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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634636/farmers-willingness-to-adopt-conservation-agriculture-new-evidence-from-lebanon
#1
Ali Chalak, Alexandra Irani, Jad Chaaban, Issam Bashour, Karin Seyfert, Kaitlyn Smoot, Gumataw Kifle Abebe
With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics-years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634476/changes-in-n-p-supply-ratios-affect-the-ecological-stoichiometry-of-a-toxic-cyanobacterium-and-its-fungal-parasite
#2
Thijs Frenken, Joren Wierenga, Alena S Gsell, Ellen van Donk, Thomas Rohrlack, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Human activities have dramatically altered nutrient fluxes from the landscape into receiving waters. As a result, not only the concentration of nutrients in surface waters has increased, but also their elemental ratios have changed. Such shifts in resource supply ratios will alter autotroph stoichiometry, which may in turn have consequences for higher trophic levels, including parasites. Here, we hypothesize that parasite elemental composition will follow changes in the stoichiometry of its host, and that its reproductive success will decrease with host nutrient limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634427/leveraging-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reports-for-the-automated-monitoring-of-electronic-health-records-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#3
Huaxiu Tang, Imre Solti, Eric Kirkendall, Haijun Zhai, Todd Lingren, Jaroslaw Meller, Yizhao Ni
The objective of this study was to determine whether the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data set could serve as the basis of automated electronic health record (EHR) monitoring for the adverse drug reaction (ADR) subset of adverse drug events. We retrospectively collected EHR entries for 71 909 pediatric inpatient visits at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques were used to identify positive diseases/disorders and signs/symptoms (DDSSs) from the patients' clinical narratives...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634162/linking-the-content-to-demographic-reach-of-online-advertising-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems
#4
David S Timberlake, Dmitriy Nikitin, Jennifer Garcia-Cano, Samantha Cino, Margarita Savkina, Cornelia Pechmann
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have separately examined the content and demographic reach of the advertising of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). No study to our knowledge has linked the two in investigating whether racial/ethnic groups are differentially exposed to the comparative messages conveyed in online ENDS advertisements. METHODS: 932 unique ENDS advertisements (6311 total), which were posted on 3435 websites between December, 2009 and October, 2015, were categorized as either comparative or non-comparative with respect to the traditional cigarette...
June 20, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634114/peanut-digestome-identification-of-digestion-resistant-ige-binding-peptides
#5
Luigia Di Stasio, Gianluca Picariello, Mariantonietta Mongiello, Rita Nocerino, Roberto Berni Canani, Simona Bavaro, Linda Monaci, Pasquale Ferranti, Gianfranco Mamone
Stability to proteolytic degradation in the digestive tract is considered a general feature shared by most food allergens. Current digestibility models exclusively utilize purified allergen proteins, neglecting the relevant effects of matrix that occur for foodstuff systems. In the present study, we investigated digestion stability of the major peanut allergens directly in the natural matrix using an in vitro static model that simulates the gastrointestinal digestion including the oral, gastric, duodenal and intestinal (brush border membrane enzymes) phases...
June 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633653/household-cereal-crop-harvest-and-children-s-nutritional-status-in-rural-burkina-faso
#6
Kristine Belesova, Antonio Gasparrini, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn, Paul Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Reduction of child undernutrition is one of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Achievement of this goal may be made more difficult in some settings by climate change through adverse impact on agricultural productivity. However, there is only limited quantitative evidence on the link between household crop harvests and child nutrition. We examined this link in a largely subsistence farming population in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: Data on the middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 975 children ≤5 years of age, household crop yields, and other parameters were obtained from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#7
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633456/feeding-during-dialysis-risks-and-uncertainties
#8
Rajiv Agarwal, Panagiotis Georgianos
Allowing dialysis patients to eat during the treatment is controversial. It is, therefore, no surprise that practices and policies with respect to intradialytic food consumption vary considerably from unit to unit and from country to country. Those who defend the position of feeding during dialysis reason that intradialytic meals offer a supervised and effective therapy for protein-energy wasting. Those who take the opposite view argue that intradialytic food intake should be avoided for the following three reasons...
