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Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545321/virus-detection-by-pcr-following-vaccination-of-naive-calves-with-intranasal-or-injectable-multivalent-modified-live-viral-vaccines
#1
Paul H Walz, Benjamin W Newcomer, Kay P Riddell, Daniel W Scruggs, Victor S Cortese
We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544850/pcpp-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-sf-subunit-vaccine-self-assembled-supramolecular-complexes-enable-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection
#2
Corinne Cayatte, Alexander Marin, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Angie Snell Bennett, Jason D Marshall, Alexander K Andrianov
PCPP, a well-defined polyphosphazene macromolecule, has been studied as an immunoadjuvant for a soluble form of the post-fusion glycoprotein (RSV sF) of RSV, which is an attractive vaccine candidate for inducing RSV-specific immunity in mice and humans. We demonstrate that RSV sF-PCPP formulations induce high neutralization titers to RSV comparable to Alum formulations even at a low PCPP dose and protect animals against viral challenge both in the lung and upper respiratory tract. PCPP formulations were also characterized by Th1-biased responses, compared to Th2-biased responses that are more typical for RSV sF alone or RSV sF-Alum formulations, suggesting an inherent immunostimulating activity of the polyphosphazene adjuvant...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539444/improved-prefusion-stability-optimized-codon-usage-and-augmented-virion-packaging-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-in-a-vectored-vaccine-candidate
#3
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Sonja Surman, Barbora Kabatova, Xiang Liu, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Lijuan Yang, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of severe pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide, but lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. A live-attenuated chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type-3 (rB/HPIV3) was developed previously as a vector expressing RSV fusion (F) protein to confer bivalent protection against RSV and HPIV3. In a previous clinical trial in virus-naïve children, rB/HPIV3 was well-tolerated but the immunogenicity of wildtype RSV F was unsatisfactory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#4
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531224/defining-the-vaccination-window-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-using-age-seroprevalence-data-for-children-in-kilifi-kenya
#5
Joyce U Nyiro, Ivy K Kombe, Charles J Sande, James Kipkoech, Patience K Kiyuka, Clayton O Onyango, Patrick K Munywoki, Timothy M Kinyanjui, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in early life and a target for vaccine prevention. Data on the age-prevalence of RSV specific antibodies will inform on optimizing vaccine delivery. METHODS: Archived plasma samples were randomly selected within age strata from 960 children less than 145 months of age admitted to Kilifi County Hospital pediatric wards between 2007 and 2010. Samples were tested for antibodies to RSV using crude virus IgG ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#6
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527341/unravelling-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreaks-in-buenos-aires-argentina-molecular-basis-of-the-spatio-temporal-transmission
#7
Gabriel Lihue Rojo, Stephanie Goya, Mariana Orellana, Andrea Sancilio, Alberto Rodriguez Perez, César Montali, Carolina García, Lilian Sosa, Alejandra Musto, Daniela Alvarez, Alejandro Castello, Mariana Viegas
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RSV are under research and development, which are about to be approved. We evaluated transmission patterns in different settings to determine age-specific vaccination targets from a viral perspective. We sequenced the G glycoprotein's ectodomain of a constant clinical sampling between two epidemic outbreaks in a limited geographical region and performed phylogeographic analyses...
May 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#8
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525878/vaccine-development-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#9
REVIEW
Barney S Graham
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important and ubiquitous respiratory pathogen for which no vaccine is available notwithstanding more than 50 years of effort. It causes the most severe disease at the extremes of age and in settings of immunodeficiency. Although RSV is susceptible to neutralizing antibody, it has evolved multiple mechanisms of immune evasion allowing it to repeatedly infect people despite relatively little genetic diversity. Recent breakthroughs in determining the structure and antigenic content of the fusion (F) glycoprotein in its metastable untriggered prefusion form (pre-F) and the stable rearranged postfusion form (post-F) have yielded vaccine strategies that can induce potent neutralizing antibody responses and effectively boost pre-existing neutralizing activity...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524109/unexpected-infection-spikes-in-a-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccination
#10
Robert J Smith, Alexandra B Hogan, Geoffry N Mercer
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an acute respiratory infection that infects millions of children and infants worldwide. Recent research has shown promise for the development of a vaccine, with a range of vaccine types now in clinical trials or preclinical development. We extend an existing mathematical model with seasonal transmission to include vaccination. We model vaccination both as a continuous process, applying the vaccine during pregnancy, and as a discrete one, using impulsive differential equations, applying pulse vaccination...
