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Ebru Fındıklı, Mustafa Gökçe, Vedat Nacitarhan, Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Hüseyin Avni Fındıklı, Selçuk Kardaş, Merve Coşgun Şahin, Mehmet Fatih Karaaslan
Objective: That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods: Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Esma Akpınar, Cem Cerit, Anıl Talas, Ümit Tural
Objective: In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline. Methods: The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as 'major depressive episode' by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results: The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Madhurima Sarkar, Sarbari Ghosh, Akata Saha, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Subhasis Barik, Saptak Banerjee, Soumyabrata Roy, Anamika Bose, Parthasarathi Dasgupta, Rathindranath Baral
Heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME), broadly divided into tumor core and peripheral sub-microenvironments, differentially polarize normal macrophages into a different form known as tumor associated M2 macrophages (M2TAMs) to promote tumor growth. In view of the extensive immune-editing role of NLGP, here, we have observed that NLGP is effective to convert M2TAMs (CD11b(+)F4/80(high)) to M1 (CD11b(+)F4/80(low)) more prominently in tumor core, along with downregulation of other M2 associated markers, like, ManR, Ym1, Fizz1...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Amy E Barth, Amy Elleman
Purpose: We examined the effectiveness of a multistrategy inference intervention designed to increase inference making and reading comprehension for middle-grade struggling readers. Method: A total of 66 middle-grade struggling readers were randomized to treatment (n = 33) and comparison (n = 33) conditions. Students in the treatment group received explicit instruction in 4 inference strategies (i.e., clarification using text clues; activating and using prior knowledge; understanding character perspectives and author's purpose; answering inferential questions)...
October 24, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Srishti Dutta, Jane Tracy
The Editorial Executive Committee welcomes letters, which should be less than 250 words. Before a decision to publish is made, letters which refer to a published article may be sent to the author for a response. Any letter may be sent to an expert for comment. When letters are published, they are usually accompanied in the same issue by any responses or comments. The Committee screens out discourteous, inaccurate or libellous statements. The letters are sub-edited before publication. Authors are required to declare any conflicts of interest...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Toshiyuki Yamaji, Aya Horie, Yuriko Tachida, Chisato Sakuma, Yusuke Suzuki, Yasunori Kushi, Kentaro Hanada
Ceramide is a common precursor of sphingomyelin (SM) and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in mammalian cells. Ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2), one of the six ceramide synthase isoforms, is responsible for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acid (C20-26 fatty acids) (VLC)-containing ceramides (VLC-Cer). It is known that the proportion of VLC species in GSLs is higher than that in SM. To address the mechanism of the VLC-preference of GSLs, we used genome editing to establish three HeLa cell mutants that expressed different amounts of CERS2 and compared the acyl chain lengths of SM and GSLs by metabolic labeling experiments...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiang Chen, Changxi Zheng, Kun Zhou
Stress analysis is a crucial tool for designing structurally sound shapes. However, the expensive computational cost has hampered its use in interactive shape editing tasks. We augment the existing example-based shape editing tools, and propose a fast subspace stress analysis method to enable stress-aware shape editing. In particular, we construct a reduced stress basis from a small set of shape exemplars and possible external forces. This stress basis is automatically adapted to the current user edited shape on the fly, and thereby offers reliable stress estimation...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Alicia J Spittle, Jennifer M Walsh, Cody Potter, Emma Mcinnes, Joy E Olsen, Katherine J Lee, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
AIM: To examine the association between newborn neurobehavioural assessments and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years in infants born moderate-to-late preterm (MLPT). METHOD: Two-hundred and one infants born MLPT (born 32-36(+6) wks' gestation) were assessed with the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) and NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), with suboptimal performance defined as scores lower than the 10th centile. Development was assessed at 2 years corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition, with delay defined as scores less than 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Wenshu Luo, Hidenobu Mizuno, Ryohei Iwata, Shingo Nakazawa, Kosuke Yasuda, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Takuji Iwasato
Here we describe "Supernova" series of vector systems that enable single-cell labeling and labeled cell-specific gene manipulation, when introduced by in utero electroporation (IUE) or adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery. In Supernova, sparse labeling relies on low TRE leakage. In a small population of cells with over-threshold leakage, initial tTA-independent weak expression is enhanced by tTA/TRE-positive feedback along with a site-specific recombination system (e.g., Cre/loxP, Flpe/FRT). Sparse and bright labeling by Supernova with little background enables the visualization of the morphological details of individual neurons in densely packed brain areas such as the cortex and hippocampus, both during development and in adulthood...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Steffen Grampp, James L Platt, Victoria Lauer, Rafik Salama, Franziska Kranz, Viviana K Neumann, Sven Wach, Christine Stöhr, Arndt Hartmann, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Peter J Ratcliffe, David R Mole, Johannes Schödel
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) and unrestrained activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Genetic and epigenetic determinants have an impact on HIF pathways. A recent genome-wide association study on renal cancer susceptibility identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an intergenic region located between the oncogenes MYC and PVT1. Here using assays of chromatin conformation, allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome editing, we show that HIF binding to this regulatory element is necessary to trans-activate MYC and PVT1 expression specifically in cells of renal tubular origins...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
Fang Chen, Weifeng Zhang, Junli Zhao, Peiyan Yang, Rui Ma, Haibin Xia
Objective To prepare Rev-erbβ knockout HEK293 cells using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology. Methods The knock-in or knockout of Rev-erbβ gene could be realized by single-guide RNA (sgRNA)-mediated Cas9 cutting of target DNA, and followed by DNA homologous recombination or non-homologous end joining-mediated DNA repair. Firstly, four sgRNAs were designed for Rev-erbβ gene. The sgRNA1 and sgRNA2 with the higher activity were respectively used to construct pCMV-hCas9-U6-Rev-erbβ sgRNA1 and pCMV-hCas9-U6-Rev-erbβ sgRNA2...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Merav Kovatch, Daniel Feingold, Odelia Elkana, Shaul Lev-Ran
Prescription opioid medications are commonly used for the treatment of chronic pain. Assessments of problematic opioid use among pain patients are inconsistent across studies, partially due to differences between various measures. Therefore, the most appropriate measure to use is often unclear. In this study we assessed problematic opioid use in a sample of 551 individuals receiving treatment for chronic pain, using three questionnaires: the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - Fourth Edition (AUDADIS-IV), the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) questionnaire and Portenoy's criteria (PC)...
