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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168899/global-scales-for-cognitive-screening-in-parkinson-s-disease-critique-and-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Matej Skorvanek, Jennifer G Goldman, Marjan Jahanshahi, Connie Marras, Irena Rektorova, Ben Schmand, Erik van Duijn, Christopher G Goetz, Daniel Weintraub, Glenn T Stebbins, Pablo Martinez-Martin
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease, with deficits ranging from mild cognitive difficulties in 1 or more of the cognitive domains to severe dementia. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society commissioned the assessment of the clinimetric properties of cognitive rating scales measuring global cognitive performance in PD to make recommendations regarding their use. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the scales used to assess global cognitive performance in PD, and the identified scales were reviewed and rated as "recommended," "recommended with caveats," "suggested," or "listed" by the panel using previously established criteria...
November 23, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168820/exoplanet-find-oil-pipeline-and-a-gene-editing-first
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168435/a-continuous-assay-for-monitoring-the-synthetic-and-proofreading-activities-of-multiple-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-for-high-throughput-drug-discovery
#3
Christopher D Grube, Hervé Roy
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNAs to produce the aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) required by ribosomes for translation of the genetic message into proteins. To ensure the accuracy of tRNA aminoacylation, and consequently the fidelity of protein synthesis, some aaRSs exhibit a proofreading (editing) site, distinct from the aa-tRNA synthetic site. The aaRS editing site hydrolyzes misacylated products formed when a non-cognate amino acid is used during tRNA charging. Because aaRSs play a central role in protein biosynthesis and cellular life, these proteins represent longstanding targets for therapeutic drug development to combat infectious diseases...
November 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168433/book-review-intraoperative-and-interventional-echocardiography-atlas-of-transesophageal-imaging-oxorn-donald-c-otto-catherine-m-2017-intraoperative-and-interventional-echocardiography-atlas-of-transesophageal-imaging-second-edition-philadelphia-pa-elsevier
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168120/the-8th-edition-of-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-tumor-node-metastasis-staging-system-for-gastric-cancer-is-superior-to-the-7th-edition-results-from-a-chinese-mono-institutional-study-of-1663-patients
#5
Xin Ji, Zhao-De Bu, Yan Yan, Zi-Yu Li, Ai-Wen Wu, Lian-Hai Zhang, Ji Zhang, Xiao-Jiang Wu, Xiang-Long Zong, Shuang-Xi Li, Fei Shan, Zi-Yu Jia, Jia-Fu Ji
BACKGROUND: We investigated the superiority of the 8th edition of the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system for patients in China with gastric cancer. METHODS: The survival outcomes of 1663 patients with gastric cancer undergoing radical resection were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 8th edition system, homogeneous 5-year survival rates among different pathological TNM (pTNM) categories belonging to the same stage were observed. However, in the 7th edition system, the differences of 5-year survival rate among pTNM categories belonging to the same stage were observed in stages IIB (P = 0...
November 22, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167680/gene-editing-and-crop-improvement-using-crispr-cas9-system
#6
REVIEW
Leena Arora, Alka Narula
Advancements in Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the fields of functional genomics and crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a multipurpose technology for genetic engineering that relies on the complementarity of the guideRNA (gRNA) to a specific sequence and the Cas9 endonuclease activity. It has broadened the agricultural research area, bringing in new opportunities to develop novel plant varieties with deletion of detrimental traits or addition of significant characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167553/updated-summary-of-genome-editing-technology-in-human-cultured-cells-linked-to-human-genetics-studies
#7
REVIEW
Tatsuo Miyamoto, Silvia Natsuko Akutsu, Shinya Matsuura
Current deep-sequencing technology provides a mass of nucleotide variations associated with human genetic disorders to accelerate the identification of causative mutations. To understand the etiology of genetic disorders, reverse genetics in human cultured cells is a useful approach for modeling a disease in vitro. However, gene targeting in human cultured cells is difficult because of their low activity of homologous recombination. Engineered endonucleases enable enhancement of the local activation of DNA repair pathways at the human genome target site to rewrite the desired sequence, thereby efficiently generating disease-modeling cultured cell clones...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167458/assembly-of-crispr-ribonucleoproteins-with-biotinylated-oligonucleotides-via-an-rna-aptamer-for-precise-gene-editing
#8
Jared Carlson-Stevermer, Amr A Abdeen, Lucille Kohlenberg, Madelyn Goedland, Kaivalya Molugu, Meng Lou, Krishanu Saha
Writing specific DNA sequences into the human genome is challenging with non-viral gene-editing reagents, since most of the edited sequences contain various imprecise insertions or deletions. We developed a modular RNA aptamer-streptavidin strategy, termed S1mplex, to complex CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins with a nucleic acid donor template, as well as other biotinylated molecules such as quantum dots. In human cells, tailored S1mplexes increase the ratio of precisely edited to imprecisely edited alleles up to 18-fold higher than standard gene-editing methods, and enrich cell populations containing multiplexed precise edits up to 42-fold...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167440/fusion-guide-rnas-for-orthogonal-gene-manipulation-with-cas9-and-cpf1
