Read by QxMD icon Read

Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine

Elisa C Martinez, Ravendra Garg, Pratima Shrivastava, Susantha Gomis, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. There are no licensed RSV vaccines available, and the few treatment options for high-risk individuals are either extremely costly or cause severe side effects and toxicity. Immunomodulation mediated by a novel formulation consisting of the toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (P-I-P) was evaluated in the context of lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
Jessica A Flynn, Eberhard Durr, Ryan Swoyer, Pedro J Cejas, Melanie S Horton, Jennifer D Galli, Scott A Cosmi, Amy S Espeseth, Andrew J Bett, Lan Zhang
Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in humans, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in both young children and older adults. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available, and therapeutic options are limited. During the infection process, the type I viral fusion (F) glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV particle rearranges from a metastable prefusion conformation to a highly stable postfusion form. In people naturally infected with RSV, most potent neutralizing antibodies are directed to the prefusion form of the F protein...
2016: PloS One
Susanna Esposito, Giada Di Pietro
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infection among infants and the elderly worldwide. Despite its long history, no licensed vaccine is available. Recently, advances in the knowledge of RSV biology and pathology as well as the development of new techniques to generate vaccine candidates have increased the number of promising vaccines. The aim of this review is to analyze RSV characteristics, to consider the history of RSV vaccines and to discuss RSV vaccines currently in development...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Terho Heikkinen, Emilia Ojala, Matti Waris
BACKGROUND:  Vaccines and antivirals against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are being developed, but there are scarce data on the full impact of RSV infection on outpatient children. METHODS:  We analyzed the burden of RSV in a prospective cohort study of children aged ≤13 years during 2 consecutive respiratory seasons in Turku, Finland (2231 child-seasons of follow-up). We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ravendra Garg, Michael Theaker, Elisa C Martinez, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory illness in infants and elderly. RSV infection induces short-lived immunity, which leaves people prone to re-infection. In contrast, the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (∆F/TriAdj) elicits long term protective immunity. A comparison of RSV-immunized mice to mice vaccinated with a single dose of ∆F/TriAdj showed no difference in IgG1 and IgG2a production; however, local IgA secreting memory B cell development and B cell IgA production were significantly lower in RSV vaccinated mice than in ∆F/TriAdj-immunized mice...
October 6, 2016: Virology
Pierre-Louis Hervé, Delphyne Descamps, Charlotte Deloizy, Véronique Dhelft, Daphné Laubreton, Edwige Bouguyon, Abdelhak Boukadiri, Catherine Dubuquoy, Thibaut Larcher, Pierre-Henri Benhamou, Jean-François Eléouët, Nicolas Bertho, Lucie Mondoulet, Sabine Riffault
To put a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) vaccine onto the market, new vaccination strategies combining scientific and technical innovations need to be explored. Such a vaccine would also need to be adapted to the vaccination of young children that are the principal victims of acute RSV infection. In the present project, we describe the development and the preclinical evaluation of an original epicutaneous RSV vaccine that combines two technologies: Viaskin® epicutaneous patches as a delivery platform and RSV N-nanorings (N) as a subunit antigen...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
J T Richeson, J A Carroll, N C Burdick Sanchez, N D May, H D Hughes, S L Roberts, P R Broadway, K P Sharon, M A Ballou
Our objective was to examine immunosuppression induced by dexamethasone (DEX) administration in cattle on immunological responses to a multivalent respiratory vaccine containing replicating and nonreplicating agents. Steers ( = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) seronegative to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V) were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) acute immunosuppression (ACU; 0...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Janet A Englund, Helen Y Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Joanne M Langley, Naresh Aggarwal, Azhar Toma, Scott A Halperin, Shelly A McNeil, Laurence Fissette, Walthere Dewé, Maarten Leyssen, Jean-François Toussaint, Ilse Dieussaert
BACKGROUND:  RSV is a leading cause of childhood bronchiolitis and pneumonia, particularly in early infancy. Immunization of pregnant women could boost pre-existing immune responses, providing passive protection to the newborn through placental transfer of anti-RSV antibody. METHODS:  In this first-in-humans clinical trial of a purified recombinant RSV protein F vaccine engineered to preferentially maintain pre-fusion conformation (RSV-PreF), 128 healthy men 18-44 years old were randomized to one dose of a RSV-PreF vaccine containing 10, 30 or 60 µg of RSV-PreF antigen with or without alum adjuvant, or control, and followed for one year for safety and immunogenicity outcomes...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Asuncion Mejias, Cristina Garcia-Maurino, Rosa Rodriguez-Fernandez, Mark E Peeples, Octavio Ramilo
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, immunocompromised patients and the elderly. Despite the high disease burden, an effective and safe vaccine is lacking, although several candidates are currently in development. Current treatment for RSV infection remains largely supportive and RSV-specific options for prophylaxis are limited to palivizumab. In the past few years, novel therapeutic options including nanobodies, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have emerged and there are several products in preclinical and Phase-I, -II or -III clinical trials...
