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Reversing heart disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537760/caveolin-1-autophagy-pathway-mediated-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-induced-by-apelin-13
#1
Di Wu, Feng Xie, Ling Xiao, Fen Feng, Shifang Huang, Lu He, Meiqing Liu, Qun Zhou, Lanfang Li, Linxi Chen
Apelin, an endogenous ligand for apelin receptor (APJ), is reported to be involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we explored the mechanism of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by apelin-13/APJ system. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) rat model was established by constricting the abdominal aorta. Western blots were used for protein expression in LVH rats and cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to monitor morphological features of cells. In addition, the diameter and volume of H9c2 cells were detected by Scepter™ Handheld Automated Cell Counter...
May 24, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534817/the-soft-and-hard-heartedness-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-mechanotransduction-signaling-pathways-in-fibrosis-of-the-heart
#2
REVIEW
Kate M Herum, Ida G Lunde, Andrew D McCulloch, Geir Christensen
Cardiac fibrosis, the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), remains an unresolved problem in most forms of heart disease. In order to be successful in preventing, attenuating or reversing cardiac fibrosis, it is essential to understand the processes leading to ECM production and accumulation. Cardiac fibroblasts are the main producers of cardiac ECM, and harbor great phenotypic plasticity. They are activated by the disease-associated changes in mechanical properties of the heart, including stretch and increased tissue stiffness...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533930/early-onset-lyme-carditis-with-concurrent-disseminated-erythema-migrans
#3
Kinjan P Patel, Peter D Farjo, Joy J Juskowich, Ali Hama Amin, James D Mills
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease is an infection that is estimated to affect over 300,000 people in the United States annually. Typically, it presents with erythema migrans (EM), an annular rash at the site of tick attachment, within 3 to 30 days of inoculation. Untreated patients may progress to early disseminated disease. A further complication, Lyme carditis is rare but may occur several weeks later. It commonly manifests as a variable atrioventricular (AV) conduction block, with a high-grade AV block occurring in only 1% of untreated patients...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531167/a-role-for-the-host-dna-damage-response-in-hepatitis-b-virus-cccdna-formation-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Sabrina Schreiner, Michael Nassal
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection puts more than 250 million people at a greatly increased risk to develop end-stage liver disease. Like all hepadnaviruses, HBV replicates via protein-primed reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA, yielding an unusually structured, viral polymerase-linked relaxed-circular (RC) DNA as genome in infectious particles. Upon infection, RC-DNA is converted into nuclear covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. Associating with cellular proteins into an episomal minichromosome, cccDNA acts as template for new viral RNAs, ensuring formation of progeny virions...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529489/the-electrogenic-na-k-pump-is-a-key-determinant-of-repolarization-abnormality-susceptibility-in-human-ventricular-cardiomyocytes-a-population-based-simulation-study
#5
Oliver J Britton, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, László Virág, András Varró, Blanca Rodriguez
Background: Cellular repolarization abnormalities occur unpredictably due to disease and drug effects, and can occur even in cardiomyocytes that exhibit normal action potentials (AP) under control conditions. Variability in ion channel densities may explain differences in this susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. Here, we quantify the importance of key ionic mechanisms determining repolarization abnormalities following ionic block in human cardiomyocytes yielding normal APs under control conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528298/emerging-role-of-monoamine-oxidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Soni Deshwal, Moises Di Sante, Fabio Di Lisa, Nina Kaludercic
In the past decade, accumulating evidence highlighted the role of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD). MAOs are flavoenzymes located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, responsible for the degradation of neurotransmitters and biogenic amines. During this process they generate hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes and ammonia, species that can target mitochondria and induce mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death. Indeed, MAO inhibition affords cardioprotection in several models of CVD, such as ischemia/reperfusion, heart failure and diabetes...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527962/resolution-of-mitral-regurgitation-with-left-ventricular-assist-device-support
#7