June 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632789/movement-and-contact-patterns-of-long-distance-free-grazing-ducks-and-avian-influenza-persistence-in-vietnam
#9
Anne Meyer, Tung Xuan Dinh, Thu Van Nhu, Long Thanh Pham, Scott Newman, Thuy Thi Thanh Nguyen, Dirk Udo Pfeiffer, Timothée Vergne
Presence of ducks, and in particular of free-grazing ducks, has consistently been shown to be one of the most important risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks which has compromised poultry production in South-East Asia since the early 2000s and continues to threaten public health, farmers' livelihood and food security. Although free-grazing duck production has been practised for decades in South-East Asia, there are few published studies describing this production system, which is suspected to play an important role in the maintenance of avian influenza viruses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632188/smartphone-based-food-diagnostic-technologies-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Giovanni Rateni, Paolo Dario, Filippo Cavallo
A new generation of mobile sensing approaches offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed, control, low cost, ease-of-operation, and data management, and requires minimal equipment and user involvement. The marriage of novel sensing technologies with cellphones enables the development of powerful lab-on-smartphone platforms for many important applications including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. This paper reviews the recent advancements and developments in the field of smartphone-based food diagnostic technologies, with an emphasis on custom modules to enhance smartphone sensing capabilities...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632181/spirulina-protects-against-hepatic-inflammation-in-aging-an-effect-related-to-the-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#11
Audrey M Neyrinck, Bernard Taminiau, Hannah Walgrave, Georges Daube, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631803/a-gompertz-model-approach-to-microbial-inactivation-kinetics-by-high-pressure-processing-hpp-model-selection-and-experimental-validation
#12
Vinicio Serment-Moreno, Claudio Fuentes, José Antonio Torres, Jorge Welti-Chanes
A recently proposed Gompertz model (GMPZ) approach describing microbial inactivation kinetics by high-pressure processing (HPP) incorporated the initial microbial load (N0 ) and lower microbial quantification limit (Nlim ), and simplified the dynamic effects of come-up time (CUT). The inactivation of Listeria innocua in milk by HPP treatments at 300, 400, 500, and 600 MPa and pressure holding times (thold ) ≤10 min was determined experimentally to validate this model approach. Models based on exponential, logistic-exponential, and inverse functions were evaluated to describe the effect of pressure on the lag time (λ) and maximum inactivation rate (μmax ), whereas the asymptote difference (A) was fixed as A = log10 (N0 /Nlim )...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631591/comparative-evaluation-of-veriflow-%C3%A2-listeria-species-to-usda-culture-based-method-for-the-detection-of-listeria-spp-in-food-and-environmental-samples
#13
Adam C Joelsson, Shawn P Terkhorn, Ashley S Brown, Amrita Puri, Benjamin J Pascal, Zara E Gaudioso, Nicholas A Siciliano
Veriflow(®)Listeria species (Veriflow LS) isa molecular-based assay for the presumptive detection of Listeria spp. from environmental surfaces (stainless steel, sealed concrete, plastic, and ceramic tile) and ready-to-eat (RTE) food matrixes (hot dogs and deli meat). The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post-PCR amplification and requires only a 24 h enrichment for maximum sensitivity. The Veriflow LS system eliminates the need for sample purification, gel electrophoresis, or fluorophore-based detection of target amplification and does not require complex data analysis...
