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Resident assessment

M Austin Coker, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Russell W Read, Mark W Swanson, Laura E Dreer, Dawn K DeCarlo, Lindsay Gregg, Cynthia Owsley
Importance: The prevalence of irreversible vision impairment in the United States is expected to increase by 2050. Vision rehabilitation is the primary treatment option. Clinical trials have established its efficacy in improving quality of life. Yet studies indicate that patients experience many barriers to accessing low-vision care. Objectives: To examine the rate of referral for low-vision rehabilitation services by resident and attending ophthalmologists for adults with irreversible vision impairment and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of patients about vision rehabilitation...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Agnieszka Nobis, Arkadiusz Nowak, Kaja Rola
Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed...
2018: PloS One
Mohammed Saji Salahudeen, Prasad S Nishtala
OBJECTIVE: To summarize studies that used the international Resident Assessment home care instrument (interRAI HC) to examine study outcomes for older people. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed to identify relevant studies, using five databases from 1990 until October 2016. The Cochrane Risk-Bias assessment tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of RCTs and non-RCTs, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the full-text analysis, 40 studies met the inclusion criteria out of 506 total records...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Vijay A Patel, Laila Siddique, Lauren Stahl, Michele M Carr
BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to assess resident education regarding contemporary management of hereditary angioedema using a web-based survey. METHODS: An 11-item, multiple-choice, electronic questionnaire was sent to all 106 accredited otolaryngology training programs in November 2016. Questions focused on resident education, management principles, and formalized assessment. RESULTS: A total of 34 program directors responded, representing 32% of otolaryngology residences...
March 15, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Roaa S Jamjoom, Yoon S Park
OBJECTIVES: To study burnout among pediatric residents at King  Abdulazaiz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey that was administered to all pediatric residents enrolled in the Saudi Paediatric Board program (PGY1-PGY4) in a large tertiary academic hospital in the Western region of Saudi Arabia (King Abdulaziz University Hospital). The survey were sent via E-mail to 50 registered general pediatric residents.  Results: Seventy percent of the pediatric residents completed the survey...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Rebecca M Schwartz, Rehana Rasul, Samantha M Kerath, Alexis R Watson, Wil Lieberman-Cribbin, Bian Liu, Emanuela Taioli
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of displacement due to Hurricane Sandy on mental health outcomes among residents of the greater New York City (NYC) area. DESIGN: Prospective, cross sectional. SETTING: NYC area residents, including Queens, Staten Island, and Long Island. PARTICIPANTS: In a 4.25 year period (June 2012 to September 2016), a convenience sample of 1,615 adult residents from the greater NYC area completed validated measures of hurricane exposure (including displacement), perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as well as indicators of alcohol, illicit substance, and tobacco use...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
David A Kalmbach, Yu Fang, J Todd Arnedt, Amy L Cochran, Patricia J Deldin, Adam I Kaplin, Srijan Sen
BACKGROUND: Although short sleep, shift work, and physical inactivity are endemic to residency, a lack of objective, real-time information has limited our understanding of how these problems impact physician mental health. OBJECTIVE: To understand how the residency experience affects sleep, physical activity, and mood, and to understand the directional relationships among these variables. DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Thirty-three first-year residents (interns) provided data from 2 months pre-internship through the first 6 months of internship...
March 14, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Mahmood Yousefi, Mehdi Yaseri, Ramin Nabizadeh, Elham Hooshmand, Mohsen Jalilzadeh, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ali Akbar Mohammadi
Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic for both rural and urban populations; it is a major public health challenge in Iran. Fluoride can be a risk factor for hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in two study areas to assess the relation of fluoride with blood pressure prevalence, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among different age groups in both sexes. The mean value of fluoride concentration in the drinking water from the four study villages varied from 0.68 to 10...
March 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Andrea Moglia, Luca Morelli, Vincenzo Ferrari, Mauro Ferrari, Franco Mosca, Alfred Cuschieri
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest for a test assessing objectively the innate aptitude for surgery as a craft specialty to complement the current selection process of surgical residents. The aim of this study was to quantify the size of individuals with high, average, and low level of innate psychomotor skills among medical students. METHODS: A volunteer sample of 155 medical students, without prior experience with surgical simulator, executed five tasks at a virtual simulator for robot-assisted surgery...
March 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Valeria Molinelli, Maria Gloria Angeretti, Ejona Duka, Nicola Tarallo, Elena Bracchi, Raffaele Novario, Carlo Fugazzola
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the addition of gadolinium-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) improves T2 sequence performance for the diagnosis of local recurrence (LR) from rectal cancer and to assess which approach is better at formulating this diagnosis among readers with different experience. METHODS: Forty-three patients with suspected LR underwent pelvic MRI with T2 weighted (T2) sequences, gadolinium fat-suppressed T1 weighted sequences (post-contrast T1), and DWI sequences...
