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Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931240/influenza-like-illness-incidence-is-not-reduced-by-influenza-vaccination-in-a-cohort-of-older-adults-despite-effectively-reducing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-virus-infections
#1
Josine van Beek, Reinier H Veenhoven, Jacob P Bruin, Renée A J van Boxtel, Marit M A de Lange, Adam Meijer, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Nynke Y Rots, Willem Luytjes
Background: Data on the relative contribution of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens to respiratory infections in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) are needed. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the Netherlands during 2 winters. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected during influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes and from controls. Viruses and bacteria were identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and conventional bacterial culture...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925795/application-of-replication-defective-west-nile-virus-vector-to-non-flavivirus-vaccine-targets
#2
Maryann Giel-Moloney, Michael Vaine, Linong Zhang, Mark Parrington, Beata Gajewska, Thorsten U Vogel, Svetlana O Pougatcheva, Xiaochu Duan, Timothy Farrell, Irina Ustyugova, Sanjay Phogat, Harry Kleanthous, Konstantin V Pugachev
The RepliVaxvaccine platform(RV) is based on flavivirus genomes that are rationally attenuated by deletion. The self-limiting infection provided by RV has been demonstrated to be safe, highly immunogenic and efficacious for several vaccine candidates against flaviviruses. Here respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F, influenza virus HA, and Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env proteins were expressed in place of either prM-E or C-prM-E gene deletions of the West Nile (WN) genome. The resulting RV-RSV, -influenza and -SIV vaccine prototypes replicated efficiently in complementing helper cells expressing the WN structural proteins in trans...
September 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#3
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903503/identifying-gaps-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-epidemiology-in-the-united-states-prior-to-the-introduction-of-vaccines
#4
Lindsay Kim, Brian Rha, Jon S Abramson, Larry J Anderson, Carrie L Byington, Grace L Chen, John DeVincenzo, Kathryn M Edwards, Janet A Englund, Ann R Falsey, Marie R Griffin, Ruth A Karron, Karen G Martin, H Cody Meissner, Flor M Munoz, Andrew T Pavia, Pedro A Piedra, William Schaffner, Eric A F Simões, Rosalyn Singleton, H Keipp Talbot, Edward E Walsh, Jane R Zucker, Susan I Gerber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract illness frequently. No effective antivirals or vaccines for RSV are approved for use in the United States; however, there are at least 50 vaccines and monoclonal antibody products in development, with those targeting older adults and pregnant women (to protect young infants) in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Unanswered questions regarding RSV epidemiology need to be identified and addressed prior to RSV vaccine introduction to guide the measurement of impact and future recommendations...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903080/transplacental-transfer-of-maternal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-antibody-and-protection-against-rsv-disease-in-infants-in-rural-nepal
#5
Helen Y Chu, James Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Amalia S Magaret, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Mark C Steinhoff, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia in children. RSV-specific antibody (ab) protects infants from disease, and may be increased by a potential strategy of maternal RSV vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of RSV antibody on RSV infection risk in infants in a resource-limited setting. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study in Nepal, women were enrolled during pregnancy and maternal and infant cord blood were collected at birth...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894111/induction-of-high-titred-non-neutralising-antibodies-by-self-adjuvanting-peptide-epitopes-derived-from-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein
#6
Noushin Jaberolansar, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Imogen M Bermingham, Istvan Toth, Paul R Young, Mariusz Skwarczynski
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. The significant morbidity and mortality rates associated with RSV infection make an effective RSV vaccine development a priority. Two neutralising antibody binding sites, Ø and II, located on the pre-fusion RSV F glycoprotein are prime candidates for epitope-focused vaccine design. We report on a vaccine strategy that utilises a lipid core peptide (LCP) delivery system with self-adjuvanting properties in conjunction with either the antigenic site Ø or II (B cell epitopes) along with PADRE as a T helper cell epitope...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881156/nucleic-acid-based-vaccines-targeting-respiratory-syncytial-virus-delivering-the-goods
#7
Trevor R F Smith, Katherine Schultheis, Kate E Broderick
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a massive medical burden on a global scale. Infants, children and the elderly represent the vulnerable populations. Currently there is no approved vaccine to protect against the disease. Vaccine development has been hindered by several factors including vaccine enhanced disease (VED) associated with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccines, inability of target populations to raise protective immune responses after vaccination or natural viral infection, and a lack of consensus concerning the most appropriate virus-associated target antigen...
