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Coley toxin

M Gabriela Kramer, Martín Masner, Fernando A Ferreira, Robert M Hoffman
Spontaneous tumors regression has been associated with microbial infection for 100s of years and inspired the use of bacteria for anticancer therapy. Dr. William B. Coley (1862-1936), a bone- sarcoma surgeon, was a pioneer in treating his patients with both live bacterial-based and mixture of heat-killed bacteria known as "Coley's toxins." Unfortunately, Coley was forced to stop his work which interrupted this field for about half a century. Currently, several species of bacteria are being developed against cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael J Nathenson, Anthony P Conley, Edward Sausville
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are a rare and heterogeneous form of cancer. With standard of care treatment options including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the long-term survival is still low for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma patients. New treatment strategies are needed. Immunotherapy offers a new potential treatment paradigm with great promise. Immunotherapy of soft tissue sarcomas dates back to Dr. Coley's first use of toxins in the late 1800s. A variety of strategies of immunotherapy have been tried in soft tissue and bone sarcomas, including various vaccines and cytokines, with limited success...
January 2018: Oncologist
Stewart Sell
From the application of Coley's toxin in the early 1900s to the present clinical trials using immune checkpoint regulatory inhibitors, the history of cancer immunotherapy has consisted of extremely high levels of enthusiasm after anecdotal case reports of enormous success, followed by decreasing levels of enthusiasm as the results of controlled clinical trials are available. In this review, this pattern will be documented for the various immunotherapeutic approaches over the years. The sole exception being vaccination against cancer causing viruses, which have already prevented thousands of cancers...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Ashish H Shah, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Michael E Ivan, Ricardo J Komotar, Noriyuki Kasahara
In the late 19th century, Dr. William B. Coley introduced the theory that infections may aid in the treatment of malignancy. With the creation of Coley's toxin, reports of remission during viral illnesses for systemic malignancies soon emerged. A few decades after this initial discovery, Austrian physicians performed intravascular injections of Clostridium to induce oncolysis in patients with glioblastoma. Since then, suggestions between improved survival and infectious processes have been reported in several patients with glioma, which ultimately marshaled the infamous use of intracerebral Enterobacter...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
W F Morano, A Aggarwal, P Love, S D Richard, J Esquivel, W B Bowne
Intraperitoneal immunotherapy represents a novel strategy for the management of peritoneal metastases (PM). Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has remained the gold standard of treatment for patients with PM, yet despite optimal treatment, recurrence rates remain high and long-term survival poor. From Coley's toxins to immune checkpoint inhibitors, the wide variety of anticancer immunotherapeutic strategies are now garnering attention for control of regional disease of the peritoneal cavity...
November 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Line Stensig Lynggaard, Hanne V Marquart, Eigil Kjeldsen, Hans O Madsen, Henrik Hasle
A small group of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have a preleukemic phase of pancytopenia followed by a period of spontaneous remission before the diagnosis (pre-ALL). A 6-year-old girl presented with pancytopenia, fever, and myelodysplasia. Following transient remission pre-B ALL was diagnosed 14 months later. Clonal B-lineage blasts at the period of pancytopenia were identified retrospectively. The interval between pre-ALL and ALL-diagnosis was longer than previously reported. The infection was clinically severe and might have induced a significant endogenous corticosteroids production resulting in the long-lasting remission...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Robert M Hoffman
Bacterial therapy of cancer has a centuries-long history and was first-line therapy at the hospital in New York City that would become Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, under Dr. William B. Coley. However, after Coley's death in 1936, bacterial therapy of cancer ceased in the clinic until the present century. Clinical trials have been recently carried out for strains of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium novyi with the toxin gene deleted, and on an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), which is a facultative anaerobe that can grow in viable, as well as necrotic, areas of tumors, unlike Clostridium, which can only grow in the hypoxic areas...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Petra Kucerova, Monika Cervinkova
This review deals with the role of microorganisms in spontaneous regression of a tumour. Spontaneous cancer regression is a phenomenon that has been described for many centuries. One of the most well known methods of inducing spontaneous regression of cancer is the application of Coley's toxin (heat-killed Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens), which has been used for the successful treatment of sarcomas, carcinomas, lymphomas, myelomas and melanomas. In clinical practice, the use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine for the treatment of superficial urinary bladder cancer is the most common instance of the application of microorganisms for the treatment of cancer...
April 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
M Svoboda, J Navrátil, O Slabý
The immune system is believed to play a dual role in carcinogenesis. On one hand, it could prompt tumorigenesis and cancer progression, on the other hand, it has the capacity to eradicate tumor cells. There has been an evidence of natural immunogenicity in breast cancer and we have also witnessed several attempts to stimulate non-specific antitumor immune response (Coleys toxin, BCG vaccine etc.). New technologies and further knowledge of molecular basis of immune system and its function encouraged the development of effective immunotherapy capable of inducing a solid antitumor activity...
2015: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
B Říhová, M Šťastný
Immunotherapy dates back to 1868 when German physicist Busch intentionally infected patients suffering from soft tissue sarcoma with erysipelas. Rapid tumor shrinkage was observed but response was only partial and tumor recurrence subsequently occurred. It was William B. Coley who in 1891 injected a patient with a soft tissue sarcoma with streptococcal cultures. Following a severe attack of erysipelas, the tumor underwent extensive necrosis and the patient remained diseasefree for eight years. The mixture of Streptococcus and other bacteria including Seratia marcescens, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli was referred to as Coleys toxin and was used for the next 45 years...
