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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725557/genome-assembly-of-chryseobacterium-sp-strain-ihbb-10212-from-glacier-top-surface-soil-in-the-indian-trans-himalayas-with-potential-for-hydrolytic-enzymes
#1
Mohinder Pal, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Hena Dhar, Sanjay Chhibber, Arvind Gulati
The cold-active esterases are gaining importance due to their catalytic activities finding applications in chemical industry, food processes and detergent industry as additives, and organic synthesis of unstable compounds as catalysts. In the present study, the complete genome sequence of 4,843,645 bp with an average 34.08% G + C content and 4260 protein-coding genes are reported for the low temperature-active esterase-producing novel strain of Chrysobacterium isolated from the top-surface soil of a glacier in the cold deserts of the Indian trans-Himalayas...
September 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712135/long-term-changes-in-abundances-of-sonoran-desert-lizards-reveal-complex-responses-to-climatic-variation
#2
Aaron D Flesch, Philip C Rosen, Peter Holm
Understanding how climatic variation affects animal populations and communities is essential for addressing threats posed by climate change, especially in systems where impacts are projected to be high. We evaluated abundance dynamics of five common species of diurnal lizards over 25 years in a Sonoran Desert transition zone where precipitation decreased and temperature increased across time, and assessed hypotheses for the influence of climatic flux on spatiotemporal variation in abundances. We repeatedly surveyed lizards in spring and summer of each year at up to 32 sites, and used hierarchical mixture models to estimate detection probabilities, abundances, and population growth rates...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708245/health-equity-issues-related-to-childhood-obesity-a-scoping-review
#3
Clemencia M Vargas, Elsie M Stines, Herta S Granado
PURPOSE: The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the health-equity issues that relate to childhood obesity. METHODS: Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity were identified by analyzing food environment, natural and built environment, and social environment. The authors searched Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "children" and "obesity." Specific terms for each environment were added: "food desert," "advertising," "insecurity," "price," "processing," "trade," and "school" for food environment; "urban design," "land use," "transportation mode," "public facilities," and "market access" for natural and built environment; and "financial capacity/poverty," "living conditions," "transport access," "remoteness," "social support," "social cohesion," "working practices," "eating habits," "time," and "social norms" for social environment...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648926/does-opening-a-supermarket-in-a-food-desert-change-the-food-environment
#4
Madhumita Ghosh-Dastidar, Gerald Hunter, Rebecca L Collins, Shannon N Zenk, Steven Cummins, Robin Beckman, Alvin K Nugroho, Jennifer C Sloan, La'Vette Wagner, Tamara Dubowitz
Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket...
June 22, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625124/occurrence-and-importance-of-plant-lipids-a-promising-insight-into-algae
#5
Nihed Ben Halima
BACKGROUND: Lipids are biomolecules with interesting structural variability. They are involved in many processes such as the storage of energy, in nutrition and are also of relevance for signal transduction processes, in apoptosis, cell differentiation and phagocytosis, etc. Algae and microalgae are a promising and very diverse group of organisms. These living arganisms inhabit a vaste range of ecosystems from the Antarctic to the Deserts. They account for above half the primary productivity at the base of the food chain because of their multiple nutritional products including, for instance, lipids...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491239/opuntia-spp-characterization-and-benefits-in-chronic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
María Del Socorro Santos Díaz, Ana-Paulina Barba de la Rosa, Cécile Héliès-Toussaint, Françoise Guéraud, Anne Nègre-Salvayre
Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464493/climate-driven-geographic-distribution-of-the-desert-locust-during-recession-periods-subspecies-niche-differentiation-and-relative-risks-under-scenarios-of-climate-change
#7
Christine N Meynard, Pierre-Emmanuel Gay, Michel Lecoq, Antoine Foucart, Cyril Piou, Marie-Pierre Chapuis
The desert locust is an agricultural pest that is able to switch from a harmless solitarious stage during recession periods, to swarms of gregarious individuals that disperse long distances and affect areas from western Africa to India during outbreak periods. Large outbreaks have been recorded through centuries, and the Food and Agriculture Organization keeps a long-term, large-scale monitoring survey database in the area. However, there is also a much less known subspecies that occupies a limited area in southern Africa...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460951/evaluation-of-calligonum-azel-maire-a-north-african-desert-plant-for-its-nutritional-potential-as-a-sustainable-food-and-feed
