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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277960/seasonal-metabolic-acclimatization-varies-in-direction-and-magnitude-among-populations-of-an-afrotropical-passerine-bird
#1
Matthew J Noakes, Blair O Wolf, Andrew E McKechnie
Avian metabolic responses demonstrate considerable diversity under fluctuating environmental conditions, a well-studied example being the seasonal upregulation of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolism (Msum) in temperate species experiencing harsh winters. Fewer studies have examined seasonal metabolic acclimatization in subtropical or tropical species. We investigated seasonal metabolic variation in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼47 g), at three sites along a climatic gradient of approximately 7°C in winter minimum air temperature (Ta)...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195830/investigating-the-occupational-challenges-of-corner-store-workers-operating-in-baltimore-city-food-deserts
#2
Caitlin A Ceryes, Laura Flamm, Sheila Fitzgerald
A qualitative pilot study was conducted in Baltimore City with the aim of documenting specific occupational safety challenges of small-scale urban retailers, or "corner store" owners. Semistructured interviews with a small sample ( n = 4) revealed significant challenges for owners and workers, and revealed potential areas for occupational health intervention.
February 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088114/between-exposure-access-and-use-reconsidering-foodscape-influences-on-dietary-behaviours
#3
Christelle Clary, Stephen Augustus Matthews, Yan Kestens
Good accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food outlets is a greater reality than food deserts. Yet, there is a lack of conceptual insights on the contextual factors that push individuals to opt for healthy or unhealthy food outlets when both options are accessible. Our comprehension of foodscape influences on dietary behaviours would benefit from a better understanding of the decision-making process for food outlet choices. In this paper, we build on the fundamental position that outlet choices are conditioned by how much outlets' attributes accommodate individuals' constraints and preferences...
January 11, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978407/community-perspectives-on-access-to-and-availability-of-healthy-food-in-rural-low-resource-latino-communities
#4
Zulema Valdez, A Susana Ramírez, Erendira Estrada, Kathleen Grassi, Stephanie Nathan
INTRODUCTION: Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a "food desert...
December 15, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976422/desert-pastoralists-negative-and-positive-effects-on-rare-wildlife-in-the-gobi
#5
L Stefan Ekernas, Wesley M Sarmento, Hannah S Davie, Richard P Reading, James Murdoch, Ganchimeg J Wingard, Sukh Amgalanbaatar, Joel Berger
In arid regions of the developing world, pastoralists and livestock commonly inhabit protected areas, resulting in human-wildlife conflict. Conflict is inextricably linked to the ecological processes shaping relationships between pastoralists and native herbivores and carnivores. To elucidate relationships underpinning human-wildlife conflict, we synthesized 15 years of ecological and ethnographic data from Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia's Gobi steppe. The density of argali (Ovis ammon), the world's largest wild sheep, at Ikh Nart was among the highest in Mongolia, yet livestock were >90% of ungulate biomass and dogs >90% of large-carnivore biomass...
April 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956000/bringing-produce-to-the-people-implementing-a-social-marketing-food-access-intervention-in-rural-food-deserts
#6
A Susana Ramirez, Lillian K Diaz Rios, Zulema Valdez, Erendira Estrada, Ariana Ruiz
This study describes and evaluates the process of implementing a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. A case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in implementing such strategies and underscore the importance of involving community in decision making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and the need to reconsider the problem of access in rural areas...
February 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903645/upgrading-short-read-animal-genome-assemblies-to-chromosome-level-using-comparative-genomics-and-a-universal-probe-set
#7
Joana Damas, Rebecca O'Connor, Marta Farré, Vasileios Panagiotis E Lenis, Henry J Martell, Anjali Mandawala, Katie Fowler, Sunitha Joseph, Martin T Swain, Darren K Griffin, Denis M Larkin
Most recent initiatives to sequence and assemble new species' genomes de-novo fail to achieve the ultimate endpoint to produce contigs, each representing one whole chromosome. Even the best-assembled genomes (using contemporary technologies) consist of sub-chromosomal sized scaffolds. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel approach that combines computational algorithms to merge scaffolds into chromosomal fragments, PCR-based scaffold verification and physical mapping to chromosomes. Multi-genome-alignment-guided probe selection led to the development of a set of universal avian BAC clones that permit rapid anchoring of multiple scaffolds to chromosomes on all avian genomes...
