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Psychological anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417262/thirty-years-of-research-on-gay-men-and-hiv-prevention-in-france-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#1
Gabriel Girard, Véronique Doré
Research on homosexuality and HIV/AIDS in the social sciences has evolved into a vast and multiform field of study since the beginning of the epidemic in the Global North. Studies from France in this domain have remained relatively unknown at the international level. This article offers a narrative review of publications that resulted from research on homosexuality and HIV/AIDS, from 1985 to 2016. It offers an analysis of how the constitution of a field of research conditions the ways scientific questions are asked (and answered)...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406019/community-reintegration-participation-and-employment-issues-in-veterans-and-service-members-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Gail Powell-Cope
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the signature injury of the post-9/11 wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and neighboring countries. Although similarities exist between veterans and service members with TBI, levels of severity and different constellations of coexisting comorbid conditions affect them differently. These conditions affect physical, cognitive, and emotional function, which in turn can complicate community reintegration (CR), or the ability to return to family, vocational, and community life...
February 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327630/the-specter-of-the-primitive
#3
Gregory S Rizzolo
Traditional psychoanalytic theories of development hold that the adult neurotic can regress, or has already regressed, to the childhood arrests and/or fixations in which his pathology originated. More recent critiques have called this possibility into question. It is unlikely that anyone can roll back the additions and modifications of lifespan development in a full-fledged return to the needs, wishes, and anxieties of childhood. By regression, though, some analysts mean not a full-fledged return to an earlier developmental phase, but a non-phase-specific slip into primitive fantasies and defenses...
December 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237858/humans-as-a-model-for-understanding-biological-fundamentals
#4
REVIEW
Sarah F Brosnan, Erik Postma
How special are humans? This question drives scholarly output across both the sciences and the humanities. Whereas some disciplines, and the humanities in particular, aim at gaining a better understanding of humans per se, most biologists ultimately aim to understand life in general. This raises the question of whether and when humans are acceptable, or even desirable, models of biological fundamentals. Especially for basic biological processes, non-human species are generally accepted as a relevant model to study topics for which studying humans is impractical, impossible, or ethically inadvisable, but the reverse is controversial: are humans 'too unique' to be informative with respect to biological fundamentals relevant to other species? Or are there areas where we share key components, or for which our very uniqueness serves to allow novel explorations? In this special feature, authors from disciplines including biology, psychology, anthropology, neuroscience and philosophy tackle this question...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188349/-understanding-in-psychiatry-part%C3%A2-2-from-incomprehensibility-to-an-attitude-of-participative-communication
#5
REVIEW
J Valdés-Stauber
BACKGROUND: Starting from a systematic research of "incomprehensibility" we propose a turn from an epistemological analysis of "to understand" to an anthropological perspective relying on participative communication in a shared space of resonance. METHOD: We propose a systematization of the modes of understanding and of incomprehensibility based on a two-dimensional model combining epistemological and ontological perspectives. Finally, we outline "understanding" as a medical stance related to the healing relationship, which implies a disposition to get involved in a participative communication...
November 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173569/-different-perspectives-of-educational-systems-with-a-cross-cultural-assessment
#6
Rahmeth Radjack, Charles Di, Jonathan Ahovi, Marie Rose Moro, Jonathan Lachal
In the framework of cross-cultural assessments, the nursing team is instructed by the family court judge to provide a clinical assessment taking into account the cultural dimension of the young person concerned. The aim is also to define appropriate psychoeducational support for certain migrant families, notably those describing a brutal confrontation between the educational worlds of here and elsewhere. The situation of a Togolese family, whose adolescent daughter is taken into care due to a practice judged to be abuse in France, is analysed in order to provide some keys to understanding and to discuss the anthropological aspects relevant to the educational and psychological care...
November 2017: Soins. Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#7
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122054/on-the-substantial-contribution-of-contempt-as-a-folk-affect-concept-to-the-history-of-the-european-popular-institution-of-charivari
#8
Bogdan Neagota, Ileana Benga, Oana Benga
The integration of the folk affect concept of "contempt" into the analysis of the complex institution known generally as charivari is mutually beneficial for both ethno-anthropology (which may thus access inner causes for disputed social and collective behaviors) and evolutionary psychology (which may thus study the length of tradition together with the width of the institution spread, serving the same social functions).
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#9
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065282/does-facial-attractiveness-influence-perception-of-epilepsy-diagnosis-an-insight-into-stigma-in-epilepsy
#10
Aleksandar J Ristić, Olja Jovanović, Dragan Popadić, Višnja Pađen, Ahsan N V Moosa, Ana Krivokapić, Aleksandra Parojčić, Ivana Berisavac, Andrej Ilanković, Vladimir Baščarević, Nikola Vojvodić, Dragoslav Sokić
BACKGROUND: Using a group of young healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis (pMS), we aimed to investigate whether the physical attractiveness judgment affects perception of epilepsy. We tested hypothesis that subjects, in the absence of relevant clues, would catch upon the facial attractiveness when asked to speculate which person suffers epilepsy and select less attractive choices. METHOD: Two photo-arrays (7 photos for each gender) selected from the Chicago Face Database (180 neutral faces of Caucasian volunteers with unknown medical status) were shown to study participants...
