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Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346336/respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-united-states-2014-2017
#1
Erica Billig Rose, Alexandra Wheatley, Gayle Langley, Susan Gerber, Amber Haynes
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children worldwide (1-3). In the United States, RSV infection results in >57,000 hospitalizations and 2 million outpatient visits each year among children aged <5 years (3). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of RSV in adults as well as children (4). CDC reported RSV seasonality nationally, by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regions* and for the state of Florida, using a new statistical method that analyzes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory detections reported to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) (https://www...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342954/a-built-in-cpg-adjuvant-in-rsv-f-protein-dna-vaccine-drives-a-th1-polarized-and-enhanced-protective-immune-response
#2
Yao Ma, Yue-Ying Jiao, Yun-Zhou Yu, Nan Jiang, Ying Hua, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Yuan-Hui Fu, Xiang-Lei Peng, Yan-Peng Zheng, Larry J Anderson, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute lower respiratory infection in children. However, there is no licensed vaccine available. Here, we investigated the effect of five or 20 copies of C-Class of CpG ODN (CpG-C) motif incorporated into a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein on the vaccine-induced immune response. The addition of CpG-C motif enhanced serum binding and virus-neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice immunized with the DNA vaccines...
January 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338045/protection-induced-by-virus-like-particle-vaccine-containing-tandem-repeat-gene-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-g-protein
#3
Ah-Ra Kim, Dong-Hun Lee, Su-Hwa Lee, Ilaria Rubino, Hyo-Jick Choi, Fu-Shi Quan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children and the elderly. However, there is no licensed vaccine available against RSV infection. In this study, we generated virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine and investigated the vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. For VLP vaccines, tandem gene (1-780 bp) for V1 VLPs and tandem repeat gene (repeated 450-780 bp) for V5 VLPs were constructed in pFastBacTM vectors, respectively. Influenza matrix protein 1 (M1) was used as a core protein in the VLPs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336924/immunization-of-preterm-infants-with-gsk-s-hexavalent-combined-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-b-inactivated-poliovirus-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccine-a-review-of-safety-and-immunogenicity
#4
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336703/establishing-correlates-of-protection-for-vaccine-development-considerations-for-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-field
#5
Prasad S Kulkarni, Julia L Hurwitz, Eric A F Simões, Pedro A Piedra
Correlates of protection (CoPs) can play a significant role in vaccine development by assisting the selection of vaccine candidates for clinical trials, supporting clinical trial design and implementation, and simplifying tests of vaccine modifications. Because of this important role in vaccine development, it is essential that CoPs be defined by well-designed immunogenicity and efficacy studies, with attention paid to benefits and limitations. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) field is unique in that a great deal of information about the humoral response is available from basic research and clinical studies...
January 16, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#6
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327237/regional-age-and-respiratory-secretion-specific-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-exacerbation-a-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Xue-Yan Zheng, Yan-Jun Xu, Wei-Jie Guan, Li-Feng Lin
Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323621/vaccines-for-the-paramyxoviruses-and-pneumoviruses-successes-candidates-and-hurdles
#8
Charles J Russell, Eric A F Simões, Julia L Hurwitz
Human parainfluenza viruses (family Paramyxoviridae), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (family Pneumoviridae) infect most infants and children within the first few years of life and are the etiologic agents for many serious acute respiratory illnesses. These virus infections are also associated with long-term diseases that impact quality of life, including asthma. Despite over a half-century of vaccine research, development, and clinical trials, no vaccine has been licensed to date for the paramyxoviruses or pneumoviruses for the youngest infants...
January 11, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316047/parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccines-against-human-and-animal-infectious-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310427/towards-the-application-of-human-defensins-as-antivirals
#10
REVIEW
Mee Sook Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Sehee Park, Joon-Yong Bae, Man-Seong Park
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that participate in the innate immunity of hosts. Humans constitutively and/or inducibly express α- and β-defensins, which are known for their antiviral and antibacterial activities. This review describes the application of human defensins. We discuss the extant experimental results, limited though they are, to consider the potential applicability of human defensins as antiviral agents. Given their antiviral effects, we propose that basic research be conducted on human defensins that focuses on RNA viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and dengue virus (DENV), which are considered serious human pathogens but have posed huge challenges for vaccine development for different reasons...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306006/evaluation-of-truncated-g-protein-delivered-by-live-attenuated-salmonella-as-a-vaccine-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#11
Puyuan Tian, Di Xu, Zhixiang Huang, Fanjing Meng, Jinheng Fu, Hua Wei, Tingtao Chen
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause severe acute lower respiratory tract disease leading to numerous hospitalizations and deaths in the infant and elderly populations worldwide, while no vaccine or effective drug is available for RSV infections. In the present study, truncated G protein was successfully expressed both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic system, and high levels of serum IgG in response to truncated G protein were observed both in GD-protein group (intramuscularly with purified GD protein) and GD-VNP20009 group (challenged via the oral route with 1 × 109 CFU of pLIVE-RSV-GD-VNP20009 strains) since 21th day, and GD-VNP20009 significantly reduced the productions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, histamine and pathological features caused by the RSV Long strain (P < ...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302319/the-burden-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-associated-acute-lower-respiratory-infections-in-children-with-down-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Markus Chan, John J Park, Ting Shi, Federico Martinón-Torres, Louis Bont, Harish Nair
Background: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are a leading cause of hospitalization in infants. Numerous risk factors have been identified in the aetiology of severe RSV-associated ALRI necessitating hospitalisation, including prematurity and congenital heart disease. Down syndrome (DS), a common genetic disorder associated with congenital and dysmorphic features, has recently been identified as an independent risk factor for RSV-associated ALRI requiring hospitalisation; however, the disease burden of RSV-associated ALRI in this population has not yet been established...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301313/transmission-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-the-immunocompromised-ferret-model
#13
Leon de Waal, Saskia L Smits, Edwin J B Veldhuis Kroeze, Geert van Amerongen, Marie O Pohl, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Koert J Stittelaar
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in vulnerable patients, such as the very young, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals of any age. Nosocomial transmission of HRSV remains a serious challenge in hospital settings, with intervention strategies largely limited to infection control measures, including isolation of cases, high standards of hand hygiene, cohort nursing, and use of personal protective equipment. No vaccines against HRSV are currently available, and treatment options are largely supportive care and expensive monoclonal antibody or antiviral therapy...
