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Food deserts

Xin Liu, Xiumei Hong, Hui-Ju Tsai, Karen K Mestan, Min Shi, Amira Kefi, Ke Hao, Qi Chen, Guoying Wang, Deanna Caruso, Hua Geng, Yufeng Gao, Jianlin He, Rajesh Kumar, Hongjian Wang, Yunxian Yu, Tami Bartell, Xiao-Di Tan, Robert P Schleimer, Daniel E Weeks, Jacqueline A Pongracic, Xiaobin Wang
Previous genetic studies of food allergy (FA) have mainly focused on inherited genotypic effects. The role of parental genotypic effects remains largely unexplored. Leveraging existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data generated from the Chicago Food Allergy Study, we examined maternal genotypic and parent-of-origin (PO) effects using multinomial likelihood ratio tests in 588 complete and incomplete Caucasian FA trios. We identified 1 single nucleotide polymorphism with significant (P < 5×10) maternal effect on any FA (rs4235235), which is located in a noncoding RNA (LOC101927947) with unknown function...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Michelle Thompson, Susan Cunningham, Andrew E McKechnie
Deserts are physiologically challenging environments for birds, with scarce, unpredictable water resources combined with air temperatures (Tair ) regularly exceeding avian body temperature (Tb ). For arid-zone birds, mismatches between water supply and demand are a constant threat, yet interspecific variation in trade-offs between hyperthermia avoidance and dehydration avoidance remain poorly understood, particularly for free-ranging individuals. We examined behavioural and physiological responses to high Tair in nine species representing three orders that vary substantially in their heat dissipation thresholds, specifically pant50 , the Tair at which panting behaviour is present in 50% of observations...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Michael J Widener
The food desert metaphor has been widely used over the past few decades as a way to identify regions as being at risk for having little or no access to healthy food. While the simplicity of the metaphor is attractive, this article argues that its usefulness to researchers interested in understanding the relationship between the geography of healthy food opportunities and dietary behaviours is limited. More nuanced approaches to incorporating geography into food access studies, like including transportation, economic factors, and time use, in addition to considering other dimensions of accessibility, are warranted...
February 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kevin F Bronson, Doug J Hunsaker, Clinton F Williams, Kelly R Thorp, Sharette M Rockholt, Stephen J Del Grosso, Rodney T Venterea, Edward M Barnes
Irrigation of food and fiber crops worldwide continues to increase. Nitrogen (N) from fertilizers is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) in irrigated cropping systems. Nitrous oxide emissions data are scarce for crops in the arid western United States. The objective of these studies was to assess the effect of N fertilizer management on NO emissions from furrow-irrigated, overhead sprinkler-irrigated, and subsurface drip-irrigated cotton ( L.) in Maricopa, AZ, on Trix and Casa Grande sandy clay loam soils...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Colleen Hammelman
The survival strategies of migrant women living in urban poverty are embedded in urban food landscapes ('foodscapes') characterized by dynamic social relationships and mobility. Relying on interviews with 31 migrant women in Washington, DC, this paper traces the socio-spatial conditions of their urban foodscapes to show that urban environments inhabited by low-income migrants are dynamic, stretching across multiple neighborhoods as they move throughout the city with social networks to obtain affordable, quality, and culturally appropriate food...
January 31, 2018: Health & Place
Angela D Liese, Archana P Lamichhane, Sara C A Garzia, Robin C Puett, Dwayne E Porter, Dana Dabelea, Ralph B D'Agostino, Debra Standiford, Lenna Liu
Little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics on risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among youth. We used data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Case-Control Study to evaluate the association of neighborhood characteristics, including food desert status of the census tract, with T2D in youth. We found a larger proportion of T2D cases in tracts with lower population density, larger minority population, and lower levels of education, household income, housing value, and proportion of the population in a managerial position...
February 2, 2018: Health & Place
Weiwen Chai, Jessie X Fan, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests the important role of the home food environment in an individual's dietary intake. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations of individual and neighborhood-level factors with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the home using a nationally representative sample from the 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used with NHANES merged with the 2000 census data...
January 27, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Charlotte L King, Siân E Halcrow, Andrew R Millard, Darren R Gröcke, Vivien G Standen, Marco Portilla, Bernardo T Arriaza
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The transition to an agricultural economy is often presumed to involve an increase in female fertility related to changes in weaning practice. In particular, the availability of staple crops as complementary foods is hypothesized to allow earlier weaning in agricultural populations. In this study, our primary aim is to explore whether this model fits the agricultural transition in the Atacama Desert using incremental isotopic analysis. A secondary aim of this study is to identify isotopic patterns relating to weaning, and assess how these may be differentiated from those relating to early life stress...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Alexandra Ross, Nandita Krishnan, Cara Ruggiero, Deanna Kerrigan, Joel Gittelsohn
We sought to understand Baltimore corner store owners' awareness of and readiness for the then-approved Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program depth of stock requirements and assess potential barriers and solutions. In-depth interviews and stocking observations were conducted in 17 corner stores in low-income food deserts of Baltimore City. Corner store owners conveyed little to no awareness of the pending depth of stock changes. Only two stores were currently ready for the requirements. Low customer demand, high amounts of potential spoilage, and unfair pricing at the wholesaler were identified by store owners as barriers to stocking required foods...
