India (2 sites), Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605249/product-review-on-the-monoclonal-antibody-palivizumab-for-prevention-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#4
Bernhard Resch
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) accounts for about 20% of all respiratory infections in children below the age of 5 years. It is associated with up to 63% of all acute respiratory infections and up to 81% of all viral lower respiratory tract infections causing hospitalization in infants and young children. RSV leads to seasonal epidemics between November and April in the northern hemisphere. Most severe infections (RSV accounts for 50 to 80% of all cause bronchiolitis) affect infants younger than 6 months of age and high-risk infants including those born preterm with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia and those with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease up to an age of 24 months...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604155/the-importance-of-rsv-f-protein-conformation-in-vlps-in-stimulation-of-neutralizing-antibody-titers-in-mice-previously-infected-with-rsv
#5
Lori M Cullen, Madelyn R Schmidt, Trudy G Morrison
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant respiratory pathogen but no vaccine is available. RSV infections present 2 major, unique problems. First, humans can experience repeated infections caused by the same virus sero-group indicating that protective memory responses to RSV infection are defective. Second, most people have been infected with RSV by age 5. Immune responses to these infections, while poorly protective, could impact the effectiveness of a vaccine. The goal of this study was to assess the generation of protective immune responses in mice previously infected with RSV by virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates containing a stabilized pre-fusion form of the RSV F protein or a stabilized post-fusion F protein...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598702/a-safe-and-efficient-bcg-vectored-vaccine-to-prevent-the-disease-caused-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#6
Emma Rey-Jurado, Jorge Soto, Nicolás Gálvez, Alexis M Kalergis
The human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Such infections also cause a large number of hospitalizations and affects mainly newborns, young children and the elderly worldwide. Symptoms associated with hRSV infection are due to an exacerbated immune response characterized by low levels of IFN-γ, recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils to the site of infection and lung damage. Although hRSV is a major health problem, no vaccines are currently available...
June 9, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579304/modelled-seasonal-influenza-mortality-shows-marked-differences-in-risk-by-age-sex-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-position-in-new-zealand
#7
Trang Q T Khieu, Nevil Pierse, Lucy Frances Telfar-Barnard, Jane Zhang, Q Sue Huang, Michael G Baker
OBJECTIVES: Influenza is responsible for a large number of deaths which can only be estimated using modelling methods. Such methods have rarely been applied to describe the major socio-demographic characteristics of this disease burden. METHODS: We used quasi Poisson regression models with weekly counts of deaths and isolates of influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial virus for the period 1994 to 2008. RESULTS: The estimated average mortality rate was 13...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579233/a-phase-2-randomized-observer-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-ranging-trial-of-aluminum-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-particle-vaccine-formulations-in-healthy-women-of-childbearing-age
#8
Allison August, Gregory M Glenn, Eloi Kpamegan, Somia P Hickman, Dewal Jani, Hanxin Lu, D Nigel Thomas, Judy Wen, Pedro A Piedra, Louis F Fries
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. We are developing an RSV fusion (F) protein nanoparticle vaccine for immunization of third trimester pregnant women to passively protect infants through transfer of RSV-specific maternal antibodies. The present trial was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of several formulations of RSV F vaccine in 1-dose or 2-dose schedules. METHODS: Placebo, or vaccine with 60μg or 120μg RSV F protein and 0...
June 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576489/mitochondrial-protein-p32-hapb1-gc1qr-c1qbp-is-required-for-efficient-respiratory-syncytial-virus-production
#9
MengJie Hu, Hong-Mei Li, Marie A Bogoyevitch, David A Jans
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infections in infants and the elderly, leading to more deaths than influenza each year, but there is no antiviral or efficacious vaccine currently available. Here we examine the role in infection of the host mitochondrial protein p32 (HABP/gC1qR/C1qbp) for the first time. RSV replication as well as infectious virus production was significantly reduced by p32 siRNA knockdown, consistent with an important role for p32 in RSV infection. p32 showed distinct mitochondrial localization throughout RSV infection, but immunostaining and high resolution confocal imaging for p32 as well as MitoTracker Red and cytochrome c, revealed clear changes in mitochondrial organization in RSV infection, with perinuclear mitochondrial compaction and asymmetric distribution at 8 and 18 h post-infection, respectively...