Matthew Goodwin, Hassan W Nemeh, Jamil Borgi, Gaetano Paone, Jeffrey A Morgan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac valve disease is common in patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD). The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative mitral regurgitation (MR) affects outcomes and hemodynamics in patients after LVAD implantation. METHODS: From March 2006 through May 2015, 238 consecutive patients underwent LVAD implantation. Patient cohorts included less than moderate to severe MR (< moderate-severe, n = 195) and greater than or equal to moderate to severe MR (≥ moderate-severe, n = 43)...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516795/a-comprehensive-guide-to-telocytes-and-their-great-potential-in-cardiovascular-system
#8
I Kucybala, P Janas, S Ciuk, W Cholopiak, W Klimek-Piotrowska, M K Holda
Telocytes, a recently discovered type of interstitial cells, have a very distinctive morphology - the small cell body with long extensions, named telopodes. In our review, apart from introducing general aspects of telocytes, we focus on properties, functions and future potential of those cells in cardiovascular system. However, physiological functions of telocytes in cardiovascular system are still regarded as quite enigmatic. Previous studies claim that they play a role in organogenesis and regeneration, bioelectrical signalling, mechanoelectrical coupling, anti-oxidative protection, angiogenesis and regulation of blood flow...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516504/prognostic-potential-of-midregional-pro-adrenomedullin-following-decompensation-for-systolic-heart-failure-comparison-with-cardiac-natriuretic-peptides
#9
Caroline Morbach, Almuth Marx, Mathias Kaspar, Gülmisal Güder, Susanne Brenner, Carolin Feldmann, Stefan Störk, Jörn O Vollert, Georg Ertl, Christiane E Angermann
AIMS: Whereas guidelines recommend the routine use of natriuretic peptides (NPs) in heart failure (HF) care, the clinical relevance and prognostic potential of midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is less well established. We aimed to compare the prognostic potential of MR-proADM after acute decompensation for systolic HF with that of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and midregional pro-atrial NP (MR-proANP), to investigate the significance of high/rising MR-proADM, and to evaluate the incremental prognostic yield of repeat measurements...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515853/qt-prolongation-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-end-stage-liver-disease
#10
Sun Moon Kim, Bennet George, Diego Alcivar-Franco, Charles L Campbell, Richard Charnigo, Brian Delisle, Jonathan Hundley, Yousef Darrat, Gustavo Morales, Samy-Claude Elayi, Alison L Bailey
AIM: To determine the prevalence of QT prolongation in a large series of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients and its association to clinical variables and mortality. METHODS: The QT interval was measured and corrected for heart rate for each patient, with a prolonged QT cutoff defined as QT > 450 ms for males and QT > 470 ms for females. Multiple clinical variables were evaluated including sex, age, serum sodium, international normalized ratio, creatinine, total bilirubin, beta-blocker use, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), MELD-Na, and etiology of liver disease...
April 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513228/relationship-between-chop-gadd153-and-unstable-human-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque
#11
Suping Wang, Meiyan Zhang, Zanhua Liu, Wuyang Yang, Junwei Shi, Victor Dean, Dong Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The signaling protein C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and corresponding growth-arrest-and-DNA-damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which can lead to apoptosis. Our study aims to elucidate the role of CHOP/GADD153 in unstable atherosclerotic (AS) plaque formation isolated from confounding factors such as diabetes mellitus, primary hyperlipidemia, autoimmune deficiencies/abnormalities, essential hypertension, chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and smoking...
May 17, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512159/employing-extracellular-volume-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-measures-of-myocardial-fibrosis-to-foster-novel-therapeutics
#12
Erik B Schelbert, Hani N Sabbah, Javed Butler, Mihai Gheorghiade
Quantifying myocardial fibrosis (MF) with myocardial extracellular volume measures acquired during cardiovascular magnetic resonance promises to transform clinical care by advancing pathophysiologic understanding and fostering novel therapeutics. Extracellular volume quantifies MF by measuring the extracellular compartment depicted by the myocardial uptake of contrast relative to plasma. MF is a key domain of dysfunctional but viable myocardium among others (eg, microvascular dysfunction and cardiomyocyte/mitochondrial dysfunction)...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510118/tampering-with-springs-phosphorylation-of-titin-affecting-the-mechanical-function-of-cardiomyocytes
#13
REVIEW
Nazha Hamdani, Melissa Herwig, Wolfgang A Linke
Reversible post-translational modifications of various cardiac proteins regulate the mechanical properties of the cardiomyocytes and thus modulate the contractile performance of the heart. The giant protein titin forms a continuous filament network in the sarcomeres of striated muscle cells, where it determines passive tension development and modulates active contraction. These mechanical properties of titin are altered through post-translational modifications, particularly phosphorylation. Titin contains hundreds of potential phosphorylation sites, the functional relevance of which is only beginning to emerge...