#8
Marwa Bannour, Dirk W Lachenmeier, Irene Straub, Matthias Kohl-Himmelseher, Ayda Khadhri, Samira Aschi-Smiti, Thomas Kuballa, Hanchi Belgacem
This study is the first to evaluate the potential of Calligonum azel Maire as a food ingredient. The plant materials flowers, leaves, stems and roots were analyzed by wet-chemical and instrumental methods for major and minor composition. The highest protein and sugar contents were recorded in the flowers (17.8% and 1.6% respectively), while the fat content was most abundant in the leaves (2.9%). Hexane extracts screened by gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid composition showed 14 major compounds such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid, but also ω3 and ω6 unsaturated fatty acids...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431978/temporal-niche-switching-in-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx-seasonal-plasticity-of-24h-activity-patterns-in-a-large-desert-mammal
#9
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Mads F Bertelsen, Osama B Mohammed, Jason Hemingway, Nigel C Bennett, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, a moderately large mammal that inhabits a harsh desert environment, has been shown to exhibit seasonal variations in activity and inactivity patterns. Here we analyzed the continuous year-round activity patterns of twelve free-roaming Arabian oryx under natural conditions from two varying desert environments in Saudi Arabia using abdominally implanted activity meters. We simultaneously recorded weather parameters at both sites to determine whether environmental factors are responsible for temporal niche switching as well as the seasonal structuring and timing of this behavioural plasticity...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417432/evaluating-community-measures-of-healthy-food-access
#10
Melissa L Santorelli, Janice O Okeke
Several community level measures of healthy food access exist, but evaluation efforts have been limited leaving uncertainty about how to prioritize communities for intervention. This study aimed to assess several existing measures to inform statewide public health planning efforts in New Jersey, USA. We assessed agreement between community measures of healthy food access and then evaluated the predictive validity of each measure by describing its association with complete fruit and vegetable cash-value voucher redemption (proportion redeemed ≥70, ≥80, ≥90%) among 30,078 low-income households participating in the New Jersey Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) during 2013-2014...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409503/food-restriction-affects-maternal-investment-but-not-neonate-phenotypes-in-a-viviparous-lizard
#11
Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Ma, Shu-Ran Li, Wei-Guo Du
Food availability significantly affects an animal's energy metabolism, and thus its phenotype, survival, and reproduction. Maternal and offspring responses to food conditions are critical for understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution of a species. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments in field enclosures to identify the effect of food restriction on female reproductive traits and postpartum body condition, as well as on hatchling phenotypes, in a lacertid viviparous lizard from the Inner Mongolian desert steppe of China...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392933/improved-parental-dietary-quality-is-associated-with-children-s-dietary-intake-through-the-home-environment
#12
K R Flórez, A S Richardson, M B Ghosh-Dastidar, R Beckman, C Huang, L Wagner, T Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: Improving access to supermarkets has been shown to improve some dietary outcomes, yet there is little evidence for such effects on children. Relatedly, there is a dearth of research assessing the impact of a structural change (i.e. supermarket in a former food desert) on the home environment and its relationship with children's diet. OBJECTIVE: Assess the relative impact of the home environment on children's diet after the introduction of a new supermarket in a food desert...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341459/does-where-you-shop-or-who-you-are-predict-what-you-eat-the-role-of-stores-and-individual-characteristics-in-dietary-intake
#13
Christine A Vaughan, Rebecca Collins, Madhumita Ghosh-Dastidar, Robin Beckman, Tamara Dubowitz
Interventions to address diet, a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, have increasingly emphasized the influence of the physical environment on diet, while more traditional approaches have focused on individual characteristics. We examined environmental and individual influences on diet to understand the role of both. Household interviews were conducted in 2011 with 1372 individuals randomly selected from two low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, PA...