November 30, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814451/community-adaptations-to-an-impending-food-desert-in-rural-appalachia-usa
#8
Wayne C Miller, Denver Rogalla, Dustin Spencer, Nida Zia, Brian N Griffith, Haylee B Heinsberg
INTRODUCTION: The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) describes a food desert as an urban neighborhood or rural town without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. An estimated 2.3 million rural Americans live in food deserts. One goal of the USDA is to eliminate food deserts. However, at a time when some food deserts are being eliminated, hundreds of grocery stores are closing, causing other food deserts to arise. The literature is scarce on how a community adapts to an impending food desert...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805048/kisspeptin-and-rfrp-3-differentially-regulate-food-intake-and-metabolic-neuropeptides-in-the-female-desert-jerboa
#9
Rajae Talbi, Marie-Pierre Laran-Chich, Rabia Magoul, Seloua El Ouezzani, Valérie Simonneaux
Jerboas are wild rodents exhibiting exceptional adaptation to their desert environment. Under harsh autumn conditions, they shut down reproduction, increase body weight and hibernate, while during spring they become sexually active even under negative energy-balance. We recently reported that these rhythms are associated with synchronized changes in genes expressing reproductive (Kiss1, Rfrp) and metabolic (Npy and Pomc) peptides, raising the hypothesis of coordinated seasonal regulation of both functions. Here we analyzed whether kisspeptin and RFRP-3 regulate food-intake in parallel to their established reproductive functions...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782783/-when-this-breaks-down-it-s-black-gold-race-and-gender-in-agricultural-health-and-safety
#10
Kathrine Lynn Barnes, Casper G Bendixsen
Farmers are growing older, and fewer new agriculturists are rising to take their place. Concurrently, women and minorities are entering agriculture at an increasing rate. These rates are particularly curious viewed in light of the racialized and gendered nature of agriculture. Slavery and agriculture share strong historical roots, with many male slaves performing agricultural labor. So then, why would African American women choose to engage in agriculture in any form? Participant observation and in-depth interviews with a group of African American women urban farmers in the southeastern United States were asked this question...
2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764155/maltreatment-and-mental-health-outcomes-among-ultra-poor-children-in-burkina-faso-a-latent-class-analysis
#11
Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753802/ssa-02-1-salt-and-hypertension-in-middle-east
#12
Mustafa Arici
Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, east of the Mediterranean Sea and the Egypt. The whole area has almost 20 countries with an approximate population of 400 million with different ethnicities. The whole area has basically a hot and dry climate. In some parts of the Middle East, there is a desert climate.Cardiovascular diseases were the leading causes of death in the Middle East, similar to the many other territories of the World. Beyond that, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized this region as a hotspot for cardiovascular disease, where disease projections will exceed those of other regions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702412/where-do-food-desert-residents-buy-most-of-their-junk-food-supermarkets
#13
Christine A Vaughan, Deborah A Cohen, Madhumita Ghosh-Dastidar, Gerald P Hunter, Tamara Dubowitz
OBJECTIVE: To examine where residents in an area with limited access to healthy foods (an urban food desert) purchased healthier and less healthy foods. DESIGN: Food shopping receipts were collected over a one-week period in 2013. These were analysed to describe where residents shopped for food and what types of food they bought. SETTING: Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy foods in Pittsburgh, PA, USA...
