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Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226227/protective-and-harmful-immunity-to-rsv-infection
#1
Peter J M Openshaw, Chris Chiu, Fiona J Culley, Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an exceptional mucosal pathogen. It specializes in infection of the ciliated respiratory epithelium, causing disease of variable severity with little or no direct systemic effects. It infects virtually all children by the age of three years and then repeatedly infects throughout life; this it does despite relatively slight variations in antigenicity, apparently by inducing selective immunological amnesia. Inappropriate or dysregulated responses to RSV can be pathogenic, causing disease-enhancing inflammation that contributes to short- and long-term effects...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#2
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182741/etiology-of-severe-pneumonia-in-ecuadorian-children
#3
Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159876/what-are-the-most-powerful-immunogen-design-vaccine-strategies-a-structural-biologist-s-perspective
#4
Peter D Kwong
The ability of structure-based design to control the shape and reactivity-the atomic-level chemistry-of an immunogen argues for it being one of the "most powerful" immunogen-design strategies. But antigenic reactivity is only one of the properties required to induce a protective immune response. Here, a multidimensional approach is used to exemplify the enabling role atomic-level information can play in the development of immunogens against three viral pathogens, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which have resisted standard approaches to vaccine development...
February 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159159/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-an-illness-for-all-ages
#5
REVIEW
Edward E Walsh
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of severe respiratory infection in very young infants. It has also been recently recognized as a significant cause of severe illness in elderly adults, those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease, and the immunocompromised. RSV is suspected of playing a major role in the development of asthma. Prophylaxis in high-risk infants using a monoclonal antibody is the only effective specific therapy available but recent breakthroughs in vaccine design and antiviral drugs offer the promise of effective prophylactic and therapeutic agents against RSV...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159157/vaccines-in-the-prevention-of-viral-pneumonia
#6
REVIEW
Clementine S Fraser, Akhilesh Jha, Peter J M Openshaw
Pneumonia is of great global public health importance. Viral infections play both direct and indirect parts in its cause across the globe. Influenza is a leading cause of viral pneumonia in both children and adults, and respiratory syncytial virus is increasingly recognized as causing disease at both extremes of age. Vaccination offers the best prospect for prevention but current influenza vaccines do not provide universal and durable protection, and require yearly reformulation. In the future, it is hoped that influenza vaccines will give better and universal protection, and that new vaccines can be found for other causes of viral pneumonia...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149851/virus-vs-virus-adenovirus-vectored-vaccine-to-defeat-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#7
EDITORIAL
Alessandra Vitelli, Alfredo Nicosia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148790/immunization-with-low-doses-of-recombinant-post-fusion-or-pre-fusion-rsv-f-primes-for-vaccine-enhanced-disease-in-the-cotton-rat-model-independent-of-the-presence-of-a-th1-biasing-gla-se-or-th2-biasing-alum-adjuvant
#8
Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Corinne Cayatte, Angie Snell Bennett, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Patrick McTamney, Krystal Nacel, Leigh Hostetler, Lily Cheng, Kuishu Ren, Terrence O'Day, Gregory A Prince, Michael P McCarthy
: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of children previously immunized with a non-live, formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccine was associated with serious enhanced respiratory disease (ERD). Consequently, detailed studies of potential ERD are a critical step in the development of non-live RSV vaccines targeting RSV-naïve children and infants. The fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV in either its post- or pre-fusion conformation is a target for neutralizing antibodies and therefore an attractive antigen candidate for a pediatric RSV subunit vaccine...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144057/respiratory-viruses-in-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Parvaiz A Koul, Hyder Mir, Shabir Akram, Varsha Potdar, Mandeep S Chadha
OBJECTIVE: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. METHODS: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes...
