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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845617/bereavement-an-anthropological-approach
#1
Margaret Souza
The literature on bereavement has been dominated by psychology (Bowlby, 1969; Freud, 1961 ; Parkes, 1972 ; Worden, 1991 ). Social Science (Hockey et al., 2001 ; Klass, Silverman, & Nickman, 1996; Valentine, 2008 ; Walter, 1999 ) has expanded that perspective by illustrating the ways in which the bereaved maintain continuing bonds with the deceased. In this article I build upon the social science literature from an anthropological perspective. I focus upon how the bereaved must learn to live in the social environment without the deceased in what I call a "new normal...
November 15, 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796826/revisiting-psychological-mechanisms-in-the-anthropology-of-altruism
#2
Joseph Hackman, Shirajum Munira, Khaleda Jasmin, Daniel Hruschka
Anthropologists have long been interested in the reasons humans choose to help some individuals and not others. Early research considered psychological mediators, such as feelings of cohesion or closeness, but more recent work, largely in the tradition of human behavioral ecology, shifted attention away from psychological measures to clearer observables, such as past behavior, genetic relatedness, affinal ties, and geographic proximity. In this paper, we assess the value of reintegrating psychological measures-perceived social closeness-into the anthropological study of altruism...
October 28, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637195/-the-problem-of-beginning-of-the-personal-being-in-the-anthropology-of-v-e-frankl
#3
Juan Fernando Sellés Dauder
In this paper we review the V. E. Frankl' conception of the 'person', which he understands as the superior part in man. This study consists of three parts: a) In the first we study 10 thesis that the father of logotherapy offers on the person, namely: 1st) the person is an individual; 2nd) whitaut possibility of sum; 3rd) is a new being; 4th) is spiritual; 5th) is existential; 6th) is the 'I' or the 'ego'; 7th) provides unity and wholeness; 8th) is dynamic; 9th) is able to transcend and to face herself; 10th) He is not understood by itself but from the point of view of transcendence...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636563/the-role-of-gender-psycho-social-factors-and-anthropological-cultural-dimensions-on-pain-in-neurorehabilitation-evidence-and-recommendations-from-the-italian-consensus-conference-on-pain-in-neurorehabilitation
#4
Anna M Aloisi, Vanna Berlincioni, Riccardo Torta, Rossella E Nappi, Cristina Tassorelli, Francesco Barale, Valentina Ieraci, Emanuele M Giusti, Giada Pietrabissa, Stefano Tamburin, Gian M Manzoni, Gianluca Castelnuovo
Pain is frequent in patients undergoing neurorehabilitation, but there is a number of still unanswered questions on this topic. The Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) was constituted with the purpose to identify the best practices that can be used in this context. In this article we summarize the existing evidence and recommendations provided by the ICCPN about the role of gender, psycho-social factors and anthropological-cultural dimensions on pain in neurorehabilitation. Sex, gender, psycho-social variables, anthropological and cultural features may influence pain expression, and its pharmacological and non-pharmacological outcome, but the role of these factors has not been consistently explored in neurorehabilitation...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595125/acculturation-and-its-discontents-a-case-for-bringing-anthropology-back-into-the-conversation
#5
Peter J Guarnaccia, Carolina Hausmann-Stabile
Anthropologists' contribution to the study of cultural change is urgent in light of the increasing number of people of different backgrounds who are migrating around the globe and settling in new communities, and the opportunities and challenges that come along with that process. By examining the anthropological literature on acculturation going back to the 1936 Memorandum by Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, this paper reviews and assesses the discipline's perspective on acculturation, and lays out the case for why it is critical for anthropologists to re-engage the concept...
February 2016: Sociology and Anthropology (Alhambra, Calif.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553610/utilization-of-standardized-mental-health-assessments-in-anthropological-research-possibilities-and-pitfalls
#6
Emily Mendenhall, Kristin Yarris, Brandon A Kohrt
In the past decade anthropologists working the boundary of culture, medicine, and psychiatry have drawn from ethnographic and epidemiological methods to interdigitate data and provide more depth in understanding critical health problems. But rarely do these studies incorporate psychiatric inventories with ethnographic analysis. This article shows how triangulation of research methods strengthens scholars' ability (1) to draw conclusions from smaller data sets and facilitate comparisons of what suffering means across contexts; (2) to unpack the complexities of ethnographic and narrative data by way of interdigitating narratives with standardized evaluations of psychological distress; and (3) to enhance the translatability of narrative data to interventionists and to make anthropological research more accessible to policymakers...