July 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277960/seasonal-metabolic-acclimatization-varies-in-direction-and-magnitude-among-populations-of-an-afrotropical-passerine-bird
#14
Matthew J Noakes, Blair O Wolf, Andrew E McKechnie
Avian metabolic responses demonstrate considerable diversity under fluctuating environmental conditions, a well-studied example being the seasonal upregulation of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolism (Msum) in temperate species experiencing harsh winters. Fewer studies have examined seasonal metabolic acclimatization in subtropical or tropical species. We investigated seasonal metabolic variation in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼47 g), at three sites along a climatic gradient of approximately 7°C in winter minimum air temperature (Ta)...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195830/investigating-the-occupational-challenges-of-corner-store-workers-operating-in-baltimore-city-food-deserts
#15
Caitlin A Ceryes, Laura Flamm, Sheila Fitzgerald
A qualitative pilot study was conducted in Baltimore City with the aim of documenting specific occupational safety challenges of small-scale urban retailers, or "corner store" owners. Semistructured interviews with a small sample ( n = 4) revealed significant challenges for owners and workers, and revealed potential areas for occupational health intervention.
February 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088114/between-exposure-access-and-use-reconsidering-foodscape-influences-on-dietary-behaviours
#16
Christelle Clary, Stephen Augustus Matthews, Yan Kestens
Good accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food outlets is a greater reality than food deserts. Yet, there is a lack of conceptual insights on the contextual factors that push individuals to opt for healthy or unhealthy food outlets when both options are accessible. Our comprehension of foodscape influences on dietary behaviours would benefit from a better understanding of the decision-making process for food outlet choices. In this paper, we build on the fundamental position that outlet choices are conditioned by how much outlets' attributes accommodate individuals' constraints and preferences...
January 11, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978407/community-perspectives-on-access-to-and-availability-of-healthy-food-in-rural-low-resource-latino-communities
#17
Zulema Valdez, A Susana Ramírez, Erendira Estrada, Kathleen Grassi, Stephanie Nathan
INTRODUCTION: Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a "food desert...
December 15, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976422/desert-pastoralists-negative-and-positive-effects-on-rare-wildlife-in-the-gobi
#18
L Stefan Ekernas, Wesley M Sarmento, Hannah S Davie, Richard P Reading, James Murdoch, Ganchimeg J Wingard, Sukh Amgalanbaatar, Joel Berger
In arid regions of the developing world, pastoralists and livestock commonly inhabit protected areas, resulting in human-wildlife conflict. Conflict is inextricably linked to the ecological processes shaping relationships between pastoralists and native herbivores and carnivores. To elucidate relationships underpinning human-wildlife conflict, we synthesized 15 years of ecological and ethnographic data from Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia's Gobi steppe. The density of argali (Ovis ammon), the world's largest wild sheep, at Ikh Nart was among the highest in Mongolia, yet livestock were >90% of ungulate biomass and dogs >90% of large-carnivore biomass...
April 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956000/bringing-produce-to-the-people-implementing-a-social-marketing-food-access-intervention-in-rural-food-deserts
#19
A Susana Ramirez, Lillian K Diaz Rios, Zulema Valdez, Erendira Estrada, Ariana Ruiz
This study describes and evaluates the process of implementing a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. A case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in implementing such strategies and underscore the importance of involving community in decision making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and the need to reconsider the problem of access in rural areas...
February 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903645/upgrading-short-read-animal-genome-assemblies-to-chromosome-level-using-comparative-genomics-and-a-universal-probe-set
#20
Joana Damas, Rebecca O'Connor, Marta Farré, Vasileios Panagiotis E Lenis, Henry J Martell, Anjali Mandawala, Katie Fowler, Sunitha Joseph, Martin T Swain, Darren K Griffin, Denis M Larkin
Most recent initiatives to sequence and assemble new species' genomes de novo fail to achieve the ultimate endpoint to produce contigs, each representing one whole chromosome. Even the best-assembled genomes (using contemporary technologies) consist of subchromosomal-sized scaffolds. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel approach that combines computational algorithms to merge scaffolds into chromosomal fragments, PCR-based scaffold verification, and physical mapping to chromosomes. Multigenome-alignment-guided probe selection led to the development of a set of universal avian BAC clones that permit rapid anchoring of multiple scaffolds to chromosomes on all avian genomes...
May 2017: Genome Research
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