October 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831258/which-psychological-psychophysiological-and-anthropometric-factors-are-connected-with-life-events-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Milos Slepecky, Antonia Kotianova, Jan Prasko, Ivan Majercak, Erika Gyorgyova, Michal Kotian, Marta Zatkova, Marta Popelkova, Marie Ociskova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine psychological, psychophysiological, and anthropometric factors connected with life events, level of depression, and quality of life in people at risk for cardiovascular disease and healthy controls. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving arterial hypertension patients and healthy controls. There were several measurements including physical, anthropological, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological measurements and administration of questionnaires...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810482/a-journey-in-the-field-of-health-from-social-psychology-to-multi-disciplinarity
#12
Claudine Herzlich
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752797/the-bird-dancer-and-the-warrior-king-divergent-lived-experiences-of-tourette-syndrome-in-bali
#13
Robert Lemelson, Annie Tucker
In the past two decades, ethnographic, epidemiological and interdisciplinary research has robustly established that culture is significant in determining the long-term outcomes of people with neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and mood disorders. Yet these cultural factors are certainly not uniform across discrete individual experiences. Thus, in addition to illustrating meaningful differences for people with neuropsychiatric disorder between different cultures, ethnography should also help detail the variations within a culture...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731199/achilles-a-homeric-hero-enamoured-with-the-absolute
#14
Nicolas Evzonas
This article explores through a psychoanalytical lens the character of Achilles in Homer's Iliad, the matrix behind the Western conception of heroism. The contribution reveals the psychological link binding the words and acts of the most valiant of warriors in Antiquity, which is situated in myth and termed "the Eros of the absolute." The paroxystic ideality underlying the aforementioned myth, which is rooted in the anthropological need to believe, is at the origin of Achilles' legendary μῆνις, that is, the flood of rage triggered by contests for supremacy, aggravated by the loss of his war comrade, aroused by the drama of aging and death, and then transfigured through song and memory...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707044/seasonal-bushmeat-hunger-in-the-congo-basin
#15
Edmond Dounias, Mitsuo Ichikawa
Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being...
September 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702756/creating-a-common-terminology-for-play-behavior-to-increase-cross-disciplinary-research
#16
Lance J Miller
Historically, play behavior has been difficult to define. This likely stems from the number of different species, types of play, and context under which it occurs. In 2016, the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo hosted the Psychonomic Society leading edge workshop on the evolutionary and psychological significance of play. Sixteen experts attended from the diverse fields of African ethnology, animal behavior, animal science, animal welfare, cognitive psychology, cognitive zoology, comparative psychology, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, ethology, neuroscience, primatology, and zoology...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700651/metric-based-vs-peer-reviewed-evaluation-of-a-research-output-lesson-learnt-from-uk-s-national-research-assessment-exercise
#17
Kushwanth Koya, Gobinda Chowdhury
PURPOSE: There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656521/strategic-interactions-games-of-the-ju-hoan
#18
Alex de Voogt
Three strategic games played by the Ju|'hoan-a board, a card, and a gesture game-complicate the rhetorics that suggest an evolutionary or psychological significance of play. They are mostly played by adults, although every individual adult does not necessarily engage in each game. The Ju|'hoan card and board game practices were transmitted through contact across large parts of Botswana and Namibia, while the gesture game n!àì has been known in other San communities. It suggests that the significance of strategic games is more likely found in its potential for social interaction (i...
June 27, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640836/craniofacial-similarity-analysis-through-sparse-principal-component-analysis
#19
Junli Zhao, Fuqing Duan, Zhenkuan Pan, Zhongke Wu, Jinhua Li, Qingqiong Deng, Xiaona Li, Mingquan Zhou
The computer-aided craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) technique has been widely used in the fields of criminal investigation, archaeology, anthropology and cosmetic surgery. The evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction results is important for improving the effect of craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we used the sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to evaluate the similarity between two sets of craniofacial data. Compared with principal component analysis (PCA), SPCA can effectively reduce the dimensionality and simultaneously produce sparse principal components with sparse loadings, thus making it easy to explain the results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566145/the-brain-of-ren%C3%A3-descartes-1650-a-neuro-anatomical-analysis
#20
Charlier Philippe, Huynh-Charlier Isabelle, Froesch Philippe, Shorto Russell, Benmoussa Nadia, Froment Alain, Grimaud-Hervé Dominique, Deo Saudamini, Augias Anaïs, Albessard Lou, Balzeau Antoine
The skull of René Descartes is held in the National Museum of Natural History since the 19th c. Up to date, only anthropological examinations were carried out, focusing on the cranial capacity and phrenological interpretation of the skull morphology. Using CT-scan based 3D technology, a reconstruction of the endocast was performed, allowing for its first complete description and inter-disciplinary analysis: assessment of metrical and non-metrical features, retrospective diagnosis of anatomical anomalies, and confrontation with neuro-psychological abilities of this well-identified individual...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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