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Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788036/pediatric-investigators-collaborative-network-on-infections-in-canada-picnic-study-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-deaths-in-pediatric-patients-in-canada-2003-to-2013
#1
Jennifer Tam, Jesse Papenburg, Sergio Fanella, Sandra Asner, Michelle Barton, Cybele Bergeron, Shalini Desai, Charles Hui, Cheryl Foo, Joanne M Langley, Kirk Leifso, My-Linh Ma, Jeffrey Pernica, Joan Robinson, Roopi Singh, Bruce Tapiero, Upton Allen
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children. Mortality rates in previously healthy children hospitalized with RSV are < 0.5%, but up to 37% in patients with underlying medical conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with deaths among children hospitalized with RSV infection in Canadian pediatric centres. Methods: Retrospective case series of children 18 years of age or younger with RSV-associated deaths at centres affiliated with the Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) over the period 2003- 2013, inclusive...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780032/severe-outcomes-associated-with-respiratory-viruses-in-newborns-and-infants-a-prospective-viral-surveillance-study-in-jordan
#2
Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Lindsey Lawrence, Bhinnata Piya, Li Wang, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Samir Faouri, Asem Shehabi, Sten H Vermund, John V Williams, Natasha B Halasa
OBJECTIVE: To assess virus-specific hospitalisation rates, risk factors for illness severity and seasonal trends in children hospitalised with acute respiratory infections (ARI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A government hospital serving low-income and middle-income population in Amman, Jordan. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 2 years of age hospitalised with fever and/or respiratory symptoms (n=3168) from 16 March 2010 to 31 March 2013...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779923/a-viral-vectored-rsv-vaccine-induces-long-lived-humoral-immunity-in-cotton-rats
#3
Jessica L Grieves, Zhiwei Yin, Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, Ignacio Mena, Mark E Peeples, Heidi P Risman, Hannah Federman, Marvin J Sandoval, Russell K Durbin, Joan E Durbin
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower airway disease in infants worldwide and repeatedly infects immunocompetent individuals throughout life. Severe lower airway RSV infection during infancy can be life-threatening, but is also associated with important sequelae including development of asthma and recurrent wheezing in later childhood. The basis for the inadequate, short-lived adaptive immune response to RSV infection is poorly understood, but it is widely recognized that RSV actively antagonizes Type I interferon (IFN) production...
May 17, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771625/a-multifaceted-approach-to-rsv-vaccination
#4
Jorge C G Blanco, Marina S Boukhvalova, Trudy G Morrison, Stefanie N Vogel
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, RSV infections occur throughout different ages, thus, maintaining the virus in circulation, and increasing health risk to more susceptible populations such as infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. To date, there is no vaccine approved to prevent RSV infection or minimize symptoms of infection. Current clinical trials for vaccines against RSV are being carried out in four very different populations...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768937/cotton-rat-model-for-testing-vaccines-and-antivirals-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#5
M S Boukhvalova, K C Yim, Jcg Blanco
Respiratory syncytial virus is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and is a serious health risk for elderly and immunocompromised individuals. No vaccine has yet been approved to prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection and the only available treatment is immunoprophylaxis of severe respiratory syncytial virus disease in high-risk infants with Palivizumab (Synagis® ). The development of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine has been hampered by the phenomenon of enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease observed during trials of a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus in 1960s...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765035/efficacy-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-a-maternal-immunization-model
#6
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Lori McGinnes-Cullen, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Lurds R Fernando, Marina S Boukhvalova, Trudy G Morrison
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Maternal immunization is an option to increase maternal antibody levels and protect infants from infection. Here we assess the efficacy of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates containing stabilized pre-fusion (pre-F) or post-fusion (post-F) conformations of the RSV F protein and the attachment RSV G protein in a maternal immunization model using cotton rats. VLP vaccines containing RSV F and G proteins strongly boost pre-existing RSV immunity in dams preventing their perinatal drop in immunity...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751747/a-fatal-case-associated-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-a-young-child
#7
Lili Xu, Hengmiao Gao, Jiansheng Zeng, Jun Liu, Cong Lu, Xiaolei Guan, Suyun Qian, Zhengde Xie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection include premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome. However, some previously healthy, full-term children who are infected with RSV also require hospitalization and even experience severe sequelae or death. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present the case of an RSV-associated death of a child who was born at full-term and developed normally up to the age of 2 years old...
