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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231680/-a-review-on-the-advancement-of-internet-based-public-health-surveillance-program
#1
Y Q Zhao, W J Ma
Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231278/interplay-between-fungicides-and-parasites-tebuconazole-but-not-copper-suppresses-infection-in-a-daphnia-metschnikowia-experimental-model
#2
Ana P Cuco, Nelson Abrantes, Fernando Gonçalves, Justyna Wolinska, Bruno B Castro
Natural populations are commonly exposed to complex stress scenarios, including anthropogenic contamination and their biological enemies (e.g., parasites). The study of the pollutant-parasite interplay is especially important, given the need for adequate regulations to promote improved ecosystem protection. In this study, a host-parasite model system (Daphnia spp. and the microparasitic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) was used to explore the reciprocal effects of contamination by common agrochemical fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) and parasite challenge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231180/evolution-of-the-maillard-reaction-in-glutamine-or-arginine-dextrinomaltose-model-systems
#3
Silvia Pastoriza, José Ángel Rufián-Henares, Belén García-Villanova, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández
Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction of animo acids with reducing sugars. Thus, although glutamine and arginine are usually added to improve the nutritional value of enteral formulas, their final concentration may vary. Thus, in the present paper the early, intermediate, and advanced states of the Maillard reaction were studied in model systems by measuring loss of free amino acids through the decrease of fluorescence intensity with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA), 5-Hydroximethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, glucosylisomaltol, fluorescence, and absorbance at 420 nm...
December 7, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231175/mushroom-polysaccharides-chemistry-and-antiobesity-antidiabetes-anticancer-and-antibiotic-properties-in-cells-rodents-and-humans
#4
REVIEW
Mendel Friedman
More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential...
November 29, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231127/a-summary-of-the-united-states-food-and-drug-administrations-food-safety-program-for-imported-seafood-one-country-s-approach
#5
REVIEW
Brett Koonse
It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E...
April 29, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231125/fundamental-study-on-the-impact-of-gluten-free-starches-on-the-quality-of-gluten-free-model-breads
#6
Stefan W Horstmann, Markus C E Belz, Mareile Heitmann, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K Arendt
Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato) was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system...
April 21, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231118/consumer-choice-between-food-safety-and-food-quality-the-case-of-farm-raised-atlantic-salmon
#7
Morteza Haghiri
Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada...
March 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231092/effect-of-different-flours-on-the-formation-of-hydroxymethylfurfural-furfural-and-dicarbonyl-compounds-in-heated-glucose-flour-systems
#8
Marta Mesías, Francisco J Morales
Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization...
February 16, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231081/improving-bread-quality-with-the-application-of-a-newly-purified-thermostable-%C3%AE-amylase-from-rhizopus-oryzae-fsis4
#9
Amel Ait Kaki El-Hadef El-Okki, Mohammed Gagaoua, Hayat Bourekoua, Kahina Hafid, Leila Bennamoun, Shahrazed Djekrif-Dakhmouche, Mohamed El-Hadef El-Okki, Zahia Meraihi
A new thermostable α-amylase from Rhizopus oryzae FSIS4 was purified for first time and recovered in a single step using a three-phase partitioning (TPP) system. The fungal α-amylase, at a concentration of 1.936 U per kg of flour, was used in bread-making and compared to the commercial enzyme. The results showed a significant effect of the recovered α-amylase in the prepared bread and allowed us to improve the quality of the bread. The study indicated clearly that the recovered α-amylase is a potential candidate for future applications in the bread-making industry and in other food biotechnology applications...
January 1, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230800/mutilating-procedures-management-practices-and-housing-conditions-that-may-affect-the-welfare-of-farm-animals-implications-for-welfare-research
#10
Rebecca E Nordquist, Franz Josef van der Staay, Frank J C M van Eerdenburg, Francisca C Velkers, Lisa Fijn, Saskia S Arndt
A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e...