March 14, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Michael Thomas LeCompte, Connor Goldman, John L Tarpley, Margaret Tarpley, Erik N Hansen, Peter M Nthumba, Kyla P Terhune, Rondi M Kauffmann
INTRODUCTION: Global surgery is increasingly recognized as a vital component of international public health. Access to basic surgical care is limited in much of the world, resulting in a global burden of treatable disease. To address the lack of surgical workforce in underserved environments and to foster ongoing interest in global health among US-trained surgeons, our institution established a residency rotation through partnership with an academic hospital in Kijabe, Kenya. This study evaluates the perceptions of residents involved in the rotation, as well as its impact on their future involvement in global health...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
F Sancassiani, Mauro G Carta, Roberta Montisci, Antonio Preti, Sergio Machado, Maria F Moro, Maria F Marchetti, Luigi Meloni
Background: The aim was to study the association between mood and anxiety disorders and the Tako-Tsubo Syndrome (TTS) and to determine the role of antidepressants and the impairment of quality of life due the comorbid psychiatric disorder. Methods: Case-control study: 19 consecutive patients (17 female) with TTS compared to 76 controls without TTS, were randomly selected from the database of a nationwide epidemiological study after matching (gender, age and residence) by controls...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Yangming Gong, Peng Peng, Pingping Bao, Weijian Zhong, Yan Shi, Kai Gu, Ying Zheng, Chunxiao Wu, Sanjun Cai, Ye Xu, Jun Sheng, Fan Wu
BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) have increased dramatically over the past 3 decades in China due to changes in lifestyle factors. Early detection and treatment guidelines for asymptomatic cases have shown to improve CRC control in developed countries. In response to these challenges, the Shanghai Municipal Government launched a community-based CRC screening program in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free initial screening, inclusive of immunochemical fecal occult blood and risk assessment (questionnaire), was provided by community health centers in Shanghai...
March 14, 2018: Oncologist
Cynthia M Rand, Stanley J Schaffer, Nui Dhepyasuwan, Aaron Blumkin, Christina Albertin, Janet R Serwint, Paul M Darden, Sharon G Humiston, Keith J Mann, William Stratbucker, Peter G Szilagyi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates lag behind vaccination rates for other adolescent vaccines; a bundled intervention may improve HPV vaccination rates. Our objective is to evaluate the impact of quality improvement (QI) training plus a bundled practice-based intervention (provider prompts plus communication skills training plus performance feedback) on improving HPV vaccinations in pediatric resident continuity clinics. METHODS: Staff and providers in 8 resident clinics participated in a 12-month QI study...
March 14, 2018: Pediatrics
James Rourke, Danielle O'Keefe, Mohamed Ravalia, Scott Moffatt, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Michael Jong, Kristin Harris Walsh, Janelle Hippe
OBJECTIVE: To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. DESIGN: Analysis of anonymized secondary data. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091)...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Yang Bai, Hannelore Bové, Tim S Nawrot, Benoit Nemery
BACKGROUND: Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM) has been proposed as an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived pollutant particles. However, it is not known how this biomarker is affected by changes in exposure. We studied the clearance kinetics of black carbon (BC) in AM, obtained by sputum induction, in a one-year panel study. METHODS: AM BC was measured 8 times with 6 weeks intervals in healthy young subjects: 15 long-term residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE, mean annual PM10 20-30 μg/m3 ) and 30 newcomers having arrived recently (< 3 weeks) in Leuven from highly polluted cities (mean annual PM10  > 50 μg/m3 ) in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, n = 15), or from low to moderately polluted cities in high-income countries (HIC, n = 15)...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte, Antonio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: The hypotheses put forward to explain the malaria transmission cycle in extra-Amazonian Brazil, an area of very low malaria incidence, are based on either a zoonotic scenario involving simian malaria, or a scenario in which asymptomatic carriers play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of asymptomatic infection by detecting Plasmodium spp. DNA and its role in residual malaria transmission in a non-Amazonian region of Brazil. METHODS: Upon the report of the first malaria case in 2010 in the Atlantic Forest region of the state of Espírito Santo, inhabitants within a 2 km radius were invited to participate in a follow-up study...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Saira Khan, Veronica Hicks, Danielle Rancilio, Marvin Langston, Katina Richardson, Bettina F Drake
Long-term follow-up care among prostate cancer patients is important as biochemical recurrence can occur many years after diagnosis, with 20%-30% of men experiencing biochemical recurrence within 10 years of treatment. This study examined predictors of follow-up care among 1,158 radical prostatectomy patients, treated at the Washington University in St. Louis, within 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years post surgery. Predictors examined included age at surgery, race (Black vs. White), rural/urban status, education, marital status, and prostate cancer aggressiveness...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Jielu Lin, Christopher S Marcum, Anna V Wilkinson, Laura M Koehly
Background: Collecting complete and accurate family health history is critical to preventing type 2 diabetes. Purpose: We seek to identify the optimal risk feedback approach that facilitates risk communication between parents and their adult children and helps them develop shared appraisals of family history of type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a sample of parent-adult child dyads from 125 Mexican-heritage families residing in Houston, Texas, we examine change in parent-child dyadic (dis)agreement with respect to their shared family health history from baseline to 10 months after receipt of risk feedback generated by Family Healthware...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Kelly Oliva Jorge, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E Ferreira, Ichiro Kawachi, Patrícia Maria Zarzar, Isabela Almeida Pordeus
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine illicit drug use and associations with socioeconomic factors as well as peer group influence among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Two-stage cluster sampling was adopted, involving the random selection of public and private schools from the nine administrative districts of a Brazilian state capital and the random selection of classrooms at each school. Illicit drug use was the outcome and was measured through the question: "Have you ever used any illicit drugs (marijuana, inhalants, hypnotics, cocaine/crack, hallucinogens, amphetamines and opioids) in your life?"...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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