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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457714/selective-recognition-of-rna-substrates-by-adar-deaminase-domains
#1
Yuru Wang, SeHee Park, Peter A Beal
Adenosine deamination is one of the most prevalent post-transcriptional modifications in mRNA and is catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 in humans. ADAR1 and ADAR2 have different substrate selectivity, which is believed to mainly originate from the proteins' deaminase domains (hADAR1d and hADAR2d, respectively). RNA-seq of the S. cerevisiae transcriptome subjected to ADAR-catalyzed RNA editing identified substrates with common secondary structure features preferentially edited by hADAR1d over hADAR2d. The relatively small size and efficient reaction of one of these substrates suggested it could be useful for further study of the hADAR1d reaction...
February 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457665/comparative-analysis-of-lipid-mediated-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-techniques
#2
Kelsey P Ringer, Mark G Roth, Mitchell S Garey, Ted B Piorczynski, Arminda Suli, Jason M Hansen, Jonathan K Alder
CRISPR-Cas technology has revolutionized genome engineering. While Cas9 was not the first programmable endonuclease identified, its simplicity of use has driven widespread adoption in a short period of time. While CRISPR-Cas genome editing holds enormous potential for clinical applications, its use in laboratory settings for genotype-phenotype studies and genome-wide screens has led to breakthroughs in the understanding of many molecular pathways. Numerous protocols have been described for introducing CRISPR-Cas components into cells, and here we sought to simplify and optimize a protocol for genome editing using readily available and inexpensive tools...
February 19, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457375/evidence-for-alternate-modes-of-b-cell-activation-involving-fab-acquired-n-glycosylations-in-antibody-secreting-cells-infiltrating-the-labial-salivary-glands-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients
#3
Kristi A Koelsch, Joshua Cavett, Kenneth Smith, Jacen S Moore, Sylvain D Lehoux, Nan Jia, Tim Mather, Syed M S Quadri, Astrid Rasmussen, C Erick Kaufman, David M Lewis, Lida Radfar, Teresa A Scordino, Christopher J Lessard, Biji T Kurien, Richard D Cummings, Judith A James, Kathy L Sivils, A Darise Farris, R Hal Scofield
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the role of B cells, potential mechanisms for their aberrant activation, and the production of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's Syndrome (SS), we explored selection pressures and N-glycosylation acquired by somatic mutation (acN-glyc) in the immunoglobulin (Ig) variable regions (V-regions) of antibody secreting cells (ASCs) isolated from the minor salivary glands of SS patients and non-SS controls with sicca symptoms. METHODS: We report a novel method to produce and characterize recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from SS patient and control labial salivary gland single-cell sorted ASC infiltrates that can be utilized to concurrently probe any other expressed genes...
February 18, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456984/the-efficacy-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-the-anxiety-disorders-among-adolescent-girls
#4
Afsaneh Karbasi, Azadeh Haratian
Background: The prevalence of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents are found to be approximately between 8-12 and 5-10, respectively, and the long-lasting effects of such disorders can expose the sufferers to impairment and dysfunction in several areas of life the examples of which are poor educational performance, low self-esteem, and depression. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based, cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) in treating the anxiety disorders among adolescent females...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456867/heterologous-and-endogenous-u6-snrna-promoters-enable-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-in-aspergillus-niger
#5
Xiaomei Zheng, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Zhang Kun, Yanhe Ma
Background: U6 promoters have been used for single guide RNA (sgRNA) transcription in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing system. However, no available U6 promoters have been identified in Aspergillus niger, which is an important industrial platform for organic acid and protein production. Two CRISPR/Cas9 systems established in A. niger have recourse to the RNA polymerase II promoter or in vitro transcription for sgRNA synthesis, but these approaches generally increase cloning efforts and genetic manipulation...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456815/crispr-cas9-a-new-approach-to-successful-knockdown-of-abcb1-p-glycoprotein-and-reversal-of-chemosensitivity-in-human-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-cell-line
#6
Leyla Norouzi-Barough, Mohammadreza Sarookhani, Rasoul Salehi, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Sahar Moghbelinejad
Objectives: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in the successful chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, is a well-known strategy to overcome MDR in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency and ability of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to knockdown ABCB1 gene expression in adriamycin resistant (A2780/ADR) ovarian cancer cell line and evaluate the sensitivity changes to doxorubicin...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456439/parent-training-and-skill-acquisition-and-utilization-among-spanish-and-english-speaking-latino-families
#7
Giovanni Ramos, Angela M Blizzard, Nicole E Barroso, Daniel M Bagner
In the U.S., there is a growing Latino population, in which parents primarily speak Spanish to their children. Despite the evidence that language preference is associated with level of acculturation and influences parenting practices in these families, no study has compared how Spanish-and English-speaking Latino families acquire and utilize the skills taught during parent-training programs such as Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty-seven mother-infant Latino dyads received a home-based adaptation of the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) phase of PCIT as part of a larger randomized control trial...
