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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330226/anti-oxidant-and-anti-microbial-properties-of-some-ethno-therapeutically-important-medicinal-plants-of-indian-himalayan-region
#1
Sandeep Rawat, Arun K Jugran, Amit Bahukhandi, Asutosh Bahuguna, Indra D Bhatt, Ranbeer S Rawal, Uppeandra Dhar
Therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as a source of noble natural anti-oxidants and anti-microbial agents has been well recognised all across the globe. In this study, phenolic compounds, in vitro anti-oxidant activity and anti-microbial properties have been investigated in five Himalayan medicinal plants, (e.g., Acorus calamus, Habenaria intermedia, Hedychium spicatum, Roscoea procera and Valeriana jatamansi) in different solvent systems. R. procera exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher phenolics; while H...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330085/bioprospecting-and-biotechnological-applications-of-fungal-laccase
#2
REVIEW
Pooja Upadhyay, Rahul Shrivastava, Pavan Kumar Agrawal
Laccase belongs to a small group of enzymes called the blue multicopper oxidases, having the potential ability of oxidation. It belongs to enzymes, which have innate properties of reactive radical production, but its utilization in many fields has been ignored because of its unavailability in the commercial field. There are diverse sources of laccase producing organisms like bacteria, fungi and plants. In fungi, laccase is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes and is particularly abundant in many white-rot fungi that degrade lignin...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330074/catalytic-properties-functional-attributes-and-industrial-applications-of-%C3%AE-glucosidases
#3
Gopal Singh, A K Verma, Vinod Kumar
β-Glucosidases are diverse group of enzymes with great functional importance to biological systems. These are grouped in multiple glycoside hydrolase families based on their catalytic and sequence characteristics. Most studies carried out on β-glucosidases are focused on their industrial applications rather than their endogenous function in the target organisms. β-Glucosidases performed many functions in bacteria as they are components of large complexes called cellulosomes and are responsible for the hydrolysis of short chain oligosaccharides and cellobiose...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329424/tea-polyphenols-as-inhibitors-of-furan-formed-in-the-maillard-model-system-and-canned-coffee-model
#4
K H Bi, L Zhang, X G Qiao, Z X Xu
In this article, the effects of sugars and amino acids on furan formation via the Maillard reaction in low-moisture model systems were investigated. Glucose and alanine are important furan precursors, and the effects of the heating temperature, heating time, and molar ratio of glucose to alanine on furan formation were studied in glucose/alanine model system by response surface methodology. The heating temperature greatly affected furan formation. The maximum furan concentration was obtained with a glucose-to-alanine molar ratio of 0...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327643/anthropogenic-shift-of-planktonic-food-web-structure-in-a-coastal-lagoon-by-freshwater-flow-regulation
#5
Deevesh A Hemraj, A Hossain, Qifeng Ye, Jian G Qin, Sophie C Leterme
Anthropogenic modification of aquatic systems has diverse impacts on food web interactions and ecosystem states. To reverse the adverse effects of modified freshwater flow, adequate management of discharge is required, especially due to higher water requirements and abstractions for human use. Here, we look at the effects of anthropogenically controlled freshwater flow regimes on the planktonic food web of a Ramsar listed coastal lagoon that is under recovery from degradation. Our results show shifts in water quality and plankton community interactions associated to changes in water flow...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327585/estimated-daily-intake-and-cumulative-risk-assessment-of-phthalates-in-the-general-taiwanese-after-the-2011-dehp-food-scandal
#6
Jung-Wei Chang, Ching-Chang Lee, Wen-Harn Pan, Wei-Chun Chou, Han-Bin Huang, Hung-Che Chiang, Po-Chin Huang
A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan's general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326744/nutritional-parameters-and-carbohydrate-and-fat-metabolism-after-prolonged-salsolinol-administration-in-rats-fed-normal-or-high-fat-diets
#7
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that exogenous salsolinol might contribute to myenteric cell death and altered gastrointestinal motility. Because the entire gut mucosal, entero-endocrine and motor functions are integrated by the enteric nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged intraperitoneal salsolinol administration alters basic metabolism and nutritional parameters in adult Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps for 2 or 4 weeks and fed either a normal or high-fat diet...