June 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631590/comparative-evaluation-of-veriflow-%C3%A2-salmonella-species-to-usda-and-fda-culture-based-methods-for-the-detection-of-salmonella-spp-in-food-and-environmental-samples
#14
Amrita Puri, Adam C Joelsson, Shawn P Terkhorn, Ashley S Brown, Zara E Gaudioso, Nicholas A Siciliano
Veriflow(®)Salmonella species (Veriflow SS)is a molecular-based assay for the presumptive detection of Salmonella spp. from environmental surfaces (stainless steel, sealed concrete, plastic, and ceramic tile), dairy (2% milk), raw meat (20% fat ground beef), chicken carcasses, and ready-to-eat (RTE) food (hot dogs). The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post-PCR amplification and requires only an 18 h enrichment for maximum sensitivity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631241/improving-self-management-of-type-2-diabetes-in-overweight-and-inactive-patients-through-an-educational-and-motivational-intervention-addressing-diet-and-physical-activity-a-prospective-study-in-naples-south-italy
#15
Francesca Gallé, Valeria Di Onofrio, Assunta Cirella, Mirella Di Dio, Alessandra Miele, Tiziana Spinosa, Giorgio Liguori
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition and physical activity are key elements in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. A community-based, multidisciplinary educational intervention aimed to improve quality of life and disease self-management in sedentary, overweight/obese type 2 diabetic patients was implemented in Naples, South Italy. METHODS: The 9-month intervention included a motivational program, a nutrition program, and an exercise program. Satisfaction, worry, and embarrassment regarding their condition, together with disease-related behaviors and propensity towards physical activity, were evaluated through a validated questionnaire before and after the intervention; health status perception was evaluated through the short-form 12 questionnaire...
June 19, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631058/expression-and-characterization-of-glucose-oxidase-from-aspergillus-niger-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#16
Fatemeh Khadivi Derakshan, Farshad Darvishi, Mehrouz Dezfulian, Catherine Madzak
Glucose oxidase (GOX) is currently used in clinical, pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. The aim of this study was expression and characterization of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. For the first time, the GOX gene of A. niger was successfully expressed in Y. lipolytica using a mono-integrative vector containing strong hybrid promoter and secretion signal. The highest total glucose oxidase activity was 370 U/L after 7 days of cultivation. An innovative method was used to cell wall disruption in current study, and it could be recommended to use for efficiently cell wall disruption of Y...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630700/retorting-conditions-affect-palatability-and-physical-characteristics-of-canned-cat-food
#17
Esther A Hagen-Plantinga, Denmark F Orlanes, Guido Bosch, Wouter H Hendriks, Antonius F B van der Poel
The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at three specified temperature-time profiles (113°C/232 min, 120°C/103 min and 127°C/60 min) to equal a similar lethality (F0 value = 30). Physicochemical properties (viscosity, texture, particle size, pH) were determined, and a 10 d three-bowl palatability test was performed with ten European shorthair cats...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630693/quality-of-food-frequency-questionnaire-validation-studies-in-the-dietary-assessment-of-children-aged-12-to-36-months-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Amy Lovell, Rhodi Bulloch, Clare R Wall, Cameron C Grant
A child's diet is an important determinant of growth and development. Because of this, the accurate assessment of dietary intake in young children remains a challenge. A systematic search of studies validating FFQ methodologies in children 12 to 36 months of age was completed. English-language articles published until March 2016 were searched using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL). Quality assessment of the identified studies was carried out using The Reduced Summary Score and EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) scoring system...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630667/evaluation-of-radical-scavenging-system-in-amoeba-chaos-carolinense-during-nutrient-deprivation
#19
Yuru Deng, Edlyn Li-Hui Lee, Ketpin Chong, Zakaria A Almsherqi
The frequent appearance of non-lamellar membrane arrangements such as cubic membranes (CMs) in cells under stressed or pathological conditions points to an intrinsic cellular response mechanism. CM represents highly curved, three-dimensional nano-periodic structures that correspond to mathematically well-defined triply periodic minimal surfaces. Specifically, cellular membrane may transform into CM organization in response to pathological, inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions. CM organization, thus, may provide an advantage to cope with various types of stress...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630084/maternal-lifestyle-and-nutritional-status-in-relation-to-pregnancy-and-infant-health-outcomes-in-western-china-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Li Tang, Xiong-Fei Pan, Andy H Lee, Colin W Binns, Chun-Xia Yang, Xin Sun
INTRODUCTION: Improving the health and nutrition of women and children is a priority for Western China, where the economy is less developed. Due to the dynamic nature of lifestyle, modern food habits and nutrition, there is a need to update our limited knowledge and understanding of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status and their impact on pregnancy and infant health outcomes. While breast milk is the preferred feeding option, infant formula use is widespread in China. It is thus necessary to examine the effects of formula consumption on growth and morbidity...
June 19, 2017: BMJ Open
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