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Food justice

Courtenay Sprague, Michael L Scanlon, Bharathi Radhakrishnan, David W Pantalone
Incarcerated women face significant barriers to achieve continuous HIV care. We employed a descriptive, exploratory design using qualitative methods and the theoretical construct of agency to investigate participants' self-reported experiences accessing HIV services in jail, in prison, and post-release in two Alabama cities. During January 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive women. Two researchers completed independent coding, producing preliminary codes from transcripts using content analysis...
October 14, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Diana J Mason
The Hill Burton Act, which was signed into law in 1946 and ended in 1997, was one of the most significant forces that shaped the health care system we have today. Providing grants and loans for the construction and expansion of hospitals across the country, it required beneficiary hospitals to give some amount of uncompensated care to the poor and uninsured in return. The act not only led to our health care system's current emphasis on the acute-care hospital as the primary site of health care delivery, but it also had a profound effect on nursing, fully involving the profession in an acute-care world...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Christopher J Bryan, David S Yeager, Cintia P Hinojosa, Aimee Chabot, Holly Bergen, Mari Kawamura, Fred Steubing
What can be done to reduce unhealthy eating among adolescents? It was hypothesized that aligning healthy eating with important and widely shared adolescent values would produce the needed motivation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment with eighth graders (total n = 536) evaluated the impact of a treatment that framed healthy eating as consistent with the adolescent values of autonomy from adult control and the pursuit of social justice. Healthy eating was suggested as a way to take a stand against manipulative and unfair practices of the food industry, such as engineering junk food to make it addictive and marketing it to young children...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Heide Weishaar, Lori Dorfman, Nicholas Freudenberg, Benjamin Hawkins, Katherine Smith, Oliver Razum, Shona Hilton
BACKGROUND: Media representations play a crucial role in informing public and policy opinions about the causes of, and solutions to, ill-health. This paper reviews studies analysing media coverage of non-communicable disease (NCD) debates, focusing on how the industries marketing commodities that increase NCD risk are represented. METHODS: A scoping review identified 61 studies providing information on media representations of NCD risks, NCD policies and tobacco, alcohol, processed food and soft drinks industries...
2016: BMC Public Health
Andrea G Barthwell, Jonathan M Young, Michael C Barnes, Shruti R Kulkarni
According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2.4 million individuals have an opioid use disorder (OUD). Yet, nearly 80 percent of them-more than 1.9 million people-do not receive treatment. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT), specifically with buprenorphine, has proven to be effective in treating patients with OUDs while also reducing costs to the healthcare system, criminal justice system, and workforce. Despite its effectiveness, barriers to MAT continue to exist. Consequently, many individuals must wait months, if not years, to receive treatment...
July 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
Alison Blay-Palmer
Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights, despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Jane E Gallagher, Adrien A Wilkie, Alissa Cordner, Edward E Hudgens, Andrew J Ghio, Rebecca J Birch, Timothy J Wade
BACKGROUND: Advocates for environmental justice, local, state, and national public health officials, exposure scientists, need broad-based health indices to identify vulnerable communities. Longitudinal studies show that perception of current health status predicts subsequent mortality, suggesting that self-reported health (SRH) may be useful in screening-level community assessments. This paper evaluates whether SRH is an appropriate surrogate indicator of health status by evaluating relationships between SRH and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health care factors as well as serological indicators of nutrition, health risk, and environmental exposures...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jing Sun, Falguni Patel, Rachel Kirzner, Nijah Newton-Famous, Constance Owens, Seth L Welles, Mariana Chilton
BACKGROUND: Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jordan Levine, Michael Muthukrishna, Kai Chan, Terre Satterfield
In this paper, we take a first step towards better integrating social concerns into empirical ecosystem services (ES) work. We do this by adapting cognitive anthropological techniques to study the Clayoquot Sound social-ecological system, on Canada's Pacific coast. There, we used freelisting and ranking exercises to elicit measures of locals' ES values, and preferred food species, analyzing the data with ANTHROPAC. We consider the results in light of an ongoing 'trophic cascade,' caused by the reintroduction and spread of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) along the island's coast...