2015: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Melissa Burgess, Vikram Gorantla, Kurt Weiss, Hussein Tawbi
Immunologic approaches to cancer are over a century old. Over the years, the strategy has been fine-tuned from inciting infections in subjects to inhibiting negative regulatory signals from the innate immune system. Sarcomas are among the first tumors to be considered for immune interventions. From Coley's toxin to cytokine-based therapies to adoptive cell therapy, there have been numerous immunotherapeutic investigations in this patient population. A promising strategy includes adoptive T cell therapy which has been studied in small cohorts of synovial sarcoma, a subtype that is known to widely express the cancer testis antigen, NY-ESO-1...
November 2015: Current Oncology Reports
Samuel S K Lam, Feifan Zhou, Tomas Hode, Robert E Nordquist, Luciano Alleruzzo, Joseph Raker, Wei R Chen
Since the invention of Coley's toxin by William Coley in early 1900s, the path for cancer immunotherapy has been a convoluted one. Although still not considered standard of care, with the FDA approval of trastuzumab, Provenge and ipilimumab, the medical and scientific community has started to embrace the possibility that immunotherapy could be a new hope for cancer patients with otherwise untreatable metastatic diseases. This review aims to summarize the development of some major strategies in cancer immunotherapy, from the earliest peptide vaccine and transfer of tumor specific antibodies/T cells to the more recent dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, whole cell tumor vaccines, and checkpoint blockade therapy...
April 2015: Discovery Medicine
Ryan J Sullivan, Keith T Flaherty
From Coley's toxin to combination immune checkpoint inhibition, strategies to activate the immune system and generate anticancer immunity have been ongoing for well over a century. Over the past decade, the so-called immune checkpoint inhibitors, generally monoclonal antibodies that target key regulators of T-cell activation, emerged as the most effective immune-targeted agents. Pembrolizumab is the first anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibody approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. With responses seen in 25% to 40% of patients, depending on dose and setting (i...
July 1, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Sofía Grille, María Moreno, Thais Bascuas, Juan M Marqués, Natalia Muñoz, Daniela Lens, Jose A Chabalgoity
Despite the efficacy of current immune-chemotherapy for treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a substantial proportion of patients relapse, highlighting the need for new therapeutic modalities. The use of live microorganisms to develop anti-tumoural therapies has evolved since Coley's toxin and is now receiving renewed attention. Salmonella Typhimurium has been shown to be highly effective as an anti-tumour agent in many solid cancer models, but it has not been used in haemato-oncology. Here, we report that intra-tumoural administration of LVR01 (attenuated S...
November 2014: Immunology
T Hemmerle, P Probst, L Giovannoni, A J Green, T Meyer, D Neri
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas are a group of malignancies of mesenchymal origin, which typically have a dismal prognosis if they reach the metastatic stage. The observation of rare spontaneous remissions in patients suffering from concomitant bacterial infections had triggered the clinical investigation of the use of heat-killed bacteria as therapeutic agents (Coley's toxin), which induced complete responses in patients in the pre-chemotherapy era and is now known to mediate substantial elevations in serum TNF levels...
September 3, 2013: British Journal of Cancer
C Maletzki, U Klier, W Obst, B Kreikemeyer, M Linnebacher
Several decades after Coley's initial work, we here systematically analyzed tumoricidal as well as immunostimulatory effects of the historical preparation Coley's Toxin (CT), a safe vaccine made of heat-inactivated S. pyogenes and S. marcescens. First, by performing in vitro analysis, established human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines responded with dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition. Effects were attributed to necrotic as well as apoptotic cell death as determined by increased Caspase 3/7 levels, raised numbers of cells with sub-G1-DNA, and induced p21(waf) expression, indicative for cell cycle arrest...
2012: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Erika Vacchelli, Alexander Eggermont, Wolf Hervé Fridman, Jerome Galon, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Eric Tartour, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are prototypic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) best known for their ability to activate the innate immune system in response to conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide and double-stranded RNA. Accumulating evidence indicates that the function of TLRs is not restricted to the elicitation of innate immune responses against invading pathogens. TLRs have indeed been shown to participate in tissue repair and injury-induced regeneration as well as in adaptive immune responses against cancer...
August 1, 2012: Oncoimmunology
Julia Karbach, Antje Neumann, Kathrin Brand, Claudia Wahle, Ekkehard Siegel, Markus Maeurer, Erika Ritter, Takamasa Tsuji, Sacha Gnjatic, Lloyd J Old, Gerd Ritter, Elke Jäger
PURPOSE: Mixed bacterial vaccine (MBV, Coley's toxins) is a historical, vaguely defined preparation of heat-inactivated Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens used as nonspecific immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer. The mechanism of action is suspected to have an immunologic basis, yet it is poorly defined up to now. We developed a new, biochemically well defined and current good manufacturing practice-compliant MBV preparation, which has been investigated in patients with NY-ESO-1 expressing cancers...
October 1, 2012: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
J A Thomas, M Badini
Nature has provided us with infections - acute and chronic - and these infections have both harmful and beneficial effects on the human system. Worldwide, a number of chronic infections are associated with a risk of cancer, but it is also known that cancer regresses when associated with acute infections such as bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, etc. Acute infections are known to cure chronic diseases since the time of Hippocrates. The benefits of these fever producing acute infections has been applied in cancer vaccinology such as the Coley's toxins...
April 2011: Indian Journal of Cancer
T Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1923: Transactions of the American Climatological and Clinical Association
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