#9
Jiyeon Kweon, An-Hee Jang, Da-Eun Kim, Jin Wook Yang, Mijung Yoon, Ha Rim Shin, Jin-Soo Kim, Yongsub Kim
The bacteria-derived clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems are powerful tools for genome engineering. Recently, in addition to Cas protein engineering, the improvement of guide RNAs are also performed, contributing to broadening the research area of CRISPR-Cas9 systems. Here we develop a fusion guide RNA (fgRNA) that functions with both Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins to induce mutations in human cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that fgRNAs can be used in multiplex genome editing and orthogonal genome manipulation with two types of Cas proteins...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167381/crispr-trap-a-clean-approach-for-the-generation-of-gene-knockouts-and-gene-replacements-in-human-cells
#10
Stefan Reber, Jonas Mechtersheimer, Sofia Nasif, Julio Aguila Benitez, Martino Colombo, Michal Domanski, Daniel Jutzi, Eva Hedlund, Marc-David Ruepp
CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing offers the possibility to knock out (KO) almost any gene of interest in an affordable and simple manner. The most common strategy is the introduction of a frameshift into the open reading frame (ORF) of the target gene which truncates the coding sequence (CDS) and targets the corresponding transcript for degradation by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). However, we show that transcripts containing premature termination codons (PTCs) are not always degraded efficiently and can generate C-terminally truncated proteins which might have residual or dominant negative functions...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167375/loss-of-apobec1-rna-editing-function-in-microglia-exacerbates-age-related-cns-pathophysiology
#11
Daniel C Cole, Youngcheul Chung, Khatuna Gagnidze, Kaitlyn H Hajdarovic, Violeta Rayon-Estrada, Dewi Harjanto, Benedetta Bigio, Judit Gal-Toth, Teresa A Milner, Bruce S McEwen, F Nina Papavasiliou, Karen Bulloch
Microglia (MG), a heterogeneous population of phagocytic cells, play important roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and neural plasticity. Under steady-state conditions, MG maintain homeostasis by producing antiinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors, support myelin production, and remove synapses and cellular debris, as well as participating in "cross-correction," a process that supplies neurons with key factors for executing autophagy-lysosomal function. As sentinels for the immune system, MG also detect "danger" signals (pathogenic or traumatic insult), become activated, produce proinflammatory cytokines, and recruit monocytes and dendritic cells to the site of damage through a breached blood-brain barrier or via brain lymphatics...
November 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167373/epitranscriptomic-profiling-across-cell-types-reveals-associations-between-apobec1-mediated-rna-editing-gene-expression-outcomes-and-cellular-function
#12
Violeta Rayon-Estrada, Dewi Harjanto, Claire E Hamilton, Yamina A Berchiche, Emily Conn Gantman, Thomas P Sakmar, Karen Bulloch, Khatuna Gagnidze, Sheila Harroch, Bruce S McEwen, F Nina Papavasiliou
Epitranscriptomics refers to posttranscriptional alterations on an mRNA sequence that are dynamic and reproducible, and affect gene expression in a similar way to epigenetic modifications. However, the functional relevance of those modifications for the transcript, the cell, and the organism remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on RNA editing and show that Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-1 (APOBEC1), together with its cofactor RBM47, mediates robust editing in different tissues...
November 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167274/distinct-cellular-mechanisms-underlie-smooth-muscle-turnover-in-vascular-development-and-repair
#13
Urmas Roostalu, Bashar Aldeiri, Alessandra Albertini, Neil E Humphreys, Maj Simonsen-Jackson, Jason K Wong, Giulio Cossu
Rationale: Vascular smooth muscle turnover has important implications for blood vessel repair and for the development of cardiovascular diseases, yet lack of specific transgenic animal models has prevented it's in vivo analysis. Objective: To characterize the dynamics and mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle turnover from the earliest stages of embryonic development to arterial repair in the adult. Methods and Results: We show that CD146 is transiently expressed in vascular smooth muscle development. By using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing and in vitro smooth muscle differentiation assay we demonstrate that CD146 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation...
November 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166639/apobec3a-expression-in-penile-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Martina Heller, Elena-Sophie Prigge, Adam Kaczorowski, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Markus Hohenfellner, Stefan Duensing
BACKGROUND: APOBECs (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptides) are cytidine deaminases that have been implicated in the host defense against viruses by blocking viral replication. They have also been shown to play a role in genome hypermutation in several human cancers. An APOBEC3 hypermutation signature has been discovered in cervical cancer, which is intimately associated with infection by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). At the same time, HPV genomes themselves are subject to DNA editing by APOBECs...