May 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743373/five-residues-in-the-apical-loop-of-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-f-2-subunit-are-critical-for-its-fusion-activity
#8
Stephanie N Hicks, Supranee Chaiwatpongsakorn, Heather M Costello, Jason S McLellan, William Ray, Mark E Peeples
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein is a trimeric, membrane-anchored glycoprotein capable of mediating both viral-target cell membrane fusion to initiate infection and cell-cell fusion, even in the absence of the attachment glycoprotein. The F protein is initially expressed in a precursor form, whose functional capabilities are activated by proteolysis at two sites between the F1 and F2 subunits. This cleavage results in expression of the metastable and high-energy prefusion conformation...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733750/delivery-of-alx-0171-by-inhalation-greatly-reduces-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-in-newborn-lambs
#9
Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Jack M Gallup, Albert Van Geelen, Thomas Stohr, Linde Duprez, Mark R Ackermann
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of acute lower respiratory disease in infants and young children worldwide. Currently, treatment is supportive and no vaccines are available. The use of newborn lambs to model hRSV infection in human infants may provide a valuable tool to assess safety and efficacy of new antiviral drugs and vaccines. ALX-0171 is a trivalent Nanobody targeting the hRSV fusion (F) protein and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in newborn lambs infected with a human strain of RSV followed by daily ALX-0171 nebulization for 3 or 5 consecutive days...
May 7, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728911/nanoparticle-vaccines-against-viral-infections
#10
REVIEW
Fernando B Sulczewski, Raquel B Liszbinski, Pedro R T Romão, Luiz Carlos Rodrigues Junior
Despite numerous efforts, we still do not have prophylactic vaccines for many clinically relevant viruses, such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, Zika virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Several factors have contributed to the current lack of effective vaccines, including the high rate of viral mutation, low immunogenicity of recombinant viral antigens, instability of viral antigenic proteins administered in vivo, sophisticated mechanisms of viral immune evasion, and inefficient induction of mucosal immunity by vaccine models studied to date...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728106/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-hospitalization-in-young-children-in-italy
#11
Parvanè Kuhdari, Federica Brosio, Cristina Malaventura, Armando Stefanati, Andrea Orsi, Giancarlo Icardi, Giovanni Gabutti
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is ubiquitous and causes respiratory diseases in both children and adults. Worldwide, hRSV pneumonia is the second cause of postnatal infant death after malaria. Given the high impact in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs, especially in the pediatric population, hRSV is recognized as a global health problem and the WHO, in view of the availability of new vaccines, has urged an active surveillance program of virus-related infections...
May 4, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716545/management-and-control-of-communicable-diseases-in-schools-and-other-child-care-settings-systematic-review-on-the-incubation-period-and-period-of-infectiousness
#12
Ida Czumbel, Chantal Quinten, Pierluigi Lopalco, Jan C Semenza
BACKGROUND: Information on the incubation period and period of infectiousness or shedding of infectious pathogens is critical for management and control of communicable diseases in schools and other childcare settings. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review (Pubmed and Embase) to identify and critically appraise all relevant published articles using incubation, infectiousness or shedding, and exclusion period as parameters for the search. No language, time, geographical or study design restrictions were applied...
May 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715051/immunization-during-pregnancy
#13
Paul Loubet, Olivia Anselem, Odile Launay
Vaccination in pregnancy has been shown to be effective for the prevention of influenza and pertussis in infants, providing support for similar strategies to prevent group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus infections that represent a large burden in pediatric population. Areas covered: This review addresses the principle of maternal immunization, efficacy and safety of both pertussis and seasonal influenza vaccines and presents available data on group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus that are in development for administration during pregnancy...