February 21, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229938/participation-of-ghrelin-signalling-in-the-reciprocal-regulation-of-hypothalamic-npy-pomc-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#11
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
February 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229819/dabigatran-aggravates-topoisomerase-i-peptide-loaded-dendritic-cells-induced-lung-and-skin-fibrosis
#12
Heena Mehta, Philippe-Olivier Goulet, Jade Desjardins, Gemma Pérez, Martial Koenig, Jean-Luc Senécal, Marika Sarfati
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulated coagulation cascade has been implicated in development of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Thrombin, a key mediator of the coagulation pathway, has both proinflammatory and procoagulant properties. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of oral dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, on topoisomerase I dendritic cells (TOPOIA DCs)-induced lung and skin fibrosis, an experimental model of SSc. METHODS: Mice were repeatedly immunized with TOPOIA DCs...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229642/sleep-loss-and-recovery-after-administration-of-drugs-related-to-different-arousal-systems-in-rats
#13
T Hajnik, A Tóth, Ö Szalontai, M Pethő, L Détári
Sleep is homeostatically regulated suggesting a restorative function. Sleep deprivation is compensated by an increase in length and intensity of sleep. In this study, suppression of sleep was induced pharmacologically by drugs related to different arousal systems. All drugs caused non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep loss followed by different compensatory processes. Apomorphine caused a strong suppression of sleep followed by an intense recovery. In the case of fluoxetine and eserine, recovery of NREM sleep was completed by the end of the light phase due to the biphasic pattern demonstrated for these drugs first in the present experiments...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229548/oligofructose-decreases-serum-lipopolysaccharide-and-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-in-adults-with-overweight-obesity
#14
Jill A Parnell, Teja Klancic, Raylene A Reimer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of prebiotic supplementation on metabolic endotoxemia and systemic inflammation in adults with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Samples from a previously conducted randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial were used for analysis. Participants were randomized to 21 g of oligofructose (n = 20; BMI 30.4 kg/m(2) ) or a maltodextrin placebo (n = 17; BMI 29.5 kg/m(2) ) for 12 weeks. A total of 37 participants had samples available for the current analysis...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229538/biological-control-of-appetite-a-daunting-complexity
#15
Paul S MacLean, John E Blundell, Julie A Mennella, Rachel L Batterham
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes a portion of the discussions of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated," which focused on the biological aspects of appetite regulation. METHODS: This review summarizes the key biological inputs of appetite regulation and their implications for body weight regulation. RESULTS: These discussions offer an update of the long-held, rigid perspective of an "adipocentric" biological control, taking a broader view that also includes important inputs from the digestive tract, from lean mass, and from the chemical sensory systems underlying taste and smell...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229207/engineering-rtca-pathway-and-c4-dicarboxylate-transporter-for-l-malic-acid-production
#16
Xiulai Chen, Yuancai Wang, Xiaoxiang Dong, Guipeng Hu, Liming Liu
L-Malic acid is an important component of a vast array of food additives, antioxidants, disincrustants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Here, we presented a pathway optimization strategy and a transporter modification approach to reconstruct the L-malic acid biosynthesis pathway and transport system, respectively. First, pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh) from Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae were combinatorially overexpressed to construct the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway for L-malic acid biosynthesis...
February 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228134/the-impact-of-community-health-worker-led-home-delivery-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-virological-suppression-a-non-inferiority-cluster-randomized-health-systems-trial-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#18
Pascal Geldsetzer, Joel M Francis, Nzovu Ulenga, David Sando, Irene A Lema, Eric Mboggo, Maria Vaikath, Happiness Koda, Sharon Lwezaula, Janice Hu, Ramadhani A Noor, Ibironke Olofin, Elysia Larson, Wafaie Fawzi, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: Home delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by community health workers (CHWs) may improve ART retention by reducing the time burden and out-of-pocket expenditures to regularly attend an ART clinic. In addition, ART home delivery may shorten waiting times and improve quality of care for those in facility-based care by decongesting ART clinics. This trial aims to determine whether ART home delivery for patients who are clinically stable on ART combined with facility-based care for those who are not stable on ART is non-inferior to the standard of care (facility-based care for all ART patients) in achieving and maintaining virological suppression...
February 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228069/recent-advances-in-the-gastric-mucosal-protection-against-stress-induced-gastric-lesions-importance-of-renin-angiotensin-vasoactive-metabolites-gaseous-mediators-and-appetite-peptides
#19
Tomasz Brzozowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Marcin Magierowski, Agata Ptak-Belowska, Robert Pajdo, Slawomir Kwiecien, Rafal Olszanecki, Ryszard Korbut
Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in gastric blood flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227789/addressing-drug-drug-and-drug-food-interactions-through-personalized-empowerment-services-for-healthcare
#20
Marios Spanakis, Emmanouil G Spanakis, Haridimos Kondylakis, Stelios Sfakianakis, Irini Genitsaridi, Vangelis Sakkalis, Manolis Tsiknakis, Kostas Marias, Marios Spanakis, Emmanouil G Spanakis, Haridimos Kondylakis, Stelios Sfakianakis, Irini Genitsaridi, Vangelis Sakkalis, Manolis Tsiknakis, Kostas Marias, Manolis Tsiknakis, Haridimos Kondylakis, Kostas Marias, Stelios Sfakianakis, Irini Genitsaridi, Emmanouil G Spanakis, Vangelis Sakkalis, Marios Spanakis
Personalized healthcare systems support the provision of timely and appropriate information regarding healthcare options and treatment alternatives. Especially for patients that receive multi-drug treatments a key issue is the minimization of the risk of adverse effects due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). DDIs may be the result of doctor prescribed drugs but also due to self-medication of conventional drugs, alternative medicines, food habits, alcohol or smoking. It is therefore crucial for personalized health systems, apart from assisting physicians for optimal prescription practices, to also provide appropriate information for individual users for drug-drug interactions or similar information regarding risks for modulation of the ensuing treatment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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