January 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456084/rescue-of-fragile-x-syndrome-neurons-by-dna-methylation-editing-of-the-fmr1-gene
#8
X Shawn Liu, Hao Wu, Marine Krzisch, Xuebing Wu, John Graef, Julien Muffat, Denes Hnisz, Charles H Li, Bingbing Yuan, Chuanyun Xu, Yun Li, Dan Vershkov, Angela Cacace, Richard A Young, Rudolf Jaenisch
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of intellectual disability in males, is caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene associated with hypermethylation of the CGG expansion mutation in the 5' UTR of FMR1 in FXS patients. Here, we applied recently developed DNA methylation editing tools to reverse this hypermethylation event. Targeted demethylation of the CGG expansion by dCas9-Tet1/single guide RNA (sgRNA) switched the heterochromatin status of the upstream FMR1 promoter to an active chromatin state, restoring a persistent expression of FMR1 in FXS iPSCs...
February 8, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455935/engineering-pgpmos-through-gene-editing-and-systems-biology-a-solution-for-phytoremediation
#9
REVIEW
Supratim Basu, Roel C Rabara, Sangeeta Negi, Pratyoosh Shukla
In light of extensive urbanization and deforestation, toxic wastes are being released into the atmosphere, causing increased air and soil pollution. Conventional methods of soil remediation are time consuming and labor and cost intensive, rendering them uneconomical to maintain sustainable agriculture. One solution is to use natural resources like plants and microbes for phytoremediation. A thorough systemic knowledge of plant-microbe interactions will allow the use of gene editing and gene manipulation techniques to increase the efficiency of plants in phytoremediation...
February 15, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455555/employment-status-is-related-to-sleep-problems-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-impairment
#10
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale, Agnes Hazi
Both sleep problems and unemployment are common in adults with autism spectrum disorder; however, little research has explored this relationship in this population. This study aimed to explore factors that may be associated with the presence of an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition defined sleep disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ > 80). A total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 36 controls were included in the study. Participants completed a 14-day actigraphy assessment and questionnaire battery...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455231/impact-of-a-multicenter-mentored-quality-collaborative-on-hospital-associated-venous-thromboembolism
#11
Ian Jenkins, Tamra O'Bryan, Janet Holdych, Gregory Maynard
BACKGROUND: Reliable prophylaxis of hospitalassociated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) is not achieved in many hospitals. Efforts to improve prophylaxis have had uneven results. OBJECTIVE: To reduce HA-VTE with a scalable quality improvement collaborative. DESIGN: A prospective, unblinded, open-intervention study with historical controls. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: All adult inpatients at 35 community hospitals in California, Arizona, and Nevada...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455171/visual-motor-integration-and-fine-motor-skills-at-6%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-associations-with-neonatal-brain-volumes-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-in-sweden-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Jenny Bolk, Nelly Padilla, Lea Forsman, Lina Broström, Kerstin Hellgren, Ulrika Åden
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. SETTING: Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. PARTICIPANTS: All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454970/increased-cerebrospinal-fluid-complement-c5-levels-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#13
Takashi Ishii, Kotaro Hattori, Tomoko Miyakawa, Kentaro Watanabe, Shinsuke Hidese, Daimei Sasayama, Miho Ota, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Sumiko Yoshida, Akihiko Nunomura, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Hiroshi Kunugi
Inflammation has been implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders. We aimed to determine whether levels of complement C5 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which may reflect activation of the complement system in the brain, are altered in patients with major psychiatric disorders. Additionally, we examined possible associations of CSF C5 levels with clinical variables. Subjects comprised 89 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 66 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), 96 patients with schizophrenia, and 117 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese)...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454694/milk-losses-associated-with-somatic-cell-counts-by-parity-and-stage-of-lactation
