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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905955/future-healthy-life-expectancy-among-older-adults-in-the-us-a-forecast-based-on-cohort-smoking-and-obesity-history
#1
Bochen Cao
BACKGROUND: In the past three decades, the elderly population in the United States experienced increase in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (LE(ND)), but decrease in life expectancy with disability (LE(D)). Smoking and obesity are two major risk factors that had negative impacts on these trends. While smoking prevalence continues to decline in recent decades, obesity prevalence has been growing and is currently at a high level. This study aims to forecast the healthy life expectancy for older adults aged 55 to 85 in the US from 2011 to 2040, in relation to their smoking and obesity history...
July 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863318/characteristics-of-objective-daytime-sleep-among-individuals-with-earthquake-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-pilot-community-based-polysomnographic-and-multiple-sleep-latency-test-study
#2
Yan Zhang, Yun Li, Hongru Zhu, Haofei Cui, Changjian Qiu, Xiangdong Tang, Wei Zhang
Little is known about the objective sleep characteristics of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examines the association between PTSD symptom severity and objective daytime sleep characteristics measured using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) in therapy-naïve patients with earthquake-related PTSD. A total of 23 PTSD patients and 13 trauma-exposed non-PTSD (TEN-PTSD) subjects completed one-night in-lab polysomnography (PSG) followed by a standard MSLT. 8 of the 23 PTSD patients received paroxetine treatment...
September 21, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855741/normal-morning-mch-levels-and-no-association-with-rem-or-nrem-sleep-parameters-in-narcolepsy-type-1-and-type-2
#3
Maren Schrölkamp, Poul J Jennum, Steen Gammeltoft, Anja Holm, Birgitte R Kornum, Stine Knudsen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810178/deficits-in-attention-performance-are-associated-with-insufficiency-of-slow-wave-sleep-in-insomnia
#4
Yun Li, Hong Liu, Jason G Weed, Rong Ren, Yuanfeng Sun, Lu Tan, Xiangdong Tang
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is associated with insomnia. However, there is a lack of evidence suggesting a link between insomnia and cognitive dysfunction in objective testing. The objectives of our current study were to assess the differences in components of attentional performance between primary insomnia patients and normal-sleeping controls and to examine potential predictors of attention impairment in patients with insomnia. METHODS: We studied 36 patients (age 40...
August 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748237/objective-but-not-subjective-sleepiness-is-associated-with-inflammation-in-sleep-apnea
#5
Yun Li, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Ilia Kritikou, Maria Basta, Slobodanka Pejovic, Jordan Gaines, Edward O Bixler
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Objective and subjective measures of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are only weakly associated. No study, however, has examined whether these two measures of EDS differ in terms of underlying mechanisms and prognostic value. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin-6 (IL-6) appear to promote sleepiness/fatigue, while the stress hormone cortisol promotes vigilance. We hypothesized that objective sleepiness is associated with increased levels of IL-6 and decreased levels of cortisol...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723544/longitudinal-associations-of-hypersomnolence-and-depression-in-the-wisconsin-sleep-cohort-study
#6
David T Plante, Laurel A Finn, Erika W Hagen, Emmanuel Mignot, Paul E Peppard
BACKGROUND: Hypersomnolence is common in depression, however longitudinal associations of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), long habitual sleep duration, and objective sleep propensity with depressive symptomatology are not well established. METHODS: Data from adults participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study who had multiple assessments at 4-year intervals were utilized in analyses. Conditional (intrasubject) logistic regression estimated the likelihood of development of depression and three primary hypersomnolence measures: subjective EDS [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) >10], habitual sleep duration ≥9h/day, and increased physiological sleep propensity [multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) mean sleep latency <8min]...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692272/hyperarousal-in-insomnia-and-hypnotic-dose-escalation
#7
T A Roehrs, T Roth
BACKGROUND: Given concerns about the abuse liability of hypnotics, this study assessed hyperarousal in people with insomnia and its relation to hypnotic self-administration over 12 months of nightly hypnotic use. METHODS: Ninety-five subjects with insomnia (age 32-64 years) underwent screening nocturnal polysomnogram (NPSG) and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) the following day and, then, were randomized to receive zolpidem 10 mg or placebo nightly for 12 months...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663355/brain-imaging-and-cognition-in-young-narcoleptic-patients
#8
Yu-Shu Huang, Feng-Yuan Liu, Chin-Yang Lin, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Christian Guilleminault
The relationship between functional brain images and performances in narcoleptic patients and controls is a new field of investigation. We studied 71 young, type 1 narcoleptic patients and 20 sex- and age-matched control individuals using brain positron emission tomography (PET) images and neurocognitive testing. Clinical investigation was carried out using sleep-wake evaluation questionnaires; a sleep-wake study was conducted with actigraphy, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), and blood tests (with human leukocyte antigen typing)...