July 13, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Michael F Greene, Jeffrey M Drazen
The vicissitudes of life produce pregnancies which may be unwanted, or which may impair "health" … which, in the full setting of the case, may create such suffering, dislocations, misery, or tragedy as to make an early abortion the only civilized step to take. — Justice William O. Douglas, January..
June 9, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Zhenhui Zhong, Justice Norvienyeku, Meilian Chen, Jiandong Bao, Lianyu Lin, Liqiong Chen, Yahong Lin, Xiaoxian Wu, Zena Cai, Qi Zhang, Xiaoye Lin, Yonghe Hong, Jun Huang, Linghong Xu, Honghong Zhang, Long Chen, Wei Tang, Huakun Zheng, Xiaofeng Chen, Yanli Wang, Bi Lian, Liangsheng Zhang, Haibao Tang, Guodong Lu, Daniel J Ebbole, Baohua Wang, Zonghua Wang
One major threat to global food security that requires immediate attention, is the increasing incidence of host shift and host expansion in growing number of pathogenic fungi and emergence of new pathogens. The threat is more alarming because, yield quality and quantity improvement efforts are encouraging the cultivation of uniform plants with low genetic diversity that are increasingly susceptible to emerging pathogens. However, the influence of host genome differentiation on pathogen genome differentiation and its contribution to emergence and adaptability is still obscure...
2016: Scientific Reports
T H Tempels, H Van den Belt
Responsible Innovation (RI) is often heralded in EU policy circles as a means to achieve ethically acceptable, sustainable innovations. Yet, conceptual questions on the specific notion of 'responsibility' and to what extent an innovation can be 'responsible' are only partly addressed. In this chapter the question of responsibility for the indirect negative effects of biofuel innovations is explored. While initially hailed as one of the much needed solutions in the global struggle against climate change, the use of biofuels has become increasingly criticised...
2016: SpringerPlus
Lauren Joca, Jason D Sacks, Danielle Moore, Janice S Lee, Reeder Sams, John Cowden
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human carcinogen and associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, and skin diseases. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to low concentrations of iAs in water, food, soil, and air. Differential exposure to environmental hazards in minority, indigenous, and low income populations is considered an environmental justice (EJ) concern, yet it is unclear if higher iAs exposure occurs in these populations. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate evidence for differential iAs exposure in the United States (US)...
July 2016: Environment International
Lindsay F Wiley
Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy...
2014: Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy
B J Venhuis, F van Hunsel, S van de Koppel, P H J Keizers, S M F Jeurissen, D De Kaste
This paper reports a typical statin-related adverse reaction from a red yeast rice (RYR) supplement and the analytical findings from the supplement. It also examines the regulatory framework governing botanical supplements in Europe. Two key events that shaped the current regulatory framework are reviewed. First, the Hecht-Pharma judgement by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that inverted the precautionary principle in the Medicines Act to a reactionary principle. Following the Hecht-Pharma judgement, pharmacological active dietary supplements can be sold until sufficient signals of harm show that they are an unregistered medicine, placing a huge burden on regulatory authorities...
March 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Francis Dizon, Sarah Costa, Cheryl Rock, Amanda Harris, Cierra Husk, Jenny Mei
The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy...
February 2016: Journal of Food Science
Andrew D Jones, Lilly Fink Shapiro, Mark L Wilson
Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda...
2015: Frontiers in Public Health
Barry S Levy, Jonathan A Patz
The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees...
May 2015: Annals of Global Health
Lindsay F Wiley
Environmental, public health, alternative food, and food justice advocates are working together to achieve incremental agricultural subsidy and nutrition assistance reforms that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. When it comes to targeting food and beverage products for increased regulation and decreased consumption, however, the priorities of various food reform movements diverge. This article argues that foundational legal issues, including preemption of state and local authority to protect the public's health and welfare, increasing First Amendment protection for commercial speech, and eroding judicial deference to legislative policy judgments, present a more promising avenue for collaboration across movements than discrete food reform priorities around issues like sugary drinks, genetic modification, or organics...
2015: American Journal of Law & Medicine
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