January 2, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251553/genetic-characterization-of-bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-strains-isolated-in-italy-evidence-for-the-circulation-of-new-divergent-clades
#14
Luigi Bertolotti, Monica Giammarioli, Sergio Rosati
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is circulating in cattle in Europe. Although vaccination helps control the disease, its prevalence within and among herds remains high. Previous genetic characterization studies revealed a strict geographic correlation between viral variants; on the other hand, they showed the emergence of new variants in northern Europe. Few studies have described BRSV distribution, and little is known about the genetic features of BRSV strains circulating in Italy. We studied sample-positive tests for BRSV, and sequenced the coding regions of the G and N proteins to determine the presence of divergent variants...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247051/viruses-causing-lower-respiratory-symptoms-in-young-children-findings-from-the-orchid-birth-cohort
#15
Mohinder Sarna, Stephen B Lambert, Theo P Sloots, David M Whiley, Asma Alsaleh, Lebogang Mhango, Seweryn Bialasiewicz, David Wang, Michael D Nissen, Keith Grimwood, Robert S Ware
INTRODUCTION: Viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause substantial child morbidity. Sensitive molecular-based assays aid virus detection, but the clinical significance of positive tests remains uncertain as some viruses may be found in both acutely ill and healthy children. We describe disease-pathogen associations of respiratory viruses and quantify virus-specific attributable risk of ARIs in healthy children during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight term newborn babies in Brisbane, Australia, were recruited progressively into a longitudinal, community-based, birth cohort study conducted between September 2010 and October 2014...
December 15, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234123/dusp1-regulates-apoptosis-and-cell-migration-but-not-the-jip1-protected-cytokine-response-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-sendai-virus-infection
#16
Alexa C Robitaille, Elise Caron, Nicolas Zucchini, Espérance Mukawera, Damien Adam, Mélissa K Mariani, Anaïs Gélinas, Audray Fortin, Emmanuelle Brochiero, Nathalie Grandvaux
The host antiviral response involves the induction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines, but also the activation of cell death pathways, including apoptosis, to limit viral replication and spreading. This host defense is strictly regulated to eliminate the infection while limiting tissue damage that is associated with virus pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, most notably phosphorylation, are key regulators of the antiviral defense implying an important role of protein phosphatases. Here, we investigated the role of the dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the host defense against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a pathogenic virus of the Pneumoviridae family, and Sendai virus (SeV), a model virus being developed as a vector for anti-RSV vaccine...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232863/a-two-dimensional-human-minilung-system-model-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infections
#17
Esmeralda Magro-Lopez, Trinidad Guijarro, Isidoro Martinez, Maria Martin-Vicente, Isabel Liste, Alberto Zambrano
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of serious pediatric respiratory diseases that lacks effective vaccine or specific therapeutics. Although our understanding about HRSV biology has dramatically increased during the last decades, the need for adequate models of HRSV infection is compelling. We have generated a two-dimensional minilung from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The differentiation protocol yielded at least six types of lung and airway cells, although it is biased toward the generation of distal cells...
December 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213258/the-complexity-of-antibody-responses-elicited-against-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-glycoproteins-in-hospitalized-children-younger-than-2-years
#18
Alfonsina Trento, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernández, María I González-Sánchez, Felipe González-Martínez, Vicente Mas, Mónica Vázquez, Concepción Palomo, José A Melero
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212939/the-heptad-repeat-c-domain-of-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-plays-a-key-role-in-membrane-fusion
#19
Imogen M Bermingham, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Paul R Young
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediates host cell entry through the fusion (F) protein, which undergoes a conformational change to facilitate the merger of viral and host lipid membrane envelopes. RSV F comprises a trimer of disulfide bonded F1 and F2 subunits that is present on the virion surface in a 'metastable' pre-fusion state. This pre-fusion form is readily triggered to undergo refolding to bring two heptad repeats (HRA and HRB) into close proximity to form a six-helix bundle that stabilizes the post-fusion form and provides the free energy required for membrane fusion...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198455/bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-in-feedlot-cattle-from-c%C3%A3-rdoba-and-santa-fe-argentina
#20
Alejandra Ferella, María Sol Pérez Aguirreburualde, Carlos Margineda, Natalia Aznar, Ayelen Sammarruco, María Jose Dus Santos, Marina Mozgovoj
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the causative agents of respiratory disease in cattle all over the world, leading to important economic losses. The aim of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of BRSV in feedlot cattle of Argentina and the risk factors associated with the disease. Results showed a high individual seroprevalence of 78.64% (95% confidence interval adjusted [CI]=66.55-90.75%) against the virus. Positive association was found between the presence of high BRSV neutralizing antibody titers, and the following risk factors: cattle age, source of animals, presence of clinical respiratory signs and herd size...
November 30, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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