October 5, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698961/food-deserts-in-korea-a-gis-analysis-of-food-consumption-patterns-at-sub-district-level-in-seoul-using-the-knhanes-2008-2012-data
#14
Dohyeong Kim, Chang Kil Lee, Dong Yeon Seo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642929/ssa-02-1-salt-and-hypertension-in-middle-east
#15
Mustafa Arici
Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, east of the Mediterranean Sea and the Egypt. The whole area has almost 20 countries with an approximate population of 400 million with different ethnicities. The whole area has basically a hot and dry climate. In some parts of the Middle East, there is a desert climate.Cardiovascular diseases were the leading causes of death in the Middle East, similar to the many other territories of the World. Beyond that, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized this region as a hotspot for cardiovascular disease, where disease projections will exceed those of other regions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642032/how-individual-montagu-s-harriers-cope-with-moreau-s-paradox-during-the-sahelian-winter
#16
Almut Ellinor Schlaich, Raymond H G Klaassen, Willem Bouten, Vincent Bretagnolle, Ben Johannes Koks, Alexandre Villers, Christiaan Both
Hundreds of millions of Afro-Palaearctic migrants winter in the Sahel, a semi-arid belt south of the Sahara desert, where they experience deteriorating ecological conditions during their overwintering stay and have to prepare for spring migration when conditions are worst. This well-known phenomenon was first described by R.E. Moreau and is known ever since as Moreau's Paradox. However, empirical evidence of the deteriorating seasonal ecological conditions is limited and little is known on how birds respond...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638182/low-precipitation-aggravates-the-impact-of-extreme-high-temperatures-on-lizard-reproduction
#17
Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Shu-Ran Li, Jun-Huai Bi, Wei-Guo Du
Extreme high temperatures are occurring more frequently with ongoing anthropogenic climate warming, but the experimental tests of the effects of high temperatures on terrestrial vertebrates in natural conditions are rare. In this study, we investigated the effects of extreme high temperatures on female reproduction and offspring traits of multi-ocellated racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) kept in field enclosures in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia. Our studies indicate that high temperatures significantly affect the gestation period and reproductive output of females and the offspring sex ratio, but have little impact on offspring body size and mass...
December 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602304/agricultural-land-use-change-in-a-mexican-oligotrophic-desert-depletes-ecosystem-stability
#18
Natali Hernández-Becerra, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, Ofelia Beltrán-Paz, Jazmín Blaz, Valeria Souza, Felipe García-Oliva
BACKGROUND: Global demand for food has led to increased land-use change, particularly in dry land ecosystems, which has caused several environmental problems due to the soil degradation. In the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), alfalfa production irrigated by flooding impacts strongly on the soil. METHODS: In order to analyze the effect of such agricultural land-use change on soil nutrient dynamics and soil bacterial community composition, this work examined an agricultural gradient within the CCB which was comprised of a native desert grassland, a plot currently cultivated with alfalfa and a former agricultural field that had been abandoned for over 30 years...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575484/level-of-natural-hepatotoxin-indospicine-contamination-in-australian-camel-meat
#19
Eddie T T Tan, Rafat Al Jassim, Bruce R D'Arcy, Mary T Fletcher
Camel meat production for human consumption and pet food manufacture accounts for a relatively small part of overall red meat production in Australia. Reliable statistical data for the Australian production and consumption of camel meat are not available; however, it is estimated that 300,000 feral camels roam within the desert of central Australia, with an annual usage of more than 3000 camels for human consumption, 2000 for pet food manufacture and a smaller number for live export. Despite a small Australian camel meat production level, the usage of camel meat for pet food has been restricted in recent years due to reports of serious liver disease and death in dogs consuming camel meat...
October 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549202/environmental-adaptation-phenotypic-plasticity-and-associative-learning-in-insects-the-desert-locust-as-a-case-study
#20
Patrício M V Simões, Swidbert R Ott, Jeremy E Niven
The ability to learn and store information should be adapted to the environment in which animals operate to confer a selective advantage. Yet the relationship between learning, memory, and the environment is poorly understood, and further complicated by phenotypic plasticity caused by the very environment in which learning and memory need to operate. Many insect species show polyphenism, an extreme form of phenotypic plasticity, allowing them to occupy distinct environments by producing two or more alternative phenotypes...
November 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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