January 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134924/a-novel-pre-fusion-conformation-specific-neutralizing-epitope-on-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein
#10
Jarrod J Mousa, Nurgun Kose, Pranathi Matta, Pavlo Gilchuk, James E Crowe
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a major human pathogen, infecting the majority of infants before age two and causing re-infection throughout life. Despite decades of RSV research, there is no licensed RSV vaccine. Most candidate vaccines studied to date have incorporated the RSV fusion (F) surface glycoprotein, because the sequence of F is highly conserved among strains of RSV. To better define the human B cell response to RSV F, we isolated from a single donor 13 new neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the RSV F protein in the pre-fusion conformation...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134915/structural-basis-for-antibody-cross-neutralization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus
#11
Xiaolin Wen, Jarrod J Mousa, John T Bates, Robert A Lamb, James E Crowe, Theodore S Jardetzky
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two closely related viruses that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly(1), with a significant health burden(2-6). There are no licensed vaccines or small-molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses at present. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) is approved to treat high-risk infants for RSV infection(7,8), but other treatments, as well as vaccines, for both viruses are still in development...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129031/virus-like-particle-vaccines-containing-f-or-f-and-g-proteins-confer-protection-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-without-pulmonary-inflammation-in-cotton-rats
#12
Hye Suk Hwang, Ki-Hye Kim, Youri Lee, Young-Tae Lee, Eun-Ju Ko, SooJin Park, Jong Seok Lee, Byung-Cheol Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Martin L Moore, Sang-Moo Kang
Vaccine-enhanced disease has been a major obstacle in developing a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study demonstrates the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines containing RSV F (F VLP), G (G VLP), or F and G proteins (FG VLP) in cotton rats. RSV specific antibodies were effectively induced by vaccination of cotton rats with F VLP or FG VLP vaccines. After challenge, lung RSV clearance was observed with RSV F, G, FG VLP, and formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccines...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112337/-potential-neurocognitive-consequences-of-infection-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#13
Juan Carlos Flores, Karen Bohmwald, Janyra Espinoza, Crlstlna Jara, Marcela Peña, Rodrigo Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Carolina Iturriaga, Alexis M Kalergis, Arturo Borzutzky
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among pediatric population. Immune response is poor and unable to establish a long term effective protection against this virus. Of particular interest has been the description of extrapulmonary manifestations of RSV infection in liver, kidney, endocrine system, heart and brain, associated to infection of peripheral blood. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies in animals have suggested long term neurocognitive impairment due to a direct damage from the virus...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111638/rapid-profiling-of-rsv-antibody-repertoires-from-the-memory-b-cells-of-naturally-infected-adult-donors
#14
Morgan S A Gilman, Carlos A Castellanos, Man Chen, Joan O Ngwuta, Eileen Goodwin, Syed M Moin, Vicente Mas, José A Melero, Peter F Wright, Barney S Graham, Jason S McLellan, Laura M Walker
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in young children and the elderly. There are currently no licensed RSV vaccines, and passive prophylaxis with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab is restricted to high-risk infants in part due to its modest efficacy. Although it is widely agreed that an effective RSV vaccine will require the induction of a potent neutralizing antibody response against the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein, little is known about the specificities and functional activities of RSV F-specific antibodies induced by natural infection...
December 16, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103684/activation-pathway-of-a-nucleoside-analog-inhibiting-respiratory-syncytial-virus-polymerase
#15
Paul C Jordan, Sarah K Stevens, Yuen Tam, Ryan P Pemberton, Shuvam Chaudhuri, Antitsa D Stoycheva, Natalia Dyatkina, Guangyi Wang, Julian A Symons, Jerome Deval, Leo Beigelman
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative-sense RNA virus and a significant cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly. No effective vaccines or antiviral therapies are available for the treatment of RSV. ALS-8176 is a first-in-class nucleoside prodrug inhibitor of RSV replication currently under clinical evaluation. ALS-8112, the parent molecule of ALS-8176, undergoes intracellular phosphorylation, yielding the active 5'-triphosphate metabolite. The host kinases responsible for this conversion are not known...
20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#16
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088400/hospitalizations-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-vaccine-preventable-infections-in-the-first-2-years-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#17
Amy G Feldman, Shikha S Sundaram, Brenda L Beaty, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To examine in liver transplant recipients at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information System dataset the number of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccine-preventable infections (VPIs) in the first 2 years after transplantation, morbidity and mortality associated with these hospitalizations, and costs associated with these hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years of age who underwent liver transplantation at a Pediatric Health Information System center between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076422/monoclonal-antibody-against-g-glycoprotein-increases-respiratory-syncytial-virus-clearance-in-vivo-and-prevents-vaccine-enhanced-diseases
#18
Hyo-Jeong Lee, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Min-Hee Park, Joo-Young Kim, Jun Chang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children, and the elderly. The G glycoprotein plays a role in host cell attachment and also modulates the host immune response, thereby inducing disease pathogenesis. We generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; 5H6 and 3A5) against G protein core fragment (Gcf), which consisted of amino acid residues 131 to 230 from RSV A2 G protein. Epitope mapping study revealed that 5H6 specifically binds to the G/164-176 peptide that includes conserved sequences shared by both RSV A and B subtypes, and 3A5 binds to the G/190-204 peptide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065474/a-single-low-dose-of-a-cgmp-recombinant-bcg-vaccine-elicits-protective-t-cell-immunity-against-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-and-prevents-lung-pathology-in-mice
#19
Pablo F Céspedes, Emma Rey-Jurado, Janyra A Espinoza, Claudia A Rivera, Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062184/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-activity-is-required-for-efficient-respiratory-syncytial-virus-production
#20
Leon Caly, Hong-Mei Li, Marie A Bogoyevitch, David A Jans
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infections in infants and the elderly, leading to more deaths than influenza each year worldwide. With no RSV antiviral or efficacious vaccine currently available, improved understanding of the host-RSV interaction is urgently required. Here we examine the contribution to RSV infection of the host stress-regulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), for the first time. Peak JNK1/2 phosphoactivation is observed at ∼24 h post-infection, correlating with the time of virus assembly...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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