May 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704733/evaluation-of-the-national-laboratory-based-surveillance-system-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-sweden-2015-2016
#14
Heli Harvala, AnnaSara Carnahan, Sarah Axelsson, Maria Brytting
BACKGROUND: Most laboratories use RSV PCR but near-patient tests (NPT) performed at paediatric clinics are believed to be increasingly used. Anonymised data on RSV infections has been collected since 1990 in Sweden. No evaluation of Swedish RSV surveillance or use of laboratory testing had previously been performed. OBJECTIVES: Swedish RSV data and methods used for RSV laboratory testing and reporting were evaluated in order to improve RSV surveillance in a forthcoming vaccine era...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686673/the-cd8-t-cell-response-to-respiratory-virus-infections
#15
REVIEW
Megan E Schmidt, Steven M Varga
Humans are highly susceptible to infection with respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and parainfluenza virus. While some viruses simply cause symptoms of the common cold, many respiratory viruses induce severe bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and even death following infection. Despite the immense clinical burden, the majority of the most common pulmonary viruses lack long-lasting efficacious vaccines. Nearly all current vaccination strategies are designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, which prevent severe disease following a subsequent infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678551/anti-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-g-monoclonal-antibodies-reduce-lung-inflammation-and-viral-lung-titers-when-delivered-therapeutically-in-a-balb-c-mouse-model
#16
Hayat Caidi, Congrong Miao, Natalie J Thornburg, Ralph A Tripp, Larry J Anderson, Lia M Haynes
RSV continues to be a high priority for vaccine and antiviral drug development. Unfortunately, no safe and effective RSV vaccine is available and treatment options are limited. Over the past decade, several studies have focused on the role of RSV G protein on viral entry, viral neutralization, and RSV-mediated pathology. Anti-G murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 131-2G treatment has been previously shown to reduce weight loss, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number, airway reactivity, and Th2-type cytokine production in RSV-infected mice more rapidly than a commercial humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) against RSV F protein (Palivizumab)...
April 17, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678177/healthcare-resource-use-and-economic-burden-attributable-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-the-united-states-a-claims-database-analysis
#17
Caroline Amand, Sabine Tong, Alexia Kieffer, Moe H Kyaw
BACKGROUND: Despite several studies that have estimated the economic impact of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in infants, limited data are available on healthcare resource use and costs attributable to RSV across age groups. The aim of this study was to quantify age-specific RSV-related healthcare resource use and costs on the US healthcare system. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study identified patients aged ≥1 year with an RSV event in the Truven Health Marketscan® Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases between August 31, 2012 and August 1, 2013...
April 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#18
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622165/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-associations-with-cardiovascular-disease-in-adults
#19
REVIEW
Kelsey S Ivey, Kathryn M Edwards, H Keipp Talbot
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is historically known for causing respiratory illness in young children, but the appreciation of its impact on older adults is growing. Studies have shown that hospitalization for respiratory illness due to RSV is complicated by cardiovascular events in 14% to 22% of adult patients, including worsening congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, and arrhythmias. Additionally, underlying cardiovascular disease is associated with hospitalization in 45% to 63% of adults with confirmed RSV...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621602/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-possess-anti-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-activity-possible-interaction-with-the-viral-f-protein
#20
Priscila Silva Sampaio Souza, Lia Vezenfard Barbosa, Larissa Figueiredo Alves Diniz, Gabriel Soares da Silva, Bruno Rafael Pereira Lopes, Pedro Miyadaira Ribeiro Souza, Gabriela Campos de Araujo, Diogo Pessoa, Juliana de Oliveira, Fátima Pereira Souza, Karina Alves Toledo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is one of the main etiological agents of diseases of the lower respiratory tract, and is often responsible for the hospitalization of children and the elderly. To date, treatments are only palliative and there is no vaccine available. The airways of patients infected with hRSV exhibit intense neutrophil infiltration, which is responsible for the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are extracellular structures consisting of DNA associated with intracellular proteins, and are efficient in capturing and eliminating various microorganisms, including some viruses...
April 2, 2018: Virus Research
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