April 10, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509761/dabigatran-in-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-from-clinical-trials-to-real-life-experience
#14
Nicola Mumoli, Daniela Mastroiacovo, Eleonora Tamborini-Permunian, Josè Vitale, Matteo Giorgi-Pierfranceschi, Marco Cei, Francesco Dentali
: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in over-midlife patients. In addition to systolic heart failure, cerebral thromboembolism represents the most dramatic complication of this rhythm disorder, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, anticoagulation has been considered the main strategy in preventing stroke and systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation patients and vitamin K-dependent antagonists have been widely used in clinical practice. Recently, the development of direct oral anticoagulants has certainly improved the management of this disease, providing, for the first time, the opportunity to go beyond vitamin K-dependent antagonists limits...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499193/stachydrine-ameliorates-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis-by-suppressing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-through-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-signaling-pathways-in-rats
#15
Lingling Zhao, Dawei Wu, Mengru Sang, Yiming Xu, Zhaoguo Liu, Qinan Wu
Cardiac hypertrophy (CH), as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, has become an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. However, progress in treatment remains sluggish in recent years. Therefore, compounds derived from non-toxic nature plants are urgently needed. Stachydrine (STA), which is isolated from Leonurus, has various activities, including resistance to cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its effect on CH or the mechanisms. We herein investigated the effect of STA on isoproterenol-induced CH and the underlying mechanisms...
May 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498411/mitochondrial-activity-and-oxidative-stress-functions-are-influenced-by-the-activation-of-ahr-induced-cyp1a1-overexpression-in-cardiomyocytes
#16
Bing Zhou, Xi Wang, Feng Li, Yingting Wang, Lei Yang, Xiaolong Zhen, Wuhong Tan
There is an endemic cardiomyopathy currently occurring in China, termed, Keshan disease (KD). The authors previously compared mitochondrial‑associated gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from KD patients and normal controls, using mitochondria‑focused cDNA microarray technology. The results detected an upregulation of the enzyme‑associated CYP1A1 gene, (ratios ≥2.0). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates the expression of numerous cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes including members of the CYP1 family; CYP1A1 and CYP1A2...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494974/multiple-comorbidities-and-response-to-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-madit-crt-long-term-follow-up
#17
Emily P Zeitler, Daniel J Friedman, James P Daubert, Sana M Al-Khatib, Scott D Solomon, Yitschak Biton, Scott McNitt, Wojciech Zareba, Arthur J Moss, Valentina Kutyifa
BACKGROUND: Data regarding cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with multiple comorbidities are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of multiple comorbidities with the benefits of CRT over implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) alone. METHODS: We examined 1,214 MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 comorbidities, including renal dysfunction, hypertension (HTN), diabetes, coronary artery disease, history of atrial arrhythmias, history of ventricular arrhythmias, current smoking, and cerebrovascular accident...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493931/asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis-and-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-a-community-based-observational-study
#18
Dandan Wang, Yang Li, Yong Zhou, Cheng Jin, Qi Zhao, Anxin Wang, Shouling Wu, Wen Bin Wei, Xingquan Zhao, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To examine whether an abnormally thin retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is associated with cerebrovascular insufficiency. DESIGN: Community-based study. METHODS: The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community Study included Chinese aged 40+ years and without histories of cerebrovascular incidents or coronary heart disease. Using transcranial Doppler and carotid duplex ultrasound examination, we assessed presence and degree of an intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) and extracranial carotid arterial stenosis (ECAS) and we measured the RNFL thickness by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489290/obesity-a-chronic-relapsing-progressive-disease-process-a-position-statement-of-the-world-obesity-federation
#19
EDITORIAL
G A Bray, K K Kim, J P H Wilding
This paper considers the argument for obesity as a chronic relapsing disease process. Obesity is viewed from an epidemiological model, with an agent affecting the host and producing disease. Food is the primary agent, particularly foods that are high in energy density such as fat, or in sugar-sweetened beverages. An abundance of food, low physical activity and several other environmental factors interact with the genetic susceptibility of the host to produce positive energy balance. The majority of this excess energy is stored as fat in enlarged, and often more numerous fat cells, but some lipid may infiltrate other organs such as the liver (ectopic fat)...
May 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489182/acute-effects-of-intradialytic-aerobic-exercise-on-solute-removal-blood-gases-and-oxidative-stress-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Joseane Böhm, Mariane Borba Monteiro, Francini Porcher Andrade, Francisco Veronese, Fernando Saldanha Thomé
Introduction: Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG)...
April 27, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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