November 23, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166426/rhinology-future-debates-an-euforea-report
#15
W J Fokkens, C Bachert, M Bernal-Sprekelsen, J Bousquet, M Djandji, A Dorenbaum, D Hakimi-Mehr, S Hendry, C Hopkins, A Leunig, L Mannent, D Mucha, M Onerci, B Pugin, S Toppila-Salmi, P Rowe, S F Seys, S Stimson, A Strzembosz, P W Hellings
The first Rhinology Future Debates was held in Brussels in December 2016, organized by EUFOREA (European Forum for Research and Education in Allergy and Airways diseases). The purpose of these debates is to bring novel developments in the field of Rhinology to the attention of the medical, paramedical and patient community, in a highly credible and balanced context. For the first time in Rhinology, a peer to peer scientific exchange with key experts in the field of rhinology and key medical colleagues from leading industries let to a brainstorming and discussion event on a number of hot issues in Rhinology...
November 22, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166388/associations-between-thyroid-dysfunction-and-developmental-status-in-children-with-excessive-iodine-status
#16
Inger Aakre, Tor A Strand, Khalil Moubarek, Ingrid Barikmo, Sigrun Henjum
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adequate iodine status and normal thyroid hormone synthesis are important for optimal child development. In this study, we explored whether young children's developmental status is associated with thyroid dysfunction in an area of chronic excessive iodine exposure. METHODS: We included 298 children between 18 and 48 months of age residing in Algerian refugee camps. Early child development was measured using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, third edition (ASQ-3), consisting of five domains: Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165812/a-novel-and-validated-prognostic-nomogram-based-on-liver-fibrosis-and-tumor-burden-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-curative-resection
#17
Jin-Long Huang, Yi-Peng Fu, Chu-Yu Jing, Yong Yi, Jian Sun, Wei Gan, Zhu-Feng Lu, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Shuang-Jian Qiu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most conventional staging systems were formulated concerning the tumor burden rather than the severity of liver fibrosis, which plays a central role in tumor promotion. The aim of this study was to formulate a prognostic nomogram comprehensively considering these two aspects for HCC after hepatectomy. METHODS: The prognostic significances of the four indicators namely laminin, hyaluronic acid, human procollagen type-III, and collagen type-IV that reflect liver fibrosis were explored in two independent cohorts...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165710/risk-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma-among-69-460-five-year-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-in-europe
#18
Chloe J Bright, Mike M Hawkins, David L Winter, Daniela Alessi, Rodrigue S Allodji, Francesca Bagnasco, Edit Bárdi, Andrea Bautz, Julianne Byrne, Elizabeth A M Feijen, Miranda M Fidler, Stanislaw Garwicz, Desiree Grabow, Thorgerdur Gudmundsdottir, Joyeeta Guha, Nadia Haddy, Momcilo Jankovic, Peter Kaatsch, Melanie Kaiser, Claudia E Kuehni, Helena Linge, Hilde Øfstaas, Cecile M Ronckers, Roderick Skinner, Jop C Teepen, Monica Terenziani, Giao Vu-Bezin, Finn Wesenberg, Thomas Wiebe, Carlotta Sacerdote, Zsuzsanna Jakab, Riccardo Haupt, Päivi Lähteenmäki, Lorna Zadravec Zaletel, Rahel Kuonen, Jeanette F Winther, Florent de Vathaire, Leontien C Kremer, Lars Hjorth, Raoul C Reulen
Background: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent primary soft-tissue sarcomas (STS), but the risks of specific STS histological subtypes are unknown. We quantified the risk of STS histological subtypes after specific types of childhood cancer. Methods: We pooled data from 13 European cohorts, yielding a cohort of 69 460 five-year survivors of childhood cancer. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) were calculated. Results: Overall, 301 STS developed compared with 19 expected (SIR = 15...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165678/the-genealogy-of-dementia-praecox-i-signs-and-symptoms-of-delusional-psychoses-from-1880-to-1900
#19
Kenneth S Kendler
We can trace, with high congruence, the clinical syndromes of depression and mania as described over the 20th century in psychiatric textbooks back to 1880 and to the earliest writing of Kraepelin published in 1883. However, this is not the case for Kraepelin's 2 delusional syndromes central to his overall nosology: Dementia Paranoides (later paranoid schizophrenia) and Paranoia. A detailed examination of 28 textbook descriptions of delusional psychoses from 1880 to 1900 reveals a diverse and partially overlapping set of syndromes with an admixture of symptoms and signs that would later be considered indicative of Dementia Paranoides and Paranoia...
November 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165639/human-cancer-tissues-exhibit-reduced-a-to-i-editing-of-mirnas-coupled-with-elevated-editing-of-their-targets
#20
Yishay Pinto, Ilana Buchumenski, Erez Y Levanon, Eli Eisenberg
A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification, known to be altered in tumors. It targets dozens of sites within miRNAs, some of which impact miRNA biogenesis and function, as well as many miRNA recognition sites. However, the full extent of the effect of editing on regulation by miRNAs and its behavior in human cancers is still unknown. Here we systematically characterized miRNA editing in 10 593 human samples across 32 cancer types and normal controls. We find that the majority of previously reported sites show little to no evidence for editing in this dataset, compile a list of 58 reliable miRNA editing sites, and study them across normal and cancer samples...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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