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Food systems

Liliana Belmonte, Najate Achamrah, Séverine Nobis, Charlène Guérin, Gaëtan Riou, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Olivier Boyer, Vincent Richard, Jean Claude Do Rego, Pierre Déchelotte, Alexis Goichon, Moïse Coëffier
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and altered gut microbiota. However, the molecular origin of the inflammation remains unknown. Toll-like receptors are key regulators of innate immune response and their activation seems also to be involved in the control of food intake. We used activity-based anorexia (ABA) model to investigate the role of TLR4 and its contribution in anorexia-associated low-grade inflammation. Here, we found that ABA affected early the intestinal inflammatory status and the hypothalamic response...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stacy Cooper Bailey, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, William G Adams, Samantha A Brokenshire, Ryan P Hickson, Christine U Oramasionwu, Laura M Curtis, Mary J Kwasny, Michael S Wolf
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) affect millions of patients annually and place a significant burden on the healthcare system. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed patient safety information for high-risk medications that pose serious public health concerns. However, there are currently few assurances that patients receive this information or are able to identify or respond correctly to ADEs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of the Electronic Medication Complete Communication (EMC(2)) Strategy to promote safe medication use and reporting of ADEs in comparison to usual care...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Marlies Decleer, Andreja Rajkovic, Benedikt Sas, Annemieke Madder, Sarah De Saeger
Rapid and accurate UPLC-MS/MS methods for the simultaneous determination of beauvericin and the related enniatins (A, A1, B, B1), together with cereulide were successfully developed and validated in cereal and cereal-based food matrices such as wheat, maize, rice and pasta. Although these emerging foodborne toxins are of different microbial origin, the similar structural, toxicological and food safety features provided rationale for their concurrent detection in relevant food matrices. A Waters Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Waters Quattro Premier XE™ Mass Spectrometer operating in ESI+ mode was employed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Rangel Moreira Silva, Luciane Dias Pereira, Jefferson Hollanda Véras, Camila Regina do Vale, Lee Chen-Chen, Suzana da Costa Santos
Ellagitannins are well-known antioxidants in medicinal plants, foods, and edible fruits, particularly in Myrciaria cauliflora (jabuticaba). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of jabuticaba seed extract (JSE) and pedunculagin using in vivo micronucleus test and comet assay in mouse bone marrow cells, in combination with cyclophosphamide (CP), a bioreductive alkylating agent. The ellagitannin composition of JSE was determined by HPLC/PDA, with castalagin, vescalagin, and pedunculagin as the main compounds (124...
November 1, 2016: Mutation Research
José Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Joana Pla-Sanjuanelo, Marta Ferrer-García
BACKGROUND: Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has proven its efficacy in treating patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who are resistant to standard treatment. Furthermore, incorporating virtual reality (VR) technology is increasingly considered a valid exposure method that may help to increase the efficacy of standard treatments in a variety of eating disorders. Although immersive displays improve the beneficial effects, expensive technology is not always necessary. METHOD: We aimed to assess whether exposure to food related virtual environments could decrease food craving in a non-clinical sample...
November 2016: Psicothema
Ben Ajmia Wafa, Mohamed Makni, Sonda Ammar, Lamia Khannous, Amal Ben Hassana, Mohamed Bouaziz, Nour Eddine Es-Safi, Radhouane Gdoura
Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Cunlin Wang, Robert Kane, Mark Levenson, Jeffrey Kelman, Michael Wernecke, Joo-Yeon Lee, Steven Kozlowski, Carmen Dekmezian, Zhiwei Zhang, Aliza Thompson, Kimberly Smith, Yu-Te Wu, Yuqin Wei, Yoganand Chillarige, Qin Ryan, Chris Worrall, Thomas E MaCurdy, David J Graham
Importance: In 2011, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) changed its reimbursement policy for hemodialysis to a bundled comprehensive payment system that included the cost of erythrocyte-stimulating agents (ESAs). Also in 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration revised the drug label for ESAs, recommending more conservative dosing in patients with chronic kidney disease. In response to concerns that these measures could have adverse effects on patient care and outcomes, the CMS and the FDA initiated a collaboration to assess the effect...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Mauro Serafini, Elisabetta Toti
The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world's health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to "obesigen" consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Aiko Tanaka, Mie Nishimura, Yuji Sato, Hiroki Sato, Jun Nishihira
Pleurotus cornucopiae (Oyster mushroom, Tamogitake) has long been eaten as a functional food for enhancement of the immune system, but its effectiveness has not been well confirmed in humans. To this end, we set up a double-blind placebo-controlled human clinical trial to investigate the potential of Oyster mushrooms with respect to the up-regulation of the immune system. The subjects ingested Oyster mushroom extract for 8 weeks. We measured the serum cytokine levels involved in regulation of the immune system, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Ismail Ocsoy, Nuran Isiklan, Sena Cansiz, Nalan Özdemir, Weihong Tan
Aptamer-functionalized magnetic graphene oxide conjugates loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) dye, or Apt@ICG@mGO, have been successfully developed for dual-targeted photothermal and photodynamic therapy. In general, a drug or its carrier or their dosage can be imprtant important issues in terms of toxicity. However, in this system, each component used is quite safe, biocompatibe and clean. For instance, ICG, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) dye, serves as both a photothermal and photodynamic agent...