September 27, 2016: Vaccine
José A Melero, Vicente Mas, Jason S McLellan
Extraordinary progress in the structure and immunobiology of the human respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins has been accomplished during the last few years. Determination of the fusion (F) glycoprotein structure folded in either the prefusion or the postfusion conformation was an inspiring breakthrough not only to understand the structural changes associated with the membrane fusion process but additionally to appreciate the antigenic intricacies of the F protein. Furthermore, these developments have opened new avenues for structure-based designs of promising hRSV vaccine candidates...
September 28, 2016: Vaccine
Koen B Pouwels, Sefika E Bozdemir, Selen Yegenoglu, Solmaz Celebi, E David McIntosh, Serhat Unal, Maarten J Postma, Mustafa Hacimustafaoglu
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is considered to be the most important viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality among infants and young children. Although no active vaccine is available on the market yet, there are several active vaccine development programs in various stages. To assess whether one of these vaccines might be a future asset for national immunization programs, modeling the costs and benefits of various vaccination strategies is needed...
2016: PloS One
Erdal Eroglu, Ankur Singh, Swapnil Bawage, Pooja M Tiwari, Komal Vig, Shreekumar R Pillai, Vida A Dennis, Shree R Singh
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe acute lower respiratory tract disease leading to numerous hospitalizations and deaths among the infant and elderly populations worldwide. There is no vaccine or a less effective drug available against RSV infections. Natural RSV infection stimulates the Th1 immune response and activates the production of neutralizing antibodies, while earlier vaccine trials that used UV-inactivated RSV exacerbated the disease due to the activation of the allergic Th2 response...
2016: Advances in Virology
Ying Hua, Yue-Ying Jiao, Yao Ma, Xiang-Lei Peng, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yan-Peng Zheng, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious infection in the lower respiratory tract, especially in infants, young children, the elderly and the immunocompromised population worldwide. Previous study demonstrated the polypeptide (amino acids 148-198) of RSV attachment (G) glycoprotein, corresponding to the central conserved region and encompassing CX3C chemokine motif, could induce antibodies and protection from RSV challenge in mice [1,2]. In this study, we evaluated the immune efficacy of the recombinant DNA vaccine of pVAX1/3G148-198 encoding RSV G protein polypeptide...
September 26, 2016: Immunology Letters
Yan Sun, Carolina B López
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild to severe respiratory illness in humans and is a major cause of hospitalizations of infants and the elderly. Both the innate and the adaptive immune responses contribute to the control of RSV infection, but despite successful viral clearance, protective immunity against RSV re-infection is usually suboptimal and infections recur. Poor understanding of the mechanisms limiting the induction of long-lasting immunity has delayed the development of an effective vaccine...
September 26, 2016: Vaccine
April M Killikelly, Masaru Kanekiyo, Barney S Graham
The lack of a licensed vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can be partly attributed to regulatory hurdles resulting from vaccine enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) subsequent to natural RSV infection that was observed in clinical trials of formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) in antigen-naïve infants. To develop an effective vaccine that does not enhance RSV illness, it is important to understand how formalin and heat inactivation affected the antigenicity and immunogenicity of FI-RSV compared to native virus...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shadi Shahriari, James Gordon, Reena Ghildyal
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children, the elderly, and the immunosuppressed. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available that effectively target RSV infections, proving a significant challenge in regards to prevention and treatment. An in-depth understanding of the host-virus interactions that underlie assembly and budding would inform new targets for antiviral development.Current research suggests that the polymerised form of actin, the filamentous or F-actin, plays a role in RSV assembly and budding...
September 26, 2016: Virology Journal
Sylvia Taylor, Pio Lopez, Lily Weckx, Charissa Borja-Tabora, Rolando Ulloa-Gutierrez, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Angkool Kerdpanich, Miguel Angel Rodriguez Weber, Abiel Mascareñas de Los Santos, Juan-Carlos Tinoco, Marco Aurelio P Safadi, Fong Seng Lim, Marcela Hernandez-de Mezerville, Idis Faingezicht, Aurelio Cruz-Valdez, Yang Feng, Ping Li, Serge Durviaux, Gerco Haars, Sumita Roy-Ghanta, David W Vaughn, Terry Nolan
BACKGROUND: Better population data on respiratory viruses in children in tropical and southern hemisphere countries is needed. METHODS: The epidemiology of respiratory viruses among healthy children (6 months to <10 years) with influenza-like illness (ILI) was determined in a population sample derived from an influenza vaccine trial (NCT01051661) in 17 centers in eight countries (Australia, South East Asia and Latin America). Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year (between February 2010 and August 2011), with PCR analysis of nasal and throat swabs...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Infection
Elisabeth Heylen, Johan Neyts, Dirk Jochmans
The development of antiviral strategies to prevent or treat respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections is of great importance, especially considering the fact that RSV is one of the most important causes of pediatric respiratory infections. However, despite intense efforts, there is no antiviral or vaccine approved for the prevention or treatment of RSV infections. Several inhibitors, targeting different RSV proteins have been discovered over the past decade. We here review the most important chemical series as well as recent developments in understanding which viral proteins and/or host cell factors are good targets for inhibition of viral replication...
September 19, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"