September 7, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877226/distinct-patterns-of-innate-immune-activation-by-clinical-isolates-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#8
Ruth Levitz, Yajing Gao, Igor Dozmorov, Ran Song, Edward K Wakeland, Jeffrey S Kahn
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major respiratory pathogen of infants and young children. Multiple strains of both subgroup A and B viruses circulate during each seasonal epidemic. Genetic heterogeneity among RSV genomes, in large part due to the error prone RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase, could mediate variations in pathogenicity. We evaluated clinical strains of RSV for their ability to induce the innate immune response. Subgroup B viruses were used to infect human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) and primary monocyte-derived human macrophages (MDM) from a variety of donors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867684/neutralizing-epitopes-of-rsv-and-palivizumab-resistance-in-japan
#9
Koichi Hashimoto, Mitsuaki Hosoya
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogen related to acute lower respiratory infection in young children. The virus surface envelope contains the G, F, and SH proteins as spike proteins. The F protein is considered to be a major antigenic target for the neutralizing (NT) epitope as only the F protein is essential for cell infection among the three viral envelope proteins, and it is more highly conserved than the G protein. Recently, four antigenic targets related to NT activity have been reported;site I, site II, site IV, and site zero (0)...
September 1, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865676/determining-the-outcomes-of-interventions-to-prevent-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-in-children-what-to-measure
#10
REVIEW
Ruth A Karron, Heather J Zar
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of viral acute lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) in young children, and a major cause of hospital admissions and health-care utilisation globally. Substantial efforts have been made to develop RSV vaccines and vaccine-like monoclonal antibodies to prevent acute RSV LRTI. Prevention of acute disease could improve long-term lung health, with potential effects on wheezing, asthma, and chronic lung disease. This Personal View describes assessments that should be initiated during clinical trials and continued after licensure to fully evaluate the effect of RSV preventive interventions...
August 30, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859915/viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-new-perspectives-for-management-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Mauricio T Caballero, Fernando P Polack, Renato T Stein
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to address advances in management and treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in infants. SOURCES: A systematic review search was made including all articles published in English between 2010 and 2017, and available in the electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and specialized register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group (Cochrane review group). The following MESH terms in English were included, using different Boolean operators for the search strategy: "bronchiolitis, viral," "diagnosis," "epidemiology," "etiology," "therapy," "virology," "prevention and control," "respiratory syncytial virus, human...
August 30, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856681/reduced-activation-and-proliferation-of-human-lymphocytes-exposed-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-compared-to-cells-exposed-to-influenza-virus
#12
Elisa H Fleming, Eliana E Ochoa, Joan E Nichols, M Kerry O'Banion, Alan R Salkind, Norbert J Roberts
Both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) may infect human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC) during the immune response to viral challenge as the cells are recruited to the respiratory tract. The current studies demonstrated differences in PBMC responses to the two viruses very early after exposure, including reduced fos protein and CD69 expression and IL-2 production by RSV-exposed T lymphocytes. Exposure to RSV resulted in reduced lymphocyte proliferation despite evidence of a virus-specific T lymphocyte frequency equivalent to that for influenza virus...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854003/soluble-f-proteins-exacerbate-pulmonary-histopathology-after-vaccination-upon-respiratory-syncytial-virus-challenge-but-not-when-presented-on-virus-like-particles
#13
Youri Lee, Young-Tae Lee, Eun-Ju Ko, Ki-Hye Kim, Hye Suk Hwang, Soojin Park, Young-Man Kwon, Sang Moo Kang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein is suggested to be a protective vaccine target although its efficacy and safety concerns remain not well understood. We investigated immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of F proteins in a soluble form or on virus-like particle (F-VLP). F VLP preferentially elicited IgG2a antibody and T helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses whereas F protein induced IgG1 isotype and Th2 responses. Despite lung viral clearance after prime or prime-boost and then RSV challenge, F protein immune mice displayed weight loss and lung histopathology and high mucus production and eosinophils...