January 19, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620392/obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-objective-daytime-sleepiness-is-associated-with-hypertension
#9
Rong Ren, Yun Li, Jihui Zhang, Junying Zhou, Yuanfeng Sun, Lu Tan, Taomei Li, Yun-Kwok Wing, Xiangdong Tang
Subjective daytime sleepiness is considered a significant risk factor of hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this study, our goal was to examine the joint effect on hypertension of OSA and objective daytime sleepiness measured by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). A total of 1338 Chinese patients with OSA and 484 primary snorers were included in the study. All subjects underwent 1 night polysomnography followed by MSLT. The MSLT values were classified into 3 categories: >8 minutes, 5 to 8 minutes, and <5 minutes...
November 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590685/sentinel-node-biopsy-in-melanoma-current-controversies-addressed
#10
M F Madu, M W J M Wouters, A C J van Akkooi
Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the most accurate staging tool for melanoma patients. The procedure is indicated especially for intermediate thickness melanoma (pT2/3). SNB can be of value in thin melanoma (>0.75 mm in thickness), with adverse prognostic factors, and in thick melanomas (pT4), although T4 patients are already at high risk of disease progression. Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) after positive SN yields additional non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSNs) in 20% of cases. Several factors are predictive for NSN positivity, such as primary tumor characteristics and SN tumor burden...
August 24, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568897/urine-toxicology-in-adults-evaluated-for-a-central-hypersomnia-and-how-the-results-modify-the-physician-s-diagnosis
#11
Christopher A Kosky, Anastasios Bonakis, Arthee Yogendran, Gihan Hettiarachchi, Paul I Dargan, Adrian J Williams
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Drugs and psychoactive substances can cause sleepiness and when undetected, may lead to over diagnosis of central hypersomnias. We performed urine drug testing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in adults undergoing multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) for a suspected central hypersomnia. We examined how the drug test results modified the treating physician's diagnosis. METHODS: One hundred eighty-six consecutive patients with a suspected central hypersomnia who underwent clinical assessment, MSLT and urine drug testing by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were retrospectively studied...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551242/naps-ms-natalizumab-effects-on-parameters-of-sleep-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Richard A Sater, Mark Gudesblatt, Kiren Kresa-Reahl, David W Brandes, Pamela Sater
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have higher rates of fatigue, mood disturbance, and cognitive impairments than healthy populations. Disease-modifying agents may affect sleep. Although patients taking natalizumab often show improvement in fatigue during the first year of therapy, the mechanism behind this effect is unknown. The aim of the NAPS-MS study was to investigate whether natalizumab affected objective measures of sleep as determined by polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) in patients with MS with fatigue or sleepiness initiating therapy...
July 2016: International Journal of MS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464609/population-based-analysis-of-completion-lymphadenectomy-in-intermediate-thickness-melanoma
#13
Catalina Mosquera, Haily S Vora, Nasreen Vohra, Timothy L Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Multicenter selective lymphadenectomy trial 1 (MSLT-I) defined the prognostic and potential therapeutic values of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for intermediate-thickness melanoma. The role of completion lymphadenectomy (CLND) is, however, unclear and the subject of the ongoing MSLT-II trial. METHODS: From 2003 to 2012, patients with tumors 1-4 mm thick with positive SLNB were identified in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program registry...