2016: RSC Advances
Sheila Fleischhacker, Gowri Ramachandran
This article briefly explains the food and nutrition implications of the new standards, tax penalties and reporting requirements for non-profit hospitals and healthcare systems to maintain a tax-exempt or charitable status under section 501(c)(3) of the Federal Internal Revenue Code set forth in The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148, Sec. 9007). The newly created 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code requires, beginning with the first tax year on or after March 23, 2012, that such hospitals demonstrate community benefit by conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) at least once every three years and annually file information by means of a Schedule H (Form 990) regarding progress towards addressing identified needs...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
Adam C Fisher, Sau L Lee, Daniel P Harris, Lucinda Buhse, Steven Kozlowski, Lawrence Yu, Michael Kopcha, Janet Woodcock
Failures surrounding pharmaceutical quality, particularly with respect to product manufacturing issues and facility remediation, account for the majority of drug shortages and product recalls in the United States. Major scientific advancements pressure established regulatory paradigms, especially in the areas of biosimilars, precision medicine, combination products, emerging manufacturing technologies, and the use of real-world data. Pharmaceutical manufacturing is increasingly globalized, prompting the need for more efficient surveillance systems for monitoring product quality...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Hongxue An, Xiaoming Li, Qi Yang, Dongbo Wang, Ting Xie, Jianwei Zhao, Qiuxiang Xu, Fei Chen, Yu Zhong, Yujie Yuan, Guangming Zeng
Melamine (MA) is a significant raw material for industry and home furnishing, and an intermediate for pharmacy. However it is also a hazardous material when being added to food as a protein substitute due to the high nitrogen content. In this study, the behavior of MA in activated sludge was investigated. Experiments showed that MA was removed during biological wastewater treatment process, and the removal was mainly achieved by activated sludge adsorption instead of biodegradation. Low levels of MA (0.001-0...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fatih Comert, Paul L Dubin
The coacervation of systems containing colloids (e.g. proteins or micelles) and polyelectrolytes (notably ionic polysaccharides) is often accompanied by precipitation. This can introduce inhomogeneity, irreversibility and irreproducible kinetics in applications in food science and bioengineering, with negative impact on texture and stability of food products, and unpredictable delivery of active "payloads." The relationship between coacervation and precipitation is obscure in that coacervates might be intermediates in the formation of precipitates, or else the two phenomena might proceed by different but possibly simultaneous mechanisms...
August 10, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
P Zeman
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is peculiar due to its unstable dynamics with profound inter-annual fluctuations in case numbers - a phenomenon not well understood to date. Possible reasons - apart from variable human contact with TBE foci - include external factors, e.g. climatic forcing, autonomous oscillations of the disease system itself, or a combined action of both. Spectral analysis of TBE data from six regions of central Europe (CE) revealed that the ostensibly chaotic dynamics can be explained in terms of four superposed (quasi-)periodical oscillations: a quasi-biennial, triennial, pentennial, and a decadal cycle...
October 24, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Michelle T Graham, Sandra Andorf, Jonathan M Spergel, Talal A Chatila, Kari C Nadeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergies (FAs) are a growing epidemic in western countries with poorly defined etiology. Defined as an adverse immune response to common food allergens, FAs present heterogeneously as a single- or multi-organ response that ranges in severity from localized hives and angioedema to systemic anaphylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research focusing on epithelial-derived cytokines contends that temporal regulation by these factors impact initial sensitization and persistence of FA responses upon repeated food allergen exposure...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Xianhua Li, Yanhong Liu, Qian Jia, Virginia LaMacchia, Kathryn O'Donoghue, Zuyi Huang
Oleuropein and its hydrolysis products are olive phenolic compounds that have antimicrobial effects on a variety of pathogens, with the potential to be utilized in food and pharmaceutical products. While the existing research is mainly focused on individual genes or enzymes that are regulated by oleuropein for antimicrobial activities, little work has been done to integrate intracellular genes, enzymes and metabolic reactions for a systematic investigation of antimicrobial mechanism of oleuropein. In this study, the first genome-scale modeling method was developed to predict the system-level changes of intracellular metabolism triggered by oleuropein in Staphylococcus aureus, a common food-borne pathogen...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Fabrizio Anniballi, Silvia Fillo, Francesco Giordani, Bruna Auricchio, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Enrica di Stefano, Giuseppina Mandarino, Dario De Medici, Florigio Lista
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterial agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuro-paralytic disease. Because of its high impact, in Italy botulism is monitored by an ad hoc surveillance system. The National Reference Centre for Botulism, as part of this system, collects and analyzes all demographic, epidemiologic, microbiological, and molecular data recovered during cases and/or outbreaks occurred in Italy. A panel of 312 C. botulinum strains belonging to group I were submitted to MLVA sub-typing. Strains, isolated from clinical specimens, food and environmental samples collected during the surveillance activities, were representative of all forms of botulism from all Italian regions...
October 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Patrick M Brunner, Jonathan I Silverberg, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Amy S Paller, Kenji Kabashima, Masayuki Amagai, Thomas A Luger, Mette Deleuran, Thomas Werfel, Kilian Eyerich, Georg Stingl
Atopic dermatitis comorbidities extend well beyond the march to allergic conditions (food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis), suggesting both cutaneous and systemic immune activation. In reviewing atopic dermatitis comorbidities, Councilors of the International Eczema Council found a strong pattern of immune activation in peripheral blood and the propensity to both skin and systemic infections. Associations with cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, and malignant diseases were increasingly reported, but confirmation of their link with atopic dermatitis requires longitudinal studies...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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