December 22, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326551/cyclic-imine-toxins-from-dinoflagellates-a-growing-family-of-potent-antagonists-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#8
REVIEW
Jordi Molgó, Pascale Marchot, Rómulo Aráoz, Evelyne Benoit, Bogdan I Iorga, Armen Zakarian, Palmer Taylor, Yves Bourne, Denis Servent
We present an overview of the toxicological profile of the fast-acting, lipophilic macrocyclic imine toxins, an emerging family of organic compounds associated with algal blooms, shellfish contamination and neurotoxicity. Worldwide, shellfish contamination incidents are expanding; therefore, the significance of these toxins for the shellfish food industry deserves further study. Emphasis is directed to the dinoflagellate species involved in their production, their chemical structures, and their specific mode of interaction with their principal natural molecular targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or with the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein, used as a surrogate receptor model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326095/potential-of-legume-brassica-intercrops-for-forage-production-and-green-manure-encouragements-from-a-temperate-southeast-european-environment
#9
REVIEW
Ana M Jeromela, Aleksandar M Mikić, Svetlana Vujić, Branko Ćupina, Đorđe Krstić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Sanja Vasiljević, Vojislav Mihailović, Sandra Cvejić, Dragana Miladinović
Legumes and brassicas have much in common: importance in agricultural history, rich biodiversity, numerous forms of use, high adaptability to diverse farming designs, and various non-food applications. Rare available resources demonstrate intercropping legumes and brassicas as beneficial to both, especially for the latter, profiting from better nitrogen nutrition. Our team aimed at designing a scheme of the intercrops of autumn- and spring-sown annual legumes with brassicas for ruminant feeding and green manure, and has carried out a set of field trials in a temperate Southeast European environment and during the past decade, aimed at assessing their potential for yields of forage dry matter and aboveground biomass nitrogen and their economic reliability via land equivalent ratio...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325705/biochemical-hydrological-and-mechanical-behaviors-of-high-food-waste-content-msw-landfill-preliminary-findings-from-a-large-scale-experiment
#10
Liang-Tong Zhan, Hui Xu, Yun-Min Chen, Fan Lü, Ji-Wu Lan, Li-Min Shao, Wei-An Lin, Pin-Jing He
A large-scale bioreactor experiment lasting for 2years was presented in this paper to investigate the biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content (HFWC) MSW. The experimental cell was 5m in length, 5m in width and 7.5m in depth, filled with unprocessed HFWC-MSWs of 91.3 tons. In the experiment, a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa was applied on waste surface, mature leachate refilling and warm leachate recirculation were performed to improve the degradation process. In this paper, the measurements of leachate quantity, leachate level, leachate biochemistry, gas composition, waste temperature, earth pressure and waste settlement were presented, and the following observations were made: (1) 26...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325596/the-influence-of-fertiliser-and-pesticide-emissions-model-on-life-cycle-assessment-of-agricultural-products-the-case-of-danish-and-italian-barley
#11
Ximena C Schmidt Rivera, Jacopo Bacenetti, Alessandra Fusi, Monia Niero
Barley is an ancient crop and a great source of nutrients. It is the third largest agricultural commodity produced in Denmark and represents a relevant crop in Italy too. Due to the increasing customers awareness of sustainability issues, it has become essential to evaluate the environmental impact and the use of resources in food production and distribution systems. However, especially in agriculture, difficulties are encountered when emissions from fertilisers and pesticides need to be modelled, due to a variety of modelling options and their dependency on the availability of site-specific information...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#12
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323938/loss-of-action-via-neurotensin-leptin-receptor-neurons-disrupts-leptin-and-ghrelin-mediated-control-of-energy-balance
#13
Juliette A Brown, Raluca Bugescu, Thomas Mayer, Adriana Gata-Garcia, Gizem Kurt, Hillary L Woodworth, Gina M Leinninger
The hormones ghrelin and leptin act via the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to modify energy balance but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated how leptin and ghrelin engage LHA neurons to modify energy balance behaviors and whether there is any cross-talk between leptin and ghrelin-responsive circuits. We demonstrate that ghrelin activates LHA neurons expressing Hypocretin/Orexin (OX) to increase food intake. Leptin mediates anorectic actions via separate neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb), many of which co-express the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts); we refer to these as NtsLepRb neurons...