July 27, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408607/future-healthy-life-expectancy-among-older-adults-in-the-us-a-forecast-based-on-cohort-smoking-and-obesity-history
#14
Bochen Cao
BACKGROUND: In the past three decades, the elderly population in the United States experienced increase in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (LE(ND)), but decrease in life expectancy with disability (LE(D)). Smoking and obesity are two major risk factors that had negative impacts on these trends. While smoking prevalence continues to decline in recent decades, obesity prevalence has been growing and is currently at a high level. This study aims to forecast the healthy life expectancy for older adults aged 55 to 85 in the US from 2011 to 2040, in relation to their smoking and obesity history...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364793/a-polysomnography-study-of-kleine-levin-syndrome-in-a-single-center
#15
Yan-Wen Luo, Huan Yu, Lu-Hua Yuan, Guo-Xing Zhu
BACKGROUND: Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare sleep disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia. Polysomnographic (PSG) researches of KLS have been reported only in few publications in the past decades. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of PSG of KLS. METHODS: This study, which was conducted from March 2010 to July 2014, included seven patients diagnosed with KLS in the Sleep and Wake Disorder Center of Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (Shanghai, China)...
July 5, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359185/the-icsd-3-and-dsm-5-guidelines-for-diagnosing-narcolepsy-clinical-relevance-and-practicality
#16
Chad Ruoff, David Rye
Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disease manifesting as difficulty with maintaining continuous wake and sleep. Clinical presentation varies but requires excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) occurring alone or together with features of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep dissociation (e.g., cataplexy, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis), and disrupted nighttime sleep. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is associated with reductions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin due to destruction of hypocretin peptide-producing neurons in the hypothalamus in individuals with a specific genetic predisposition...
July 20, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339629/misdiagnosis-of-narcolepsy
#17
Laura Dunne, Pallavi Patel, Emily L Maschauer, Ian Morrison, Renata L Riha
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic primary sleep disorder, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep dysfunction with or without cataplexy. Narcolepsy is uncommon, with a low prevalence rate which makes it difficult to diagnose definitively without a complex series of tests and a detailed history. The aim of this study was to review patients referred to a tertiary sleep centre who had been labelled with a diagnosis of narcolepsy prior to referral in order to assess if the diagnosis was accurate, and if not, to determine the cause of diagnostic misattribution...
June 23, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274327/enhancements-to-the-multiple-sleep-latency-test
#18
Sonia Meza-Vargas, Eleni Giannouli, Magdy Younes
INTRODUCTION: The utility of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLTs) is limited to determining sleep onset latency (SOL) and rapid eye movement sleep latency. The odds ratio product (ORP) is a continuous index of sleep depth with values of 0, 1.0, and 2.5 reflecting very deep sleep, light sleep, and full wakefulness, respectively. We determined the time course of sleep depth during MSLT naps expecting that this would enhance the test's clinical utility. METHODS: Thirty MSLTs (150 naps) were performed for excessive somnolence...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263097/modified-social-learning-theory-re-examined-correlates-of-self-management-behaviors-of-persons-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Linda E Nugent, Kenneth A Wallston
Modified social learning theory (MSLT) applied to health predicts that health behavior is a multiplicative function of health value and perceptions of control over health. The self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, internal diabetes locus of control (IDLC), diabetes self-efficacy (DSE), and health value (HV) were assessed with an index of diabetes self-care activities in 107 patients receiving insulin. Multiple regression analysis showed DSE as the only MSLT construct that correlated with the index of diabetes self-care behaviors (β = ...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249760/surgical-management-and-adjuvant-therapy-for-high-risk-and-metastatic-melanoma
#20
Alexander C J van Akkooi, Michael B Atkins, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Paul Lorigan
Wide local excision is considered routine therapy after initial diagnosis of primary melanoma to reduce local recurrences, but it does not impact survival. Sentinel node staging is recommended for melanomas of intermediate thickness, but it has also not demonstrated any indisputable therapeutic effect on survival. The prognostic value of sentinel node staging has been long established and is therefore considered routine, especially in light of the eligibility criteria for adjuvant therapy (trials). Whether completion lymph node dissection after a positive sentinel node biopsy improves survival is the question of current trials...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
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