May 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574729/respiratory-syncytial-virus-prospects-for-new-and-emerging-therapeutics
#10
Patricia A Jorquera, Ralph A Tripp
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. Although the development of a RSV vaccine has been a priority for >50 years, there is still no vaccine available. Treatment of RSV LRTI has remained mostly supportive, i.e. hydration and oxygenation. Palivizumab and ribavirin are the only options currently available for prevention and treatment of RSV infection, but evidence suggests that they are not fully effective...
June 14, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561831/a-dynamic-cell-entry-pathway-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-revealed-by-tracking-the-quantum-dot-labeled-single-virus
#11
Lin Ling Zheng, Chun Mei Li, Shu Jun Zhen, Yuan Fang Li, Cheng Zhi Huang
Studying the cell entry pathway at the single-particle level can provide detailed and quantitative information for the dynamic events involved in virus entry. Indeed, the viral entry dynamics cannot be monitored by static staining methods used in cell biology, and thus virus dynamic tracking could be useful in the development of effective antiviral strategies. Therefore, the aim of this work was to use a quantum dot-based single-particle tracking approach to monitor the cell entry behavior of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in living cells...
May 31, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558308/age-predicts-cytokine-kinetics-and-innate-immune-cell-activation-following-intranasal-delivery-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-gm-csf-in-a-mouse-model-of-rsv-infection
#12
Katherine M Eichinger, Erin Resetar, Jacob Orend, Kacey Anderson, Kerry M Empey
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and is further associated with increased healthcare utilization and cost of care in the first years of life. Severe RSV disease during infancy has also been linked to the later development of allergic asthma, yet there remains no licensed RSV vaccine or effective treatment. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that disease severity and development of allergic asthma are associated with differences in cytokine production...
May 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545321/virus-detection-by-pcr-following-vaccination-of-naive-calves-with-intranasal-or-injectable-multivalent-modified-live-viral-vaccines
#13
Paul H Walz, Benjamin W Newcomer, Kay P Riddell, Daniel W Scruggs, Victor S Cortese
We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544850/pcpp-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-sf-subunit-vaccine-self-assembled-supramolecular-complexes-enable-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection
#14
Corinne Cayatte, Alexander Marin, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Angie Snell Bennett, Jason D Marshall, Alexander K Andrianov
PCPP, a well-defined polyphosphazene macromolecule, has been studied as an immunoadjuvant for a soluble form of the postfusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV sF), which is an attractive vaccine candidate for inducing RSV-specific immunity in mice and humans. We demonstrate that RSV sF-PCPP formulations induce high neutralization titers to RSV comparable to alum formulations even at a low PCPP dose and protect animals against viral challenge both in the lung and in the upper respiratory tract...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539444/improved-prefusion-stability-optimized-codon-usage-and-augmented-virion-packaging-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-in-a-vectored-vaccine-candidate
#15
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Sonja Surman, Barbora Kabatova, Xiang Liu, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Lijuan Yang, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of severe pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide, but lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. A live-attenuated chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type-3 (rB/HPIV3) was developed previously as a vector expressing RSV fusion (F) protein to confer bivalent protection against RSV and HPIV3. In a previous clinical trial in virus-naïve children, rB/HPIV3 was well-tolerated but the immunogenicity of wildtype RSV F was unsatisfactory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#16
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531224/defining-the-vaccination-window-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-using-age-seroprevalence-data-for-children-in-kilifi-kenya
#17
Joyce U Nyiro, Ivy K Kombe, Charles J Sande, James Kipkoech, Patience K Kiyuka, Clayton O Onyango, Patrick K Munywoki, Timothy M Kinyanjui, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in early life and a target for vaccine prevention. Data on the age-prevalence of RSV specific antibodies will inform on optimizing vaccine delivery. METHODS: Archived plasma samples were randomly selected within age strata from 960 children less than 145 months of age admitted to Kilifi County Hospital pediatric wards between 2007 and 2010. Samples were tested for antibodies to RSV using crude virus IgG ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527341/unravelling-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreaks-in-buenos-aires-argentina-molecular-basis-of-the-spatio-temporal-transmission
#19
Gabriel Lihue Rojo, Stephanie Goya, Mariana Orellana, Andrea Sancilio, Alberto Rodriguez Perez, César Montali, Carolina García, Lilian Sosa, Alejandra Musto, Daniela Alvarez, Alejandro Castello, Mariana Viegas
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RSV are under research and development, which are about to be approved. We evaluated transmission patterns in different settings to determine age-specific vaccination targets from a viral perspective. We sequenced the G glycoprotein's ectodomain of a constant clinical sampling between two epidemic outbreaks in a limited geographical region and performed phylogeographic analyses...
May 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#20
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
July 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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