August 23, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550458/-on-michel-foucault-s-unpublished-lectures-on-ludwig-binswanger-s-existential-analysis-lille-1953-54
#7
Elisabetta Basso
This paper aims to analyze Michel Foucault's position toward phenomenological psychology and psychopathology during the 1950s, in light of the new documentary sources available today. Our investigation is especially focused on one of the courses given by Foucault at the University of Lille between 1952 and 1954, namely, the course on "Binswanger and phenomenology" (1953-54). The analysis of this course, which was conceived by Foucault within the context of a philosophical reflection on the anthropological problem of psychopathology, will finally allow us to re-ascribe Foucault the place he deserves in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry"...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519908/to-encounter-to-build-the-world-and-to-become-a-human-being-advocating-for-a-material-cultural-turn-in-developmental-psychology
#8
Christiane Moro
Why have material world of daily life and material objects in their conventional features or to say it in other words, why have the mundane world and mundane objects, in which the human beings live and children come to, encounter, experience and develop through, received so little attention from psychologists thus remaining a blind spot in mainstream developmental psychology? Certainly the object has not been totally forgotten (e.g. Piaget's constructivist paradigm) but it has been considered as theoretically determined by the categories of understanding (cf...
December 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384201/paradox-of-life-among-survivors-of-bladder-cancer-and-treatments
#9
Miriam Lopes, Lucila Castanheira Nascimento, Márcia Maria Fontão Zago
OBJECTIVE: To interpret the meanings attributed to the experience of bladder cancer among survivors in therapeutic follow-up. METHOD: Qualitative methodological approach, based on medical anthropology and narrative methodology. After approval by the research ethics committee of a public university hospital, data were collected from January 2014 to February 2015, by means of recorded semi-structured interviews, direct observation and field journal entries on daily immersion with a group of six men and six women, aged between 57 and 82 years, in therapeutic follow-up...
April 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225037/beyond-dominance-and-competence-a-moral-virtue-theory-of-status-attainment
#10
Feng Bai
Recognition has grown that moral behavior (e.g., generosity) plays a role in status attainment, yet it remains unclear how, why, and when demonstrating moral characteristics enhances status. Drawing on philosophy, anthropology, psychology, and organizational behavior, I critically review a third route to attaining status: virtue, and propose a moral virtue theory of status attainment to provide a generalized account of the role of morality in status attainment. The moral virtue theory posits that acts of virtue elicit feelings of warmth and admiration (for virtue), and willing deference, toward the virtuous actor...
May 24, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215185/-it-s-the-way-that-you-do-it-developing-an-ethical-framework-for-community-psychology-research-and-action
#11
Rebecca Campbell
In the 50 years since the 1965 Swampscott conference, the field of community psychology has not yet developed a well-articulated ethical framework to guide research and practice. This paper reviews what constitutes an "ethical framework"; considers where the field of community psychology is at in its development of a comprehensive ethical framework; examines sources for ethical guidance (i.e., ethical principles and standards) across multiple disciplines, including psychology, evaluation, sociology, and anthropology; and recommends strategies for developing a rich written discourse on how community psychology researchers and practitioners can address ethical conflicts in our work...
April 28, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148118/current-perspectives-on-cognitive-diversity
#12
Andrea Bender, Sieghard Beller
To what extent is cognition influenced by a person's cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109445/plant-blindness-and-the-implications-for-plant-conservation
#13
Mung Balding, Kathryn Williams
Plant conservation initiatives lag behind efforts to promote animal species, receiving considerably less funding. This essay explores one potential reason for that bias: a tendency among humans to neither notice nor value plants in the environment. We assess evidence for 'plant-blindness' and conclude there are indeed biases in appreciation of plants, but that this bias is not inevitable. We evaluate research from psychology and anthropology to identify the psychological and cultural bases of 'plant blindness' and conclude that both perceptual and cultural factors shape the ways that people understand and value plants, and that conservation programs can therefore contribute to reducing this bias...