#14
Juliano L Gonçalves, Roger I Cue, Bruno G Botaro, José A Horst, Altair A Valloto, Marcos V Santos
The reduction of milk production caused by subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was evaluated through the regression of test-day milk yield on log-transformed somatic cell counts (LnSCC). Official test-day records (n = 1,688,054) of Holstein cows (n = 87,695) were obtained from 719 herds from January 2010 to December 2015. Editing was performed to ensure both reliability and consistency for the statistical analysis, and the final data set comprised 232,937 test-day records from 31,692 Holstein cows in 243 herds...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453973/pax5-haploinsufficiency-induce-cancer-cell-dormancy-in-raji-cells
#15
Xue Liang, Jia Gu, TongJuan Li, Lei Zhao, Xing Fu, Wei Zhang, Jue Wang, Zhen Shang, Wei Huang, Jianfeng Zhou
PAX5 mutations have important role in leukemogenesis and leukemia relapse, cancer cell dormancy participates in cancer relapse, but there was no report about PAX5 mutation inducing cancer cell dormancy. we constructed the PAX5 deletion Raji cell lines using gene editing technology, evaluated dormancy biological characteristics of cell lines. Our results showed PAX5 haploinsufficiency restrained the proliferation of Raji cells, induced G0/G1 arrest of Raji cells, reduced chemotherapy sensitivity. The tumor formation rate reduced in PAX5 mutation Raji cells...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453460/development-and-initial-characterization-of-a-novel-ghrelin-receptor-crispr-cas9-knockout-wistar-rat-model
#16
L J Zallar, B J Tunstall, C T Richie, Y J Zhang, Z B You, E L Gardner, M Heilig, J Pickel, G F Koob, L F Vendruscolo, B K Harvey, L Leggio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin, a stomach-derived hormone implicated in numerous behaviors including feeding, reward, stress, and addictive behaviors, acts by binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Here, we present the development, verification, and initial characterization of a novel GHSR knockout (KO) Wistar rat model created with CRISPR genome editing. METHODS: Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed a GHSR KO in a Wistar background. Loss of GHSR mRNA expression was histologically verified using RNAscope in wild-type (WT; n = 2) and KO (n = 2) rats...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453439/working-memory-and-brain-tissue-microstructure-white-matter-tract-integrity-based-on-multi-shell-diffusion-mri
#17
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453406/crispr-cas9-a-tool-to-efficiently-increase-the-development-of-recombinant-african-swine-fever-viruses
#18
Manuel V Borca, Lauren G Holinka, Keith A Berggren, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453277/editing-out-five-serpina1-paralogs-to-create-a-mouse-model-of-genetic-emphysema
#19
Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R Flotte, Michael H Brodsky, Andrew M Hoffman, Mai K Elmallah, Christian Mueller
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 10% of the worldwide population, and the leading genetic cause is α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Due to the complexity of the murine locus, which includes up to six Serpina1 paralogs, no genetic animal model of the disease has been successfully generated until now. Here we create a quintuple Serpina1a-e knockout using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The phenotype recapitulates the human disease phenotype, i.e., absence of hepatic and circulating AAT translates functionally to a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase...
February 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453127/generation-of-d1-1-talen-isogenic-control-cell-line-from-dravet-syndrome-patient-ipscs-using-talen-mediated-editing-of-the-scn1a-gene
#20
Yasuyoshi Tanaka, Takefumi Sone, Norimichi Higurashi, Tetsushi Sakuma, Sadafumi Suzuki, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Takashi Yamamoto, Jun Mitsui, Hitomi Tsuji, Hideyuki Okano, Shinichi Hirose
Dravet syndrome (DS) is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy mainly caused by de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene encoding the α1 subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na v 1.1. As an in vitro model of this disease, we previously generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a patient with DS carrying a c.4933C>T (p.R1645*) substitution in SCN1A. Here, we describe developing a genome-edited control cell line from this DS iPSC line by substituting the point mutation with the wild-type residue...
February 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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