May 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510985/changing-diagnosis-coding-routines-may-confound-the-results-of-longitudinal-childhood-pneumonia-studies
#11
M Eriksson, A Nilsson, R Bennet
AIM: This Swedish study compared the discharge diagnosis codes used for children up to the age of five hospitalised for acute lower respiratory tract infections before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2007. METHODS: The International Classification of Diseases - 10(th) revision codes were used. We compared the discharge diagnosis codes at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2007 (n=1,127) and 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 (n=1,240) in relation to the diagnostic methods used...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508217/bac-based-recovery-of-recombinant-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv
#12
Christopher C Stobart, Anne L Hotard, Jia Meng, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus, which causes lower respiratory tract infections and is a leading cause of mortality in young infants. There is no available RSV vaccine and currently administered prophylactic antibodies are limited to high-risk populations. Current efforts to develop vaccines include development of live-attenuated RSV candidates. We describe here methods for preparation and recovery of recombinant RSV using an efficient bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based system, expansion and plaque purification of recovered virus, and generation of master and working stocks...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#13
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins aggravate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500974/ongoing-developments-in-rsv-prophylaxis-a-clinician-s-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Fariba Rezaee, Debra T Linfield, Terri J Harford, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494927/comparison-of-interferon-and-bovine-herpesvirus-1-specific-iga-levels-in-nasal-secretions-of-dairy-cattle-administered-an-intranasal-modified-live-viral-vaccine-prior-to-calving-or-on-the-day-of-calving
#15
Victor S Cortese, Amelia Woolums, David J Hurley, Roy Berghaus, John K Bernard, Thomas H Short
Thirty-two Holstein cows were allocated to receive intranasal vaccination with modified live bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3V) vaccine either two weeks prior to their projected calving date, or within 24h after calving. Nasal secretions were collected twice at a 12-h interval on the day prior to vaccination (day 0) and at 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14days post vaccination to measure interferon (IFN) alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, and BHV-1-specific IgA by ELISA...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483246/comparison-of-first-year-of-life-acute-otitis-media-admissions-before-and-after-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#16
Tal Marom, Ofer Israel, Haim Gavriel, Jacob Pitaro, Ali Abo Baker, Ephraim Eviatar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood infection, which is usually managed in the outpatient setting. Yet, the more severe cases are referred for inpatient treatment. We hypothesized that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), administered during the first year of life, would decrease AOM admissions rate in this age group. We studied the characteristics of infants admitted with AOM and acute mastoiditis (AM) in the PCV13 era, routinely given from November 2010 to all infants...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476625/a-multi-laboratory-study-of-diverse-rsv-neutralization-assays-indicates-feasibility-for-harmonization-with-an-international-standard
#17
Nancy Hosken, Brian Plikaytis, Carrie Trujillo, Kutub Mahmood, Deborah Higgins
A current barrier to the standardized evaluation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates is the wide variety of virus neutralization assay formats currently in use for assessing immunogenicity. Assay formats vary widely in labor intensiveness, duration, and sample throughput. Furthermore, the cell lines and virus strains used are not consistent among formats. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to assess the variability across a diverse array of assay formats that quantitate RSV neutralizing antibodies...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469033/a-highly-potent-extended-half-life-antibody-as-a-potential-rsv-vaccine-surrogate-for-all-infants
#18
Qing Zhu, Jason S McLellan, Nicole L Kallewaard, Nancy D Ulbrandt, Susan Palaszynski, Jing Zhang, Brian Moldt, Anis Khan, Catherine Svabek, Josephine M McAuliffe, Daniel Wrapp, Nita K Patel, Kimberly E Cook, Bettina W M Richter, Patricia C Ryan, Andy Q Yuan, JoAnn A Suzich
Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in all infants is a major public health priority. However, no vaccine is currently available to protect this vulnerable population. Palivizumab, the only approved agent for RSV prophylaxis, is limited to high-risk infants, and the cost associated with the requirement for dosing throughout the RSV season makes its use impractical for all infants. We describe the development of a monoclonal antibody as potential RSV prophylaxis for all infants with a single intramuscular dose...
May 3, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468888/antibody-induced-internalization-of-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein
#19
A Leemans, M De Schryver, W Van der Gucht, A Heykers, I Pintelon, A L Hotard, M L Moore, J A Melero, J S McLellan, B S Graham, L Broadbent, U F Power, G Caljon, P Cos, L Maes, P Delputte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections remain a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalizations among infants. Infection recurs frequently and establishes a weak and short-lived immunity. To date, RSV immunoprophylaxis and vaccine research is mainly focused on the RSV fusion (F) protein, but a vaccine remains elusive. The RSV F protein is a highly conserved surface glycoprotein and the main target of neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection. Here, we analyzed an internalization process of antigen-antibody complexes after binding of RSV-specific antibodies to RSV antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458916/transmission-patterns-and-evolution-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-a-community-outbreak-identified-by-genomic-analysis
#20
Charles N Agoti, Patrick K Munywoki, My V T Phan, James R Otieno, Everlyn Kamau, Anne Bett, Ivy Kombe, George Githinji, Graham F Medley, Patricia A Cane, Paul Kellam, Matthew Cotten, D James Nokes
Detailed information on the source, spread and evolution of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during seasonal community outbreaks remains sparse. Molecular analyses of attachment (G) gene sequences from hospitalized cases suggest that multiple genotypes and variants co-circulate during epidemics and that RSV persistence over successive seasons is characterized by replacement and multiple new introductions of variants. No studies have defined the patterns of introduction, spread and evolution of RSV at the local community and household level...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
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