April 24, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106727/-patients-rights-in-ethnic-cross-section
#14
Ágnes Lukács, Helga Judit Feith
INTRODUCTION: The perception of health and sickness are culturally determined and, therefore, ethnic and religious socialization forms attitudes toward the medical system. During everyday practice, patients' rights and obligations, which are based on the norms of the major society, confront Roma minority norms. AIM: The aim of the authors was to explore the main interferences of patients' rights and obligations during the medical care of the Roma. METHOD: The authors analyzed the results of medical anthropology, health sociology, and the experience obtained from more than 40 courses about patients' rights...
May 1, 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077757/four-not-six-revealing-culturally-common-facial-expressions-of-emotion
#15
Rachael E Jack, Wei Sun, Ioannis Delis, Oliver G B Garrod, Philippe G Schyns
As a highly social species, humans generate complex facial expressions to communicate a diverse range of emotions. Since Darwin's work, identifying among these complex patterns which are common across cultures and which are culture-specific has remained a central question in psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and more recently machine vision and social robotics. Classic approaches to addressing this question typically tested the cross-cultural recognition of theoretically motivated facial expressions representing 6 emotions, and reported universality...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001168/on-the-deep-structure-of-social-affect-attitudes-emotions-sentiments-and-the-case-of-contempt
#16
Matthew M Gervais, Daniel M T Fessler
Contempt is typically studied as a uniquely human moral emotion. However, this approach has yielded inconclusive results. We argue this is because the folk affect concept "contempt" has been inaccurately mapped onto basic affect systems. "Contempt" has features that are inconsistent with a basic emotion, especially its protracted duration and frequently cold phenomenology. Yet other features are inconsistent with a basic attitude. Nonetheless, the features of "contempt" functionally cohere. To account for this we revive and reconfigure the sentiment construct using the notion of evolved functional specialization...
March 22, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984856/native-american-death-taboo-implications-for-health-care-providers
#17
Yoshiko Yamashita Colclough
This study was conducted to highlight Native American (NA) perspectives on death taboo in order to examine the cultural appropriateness of hospice services for NA patients, if any. Searching literature that addressed taboo and death from historical, psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects, a comparison of death perspectives was made between NAs and European Americans. A culturally sensitive transition from palliative care to hospice care was suggested for NA patients and their family.
March 16, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973871/integrating-simultaneous-prosocial-and-antisocial-behavior-into-theories-of-collective-action
#18
Xavier Basurto, Esther Blanco, Mateja Nenadovic, Björn Vollan
Trust and cooperation constitute cornerstones of common-pool resource theory, showing that "prosocial" strategies among resource users can overcome collective action problems and lead to sustainable resource governance. Yet, antisocial behavior and especially the coexistence of prosocial and antisocial behaviors have received less attention. We broaden the analysis to include the effects of both "prosocial" and "antisocial" interactions. We do so in the context of marine protected areas (MPAs), the most prominent form of biodiversity conservation intervention worldwide...
March 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966855/-raerae-and-mahu-third-polynesian-gender
#19
Emmanuel Stip
Background On numerous islands of the Pacific, under various names, there are people considered to be neither men nor women but half-men/half-women. In French Polynesia, there is a sociological and anthropological condition called RaeRae or Mahu. A RaeRae is a man who behaves as and considers himself to be a woman. RaeRae and Mahu are good examples of culture-bound transsexuality or cross-dressing. Being Mahu has a cultural meaning, recognized in the history of Polynesian society, and cannot be considered as a medical or psychiatric condition...
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26916574/the-power-of-2-how-an-apparently-irregular-numeration-system-facilitates-mental-arithmetic
#20
Andrea Bender, Sieghard Beller
Mangarevan traditionally contained two numeration systems: a general one, which was highly regular, decimal, and extraordinarily extensive; and a specific one, which was restricted to specific objects, based on diverging counting units, and interspersed with binary steps. While most of these characteristics are shared by numeration systems in related languages in Oceania, the binary steps are unique. To account for these characteristics, this article draws on-and tries to integrate-insights from anthropology, archeology, linguistics, psychology, and cognitive science more generally...
February 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
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