October 23, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Asuka Onuma, Wataru Fujii, Koji Sugiura, Kunihiko Naito
Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas system can induce mutations with high efficiency, and allows easier production of genome-modified animals than that offered by the conventional method where embryonic stem cells are used. However, studies using CRISPR/Cas systems have been mostly limited to proliferating somatic cells and pronuclear-stage fertilized eggs. In contrast, the efficiency of a CRISPR/Cas system in immature and maturing oocytes progressing through meiosis has not yet been assessed. In the present study, we evaluated the genome-modification efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Chloe Lane, Elizabeth Milne, Megan Freeth
Sotos syndrome is a congenital overgrowth disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 in 14,000. This study investigated behavioural characteristics of ASD within a large cohort of individuals with Sotos syndrome (n = 78). As measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale, second edition (SRS-2), 65 participants (83.33 %) met clinical cut-off (T-score ≥60). There was no significant gender difference in symptom severity. There was a significant effect of age, with lower scores observed in early childhood and adulthood, compared to childhood...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Elysia Poggi Davis, Kevin Head, Claudia Buss, Curt A Sandman
Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and are proposed as a key mechanism for programming fetal brain development. The present prospective longitudinal study evaluates the association between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child neurodevelopment. Participants included a low risk sample of 91 mother-child pairs. Prenatal maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at 19 and 31 gestational weeks. Brain development and cognitive functioning were assessed when children were 6-9 years of age...
October 15, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Z Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
The robust regenerative capacity of planarian flatworms depends on the orchestration of signaling events from early wounding responses through the stem cell enacted differentiative outcomes that restore appropriate tissue types. Acute signaling events in excitable cells play an important role in determining regenerative polarity, rationalized by the discovery that sub-epidermal muscle cells express critical patterning genes known to control regenerative outcomes. These data imply a dual conductive (neuromuscular signaling) and instructive (anterior-posterior patterning) role for Ca(2+) signaling in planarian regeneration...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Miklós Hegedűs, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Szabolcs Németh, János Somlai, Tibor Kovács
The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Igor Prpić, Ana Milardović, Inge Vlašić-Cicvarić, Zdravko Špiric, Jelena Radić Nišević, Petar Vukelić, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Milena Horvat
OBJECTIVES: To compare motor, cognitive and language characteristics in children aged 18 months who were prenatally exposed to low-level methyl-mercury (MeHg), and to analyze the eventual differences in these characteristics in relation to cord blood THg concentration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The total number of 205 child-mother pairs was included in the study, and total cord blood mercury was measured in 198 of them. Out of the 198 already measured samples, 47 of them have also been tested for methyl-mercury in cord blood...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Wojciech Rosikiewicz, Izabela Makałowska
Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are RNA molecules that originate from opposite DNA strands of the same genomic locus (cis-NAT) or unlinked genomic loci (trans-NAT). NATs may play various regulatory functions at the transcriptional level via transcriptional interference. NATs may also regulate gene expression levels post-transcriptionally via induction of epigenetic changes or double-stranded RNA formation, which may lead to endogenous RNA interference, RNA editing or RNA masking. The true biological significance of the natural antisense transcripts remains controversial despite many years of research...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Alexander Jarasch, Arne Skerra
The analysis and comparison of large numbers of immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences that arise during an antibody selection campaign can be time-consuming and tedious. Typically, the identification and annotation of framework as well as complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) is based on multiple sequence alignments using standardized numbering schemes, which allow identification of equivalent residues among different family members but often necessitate expert knowledge and manual intervention. Moreover, due to the enormous length variability of some CDRs the benefit of conventional Ig numbering schemes is limited and the calculation of correct sequence alignments can become challenging...
October 22, 2016: Proteins
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