December 28, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Halimic Aida, Gage Heather, Raats Monique, Williams Peter
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of price manipulation and healthy eating information on intended food choices. DESIGN: Health information was provided to a random half of subjects (vs. information on Saudi agriculture). Each subject chose from the same lunch menu, containing two healthy and two unhealthy entrees, deserts and beverages, on five occasions. Reference case prices were 5, 3 and 2 Saudi Arabian Reals (SARs). Prices of healthy and unhealthy items were manipulated up (taxed) and down (subsidized) by 1 SAR in four menu variations (random order); subjects were given a budget enabling full choice within any menu...
December 13, 2017: Appetite
R F Tayyem, A E Al-Shudifat, A Johannessen, H A Bawadi, S S AbuMweis, L M Agraib, S S Allhedan, I Haj-Husein, M Azab
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be significant risk factors in the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD). The contribution degree of these dietary risk factors in CHD development in non-westernized countries is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate several dietary choices and their potential association with CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was conducted at Prince Hamza Hospital, a referral center for coronary angiography in Amman, Jordan...
November 8, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
V Černý, I Kulichová, E S Poloni, J M Nunes, L Pereira, A Mayor, A Sanchez-Mazas
From a biogeographic perspective, Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the Savannah bordering it in the south is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today...
March 2018: HLA
V C Giménez Gómez, S B Lomáscolo, G A Zurita, F Ocampo
Tolerance to extreme temperatures, thermal limits, and the mechanisms of thermoregulation are related to internal functions of insects and partly define their ecological niche. We study the association between daily activity of dung beetles from the Monte Desert in Argentina and their tolerance to high temperatures. Results indicate that for all three sympatric species studied, Eucranium belenae Ocampo, Anomiopsoides cavifrons (Burmeister), and Anomiopsoides fedemariai Ocampo, daily activity is associated to ground temperature...
December 6, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
Andrea S Richardson, Madhumita Ghosh-Dastidar, Robin Beckman, Karen R Flórez, Amy DeSantis, Rebecca L Collins, Tamara Dubowitz
PURPOSE: To estimate the impacts of a new supermarket in a low-income desert, on residents' economic status and health. METHODS: We surveyed a randomly selected cohort in two low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods before and about 1 year following the opening of a supermarket. We used difference-in-difference approach to test changes across the two neighborhoods in residents' food security, United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children participation, employment, income, and self-reported health/chronic disease diagnoses...
December 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Anna H Grummon, Sheila Fleischhacker, Diana S Grigsby-Toussaint, Lucia Leone, Caitlin Eicher Caspi
Policy and programmatic change in the food retail setting, including excise taxes on beverages with added-caloric sweeteners, new supermarkets in food deserts, and voluntary corporate pledges, often require the use of natural experimental evaluation for impact evaluation when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Although natural experimental studies in the food retail setting provide important opportunities to test how nonrandomized interventions affect behavioral and health outcomes, researchers face several key challenges to maintaining strong internal and external validity when conducting these studies...
December 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Yuliya Genievskaya, Saule Abugalieva, Aibatsha Zhubanysheva, Yerlan Turuspekov
BACKGROUND: Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.) is an annual shrub-like plant adapted to the mobile sand dunes in desert and semi-desert regions of Asia. It has a balanced nutrient composition with relatively high concentration of lipids and proteins, which results in its nutrition being similar to legumes. Sand rice's proteins contain the full range of essential amino acids. However, calories content is more similar to wheat. These features together with desert stress resistance make sand rice a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Kristen Cooksey-Stowers, Marlene B Schwartz, Kelly D Brownell
This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Joel Gittelsohn, Angela C Trude, Lisa Poirier, Alexandra Ross, Cara Ruggiero, Teresa Schwendler, Elizabeth Anderson Steeves
The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment) multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level) community intervention. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) intervention worked at the wholesaler ( n = 3), corner store ( n = 50), carryout ( n = 30), recreation center ( n = 28), household ( n = 365) levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat) in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA), ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript)...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sebastian Schwarz, Antoine Wystrach, Ken Cheng
When displaced experimentally from a food source (feeder) to unfamiliar terrain, ants run off a portion of the homeward vector or its entirety, depending on species and conditions, and then search systematically, turning in loops of ever increasing size. The Australian desert ant Melophorus bagoti runs off a smaller portion of its vector if the test site is more dissimilar to its nest area. Here we manipulated familiarity with the training route between a feeder and the ants' nest to examine its effects when the ants were displaced to a distant site from the feeder...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chelsea R Singleton, Yu Li, Ana Clara Duran, Shannon N Zenk, Angela Odoms-Young, Lisa M Powell
Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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