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Reversing heart disease

Saamir A Hassan, Syed Wamique Yusuf, Jyoti Sharma, Jasmine Khan, Michele Guindani, Vicente Valero, Mariana Chavez-McGregor, Jose Banchs
OBJECTIVES: To identify unique echocardiographic features that could be used to reliably predict LVEF recovery upon resolution of sinus tachycardia in patients with cancer. BACKGROUND: Sinus tachycardia may be a manifestation of underlying cardiomyopathy or can lead to a reversible form of dilated cardiomyopathy known as tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy. While distinguishing the two can be challenging, predicting recovery regardless of cause can be of significant clinical importance in the cancer population...
October 21, 2016: Echocardiography
Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ammar M Killu, Niyada Naksuk, Christopher V Desimone, Prakriti Gaba, Scott Suddendorf, Joanne Powers, Dejae Ladewig, Lilach O Lerman, Barry A Borlaug, Samuel J Asirvatham
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial procedures frequently require pericardial manipulation. We aimed to develop a nonsurgical percutaneous pericardial modification tool that may (1) facilitate epicardial-based procedures by enabling adhesiolysis or (2) attenuate the myocardial constraining effect of the pericardium. METHODS: Three novel devices were developed to enable pericardiotomy, all of which can be deployed in over-the-wire fashion following percutaneous epicardial access...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Jimena Giudice, Zheng Xia, Wei Li, Thomas A Cooper
The RNA binding protein Celf1 regulates alternative splicing in the nucleus and mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm. Celf1 is strongly down-regulated during mouse postnatal heart development. Its re-induction in adults induced severe heart failure and reversion to fetal splicing and gene expression patterns. However, the impact of Celf1 depletion on cardiac transcriptional and posttranscriptional dynamics in neonates has not been addressed. We found that homozygous Celf1 knock-out neonates exhibited cardiac dysfunction not observed in older homozygous animals, although homozygous mice are smaller than wild type littermates throughout development...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ran-Hui Cha, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Sung Gyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: Blood pressure (BP) control is the most established practice for preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the BP control and nocturnal dipping pattern change in hypertensive patients with CKD and its effects on target organ damages. DESIGN AND METHOD: We recruited 378 hypertensive CKD patients from 4 centers in Korea. They underwent office and ambulatory BP monitoring at the time of enrollment and 1 year after. High office and ambulatory BP was defined as > 140/90 mmHg and > 135/85 mmHg (daytime)/> 120/70 mmHg (nighttime), respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
ByungSu Yoo
Hypertension is the most common risk factor for systolic and diastolic heart failure. Based on population-attributable risks, hypertension has the greatest impact on the development of heart failure, accounting for 39% of HF events in men and 59% in women. Higher blood pressure, longer duration of hypertension and older age are associated with higher incidence of heart failure however, long term control of hypertension reduces the risk of heart failure. Thus current guideline pointed the hypertension as the single most important modifiable risk factor for heart failure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marianna Nardozza, Donato Mele, Roberto Ferrari
We report the case of a 67-year-old woman with a carcinoid tumor of midgut origin who developed carcinoid heart disease and died because of bowel perforation. Echocardiography allowed the diagnosis, recognizing the typical abnormalities of tricuspid and pulmonary valve leaflets. The sonographic examination also evidenced peculiar alterations of the right heart hemodynamics: end-diastolic reversal of flow at the level of the pulmonary valve, reduced respiratory excursion without enlargement of the inferior vena cava, and biphasic hepatic venous flow without respiratory variation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Michel Komajda
Ivabradine is a blocker of the funny current channels in the sinoatrial node cells. This results in pure heart rate reduction when elevated without direct effect on contractility or on the vessels. It was tested in a large outcome clinical trial in stable chronic heart failure (CHF) with low ejection fraction, in sinus rhythm, on a contemporary background therapy including betablockers (SHIFT: Systolic Heart Failure Treatment with the If inhibitor Trial).The primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization) was reduced by 18% whereas the first occurrence of heart failure hospitalizations was reduced by 26%...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Zhigang Li, Baoyi Liu, Benjie Wang, Yupeng Liu, Yao Zhang, Fengde Tian, Borui Li, Dewei Zhao
Collagen type Ⅱ (col Ⅱ) and aggrecan, the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in human joint cartilage, have been reported to be reduced by chronic production of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β in arthritic joints. Carvedilol, a licensed medicine, has been used for treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and coronary disease in clinics. In this study, we investigated the effects of Carvedilol on the expression of col Ⅱ and aggrecan. Our results demonstrate that treatment with Carvedilol didn't change the expression of aggrecan or col Ⅱ at mRNA levels in SW1353 chondrocytes...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Martin A Alpert, Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick
Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy)...
October 15, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Keith M Godfrey, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susan L Prescott, Moffat Nyirenda, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan G Eriksson, Birit F P Broekman
In addition to immediate implications for pregnancy complications, increasing evidence implicates maternal obesity as a major determinant of offspring health during childhood and later adult life. Observational studies provide evidence for effects of maternal obesity on her offspring's risks of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and asthma. Maternal obesity could also lead to poorer cognitive performance and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Preliminary evidence suggests potential implications for immune and infectious-disease-related outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Peng Li, Pei-Pei Huang, Yun Yang, Chi Liu, Yan Lu, Fang Wang, Wei Sun, Xiang-Qing Kong
Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then, rats underwent RSD or sham 4 weeks later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Vikrant Mahajani, Vidya Suratkal
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TC) is also known as Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy or Broken Heart Syndrome. Typically there is transient systolic dysfunction of the apical or the mid segments of the left ventricle that occurs in the presence of acute emotional stress. Some atypical variants have been described. Hyperadrenergic state associated with emotional stress is cited as the probable etiology. It mimics Acute Myocardial Infarction with concomitant rise in cardiac biomarkers, ECG, 2D-Echocardiography abnormalities comprising of left ventricular dysfunction with regional wall motion abnormality, no significant Coronary Artery Disease on angiography...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Radu Campean, Matthias Hasun, Claudia Stöllberger, Johannes Bucher, Josef Finsterer, Christoph Schnack, Franz Weidinger
BACKGROUND: Reversible left ventricular dysfunction, also termed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is rarely reported in Addison's disease after initiation of hormone replacement therapy. The pathogenesis of this cardiomyopathy is unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old white woman with a history of autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed 3 years earlier and acute adrenal insufficiency diagnosed 3 weeks earlier presented with new onset of heart failure New York Heart Association class IV, which had started shortly after initiation of hormone replacement therapy with hydrocortisone 20 mg/day and fludrocortisone 0...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Qunjun Duan, Weijun Yang, Daming Jiang, Kaiyu Tao, Aiqiang Dong, Haifeng Cheng
Myocardial infarction could result in high morbidity and mortality and heart diseases of children have becoming prevalent. Functions of spermine administration on cardiomyocytes remain unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the role of spermine pretreatment on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). A cell model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by incubating neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cardiomyocytes in ischemia medium and re-cultured in normal medium. Of note, spermine pretreatment significantly reduced apoptosis and increased viability of immature cardiomyocytes...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
D K Ajithdoss, M K Torchetti, L Badcoe, D S Bradway, T V Baszler
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major viral disease of poultry characterized by acute onset, systemic infection, and rapid death. In January 2015, H5N2 HPAI was identified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and gene sequencing as the cause of rapid death in 40 of 390 ring-necked pheasants (approximately 10% mortality), raised in a game bird farm in Washington State. We report clinicopathologic findings and viral antigen distribution in pheasants that died during the outbreak...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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