March 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323394/feeding-preference-as-a-main-determinant-of-microscale-patchiness-among-terrestrial-nematodes
#14
Casper W Quist, Gerrit Gort, Christian Mulder, Ruud H P Wilbers, Aad J Termorshuizen, Jaap Bakker, Johannes Helder
Soil biota are responsible for essential ecosystem services such as carbon storage, nutrient cycling and water retention. However, assessment of the condition of soil biota is hampered by an overwhelming level of diversity. With representatives in all trophic levels of the food web, nematode communities can be used as bio-indicators. Accurate assessment of nematode assemblages requires insight in the distribution of specimens with distinct food preferences. With the availability of taxon-specific quantitative-PCR assays, distribution patterns of multiple nematode groups can be investigated simultaneously...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323070/urbanization-and-the-dynamics-of-rna-viruses-in-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos
#15
Michelle Wille, Kristine Lindqvist, Shaman Muradrasoli, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014. This artificial pond is kept ice-free during the winter months, and is a popular location where the ducks are fed, resulting in a resident population of ducks year-round...
March 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322934/comparative-immunogenomics-of-molluscs
#17
Jonathan H Schultz, Coen M Adema
Comparative immunology, studying both vertebrates and invertebrates, provided the earliest descriptions of phagocytosis as a general immune mechanism. However, the large scale of animal diversity challenges all-inclusive investigations and the field of immunology has developed by mostly emphasizing study of a few vertebrate species. In addressing the lack of comprehensive understanding of animal immunity, especially that of invertebrates, comparative immunology helps toward management of invertebrates that are food sources, agricultural pests, pathogens, or transmit diseases, and helps interpret the evolution of animal immunity...
March 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322529/-interventi-di-popolazione-per-contrastare-l-epidemia-di-prodotti-insalubri
#18
Giuseppe Gorini
"The multinational corporations producing tobacco, alcohol, soft drinks, and processed foods have a role of vectors in the increase of chronic diseases, so that one can speak of manufacturing epidemics. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a literature review on different approaches in population-based interventions to stem the rise in consumption of unhealthy products. Different approaches were found: • command-and-control regulations: the route is definitely more advanced for tobacco with the implementation of an international treaty, which requires 180 ratifying states to implement a series of tobacco control policies...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322524/-nudging-o-educazione-a-scelte-civiche-responsabili-l-esempio-dello-screening-della-mammella
#19
Mariachiara Tallacchini
"Nudge, or nudging, refers to a policy approach inspired by behavioral sciences: it promotes the conducts identified as desirable by regulators without applying prohibition and coercion. This approach has gained a lot of momentum in the domain of health policies. Policy strategies based on behavioral insights appear ideal as to implementing healthier life styles and public health programs while minimizing compliance costs: from organ donation to food choices, from fighting obesity and chronic diseases to screening policies...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322496/comparison-of-hydrodynamically-closed-two-dimensional-capillary-electrophoresis-coupled-with-ultraviolet-detection-and-hydrodynamically-open-capillary-electrophoresis-hyphenated-with-mass-spectrometry-in-the-bioanalysis-of-varenicline
#20
Juraj Piešťanský, Katarína Maráková, Jaroslav Galba, Andrej Kováč, Peter Mikuš
Two capillary electrophoresis methods for monitoring renally excreted varenicline, a highly effective drug prescribed for smoking cessation, in human urine were developed and compared. A method combining capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry was proposed for the fast analysis of varenicline (analysis time up to 7 min). Here, mass spectrometry was a prerequisite for achieving high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis suitable for the quantification of a 15 ng.mL(-1) level of varenicline in un-pretreated urine matrices...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
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