August 30, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846899/virus-like-particle-vaccine-primes-immune-responses-preventing-inactivated-virus-vaccine-enhanced-disease-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#14
Hye Suk Hwang, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Youri Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Sang-Moo Kang
Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge...
August 25, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839014/complete-genome-sequence-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-from-lanzhou-china
#15
Chuanfeng Zhu, Shengfang Fu, Xv Zhou, Li Yu
A complete genome of human respiratory syncytial virus was sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the full-length human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) genome sequence belongs to gene type NA1. We sequenced the genome in order to create the full-length cDNA infectious clone and develop vaccines against HRSV.
August 24, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835504/attenuated-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-1-hpiv1-expressing-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-f-glycoprotein-from-an-added-gene-effects-of-pre-fusion-stabilization-and-packaging-of-rsv-f
#16
Xiang Liu, Bo Liang, Joan Ngwuta, Xueqiao Liu, Sonja Surman, Matthias Lingemann, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent worldwide cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) also causes severe pediatric respiratory illness, especially croup. Both viruses lack vaccines. Here, we describe the preclinical development of a bivalent RSV/HPIV1 vaccine based on a recombinant HPIV1 vector, attenuated by a stabilized mutation, that expresses RSV F protein modified for increased stability in the pre-fusion (pre-F) conformation by previously-described disulfide bond (DS) and hydrophobic cavity-filling (Cav1) mutations...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831577/chest-radiographic-features-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-pediatric-patients
#17
Melissa A Hilmes, F Daniel Dunnavant, Sudha P Singh, Wendy D Ellis, Daniel C Payne, Yuwei Zhu, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, John V Williams
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825870/intranasal-immunization-with-a-single-dose-of-the-fusion-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-induces-long-term-protective-immunity-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
R Garg, L Latimer, V Gerdts, A Potter, S van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory tract infections in both children and elderly people. In this study we evaluated the short- and long-term protective efficacy of a single intranasal (IN) immunization with a RSV vaccine formulation consisting of a codon-optimized fusion (F) protein formulated with poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (ΔF/TriAdj). This vaccine induced strong systemic and local immune responses, including RSV F-specific IgG1 and IgG2a, SIgA and virus neutralizing antibodies in mice...
August 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822646/the-crucial-role-of-maternal-care-providers-as-vaccinators-for-pregnant-women
#19
Maria Luz Vilca, Susanna Esposito
Vaccination during pregnancy is increasingly being recognised internationally a useful means of preventing illness in pregnant women and their newborns. It has been used since the 1960s, when it was found that tetanus vaccine was highly effective in preventing neonatal tetanus, but interest has greatly increased over the last few years. As new data become available showing the numerous benefits of maternal immunisation and its potential for improving maternal and neonatal health in relation to a number of infectious conditions, it is being increasingly incorporated into the national vaccination programmes around the world...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822432/-clinical-analysis-of-children-with-pertussis-and-significance-of-respiratory-virus-detection-in-the-combined-diagnosis
#20
H Huang, L Deng, F Xiao, J Fu, J Deng, F Wang, J Yang
Objective: To analyze the clinical data of children with pertussis and explore the necessity of respiratory virus detection in the combined diagnosis so as to improve the clinician's understanding and standardize the diagnosis and treatment of pertussis in children. Method: Clinical data and laboratory examination of 195 suspected pertussis children between Jan. 2015 and Dec. 2016 in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatric were analyzed retrospectively. Result: The nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from 195 suspected pertussis children, PCR was employed to detect the nucleic acid of Bordetella pertussis...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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