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Neurovascular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626444/aging-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-dizziness-the-importance-of-undiagnosed-peripheral-vestibular-disorders
#1
Niccolò Cerchiai, Michelangelo Mancuso, Elena Navari, Nicola Giannini, Augusto Pietro Casani
Recent studies showed a link between cerebral small vessel white matter disease (SVD) and dizziness: patients whose dizziness cannot be explained by vestibular disease show severe SVD and gait abnormalities; however, little is still known about how SVD can cause this symptom. The primary aim of this study is to examine the possible underlying causes of dizziness in neurovascular patients; this is in order to assess whether treatable causes could be routinely disregarded. A secondary aim is to possibly define a central oculomotor pattern induced per se by SVD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626289/comparison-of-high-resolution-x-ray-detectors-with-conventional-fpds-using-experimental-mtfs-and-apodized-aperture-pixel-design-for-reduced-aliasing
#2
A Shankar, M Russ, S Vijayan, D R Bednarek, S Rudin
Apodized Aperture Pixel (AAP) design, proposed by Ismailova et. al, is an alternative to the conventional pixel design(1). The advantages of AAP processing with a sinc filter in comparison with using other filters include non-degradation of MTF values and elimination of signal and noise aliasing, resulting in an increased performance at higher frequencies, approaching the Nyquist frequency(3). If high resolution small field-of-view (FOV) detectors with small pixels used during critical stages of Endovascular Image Guided Interventions (EIGIs) could also be extended to cover a full field-of-view typical of flat panel detectors (FPDs) and made to have larger effective pixels, then methods must be used to preserve the MTF over the frequency range up to the Nyquist frequency of the FPD while minimizing aliasing...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625908/-on-the-spot-the-use-of-4d-cta-to-differentiate-a-true-spot-sign-from-a-distal-intracranial-aneurysm
#3
Johanna P de Jong, Leo Kluijtmans, Martinus J van Amerongen, Mathias Prokop, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, Frederick J A Meijer
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage may arise from underlying abnormalities including aneurysms. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used for the detection of possible underlying causes, which is important since it may have immediate therapeutic consequences. In addition, CTA is used to detect the so-called "spot sign", indicating active hemorrhage which carries a worse prognosis. CTA is, however, a snapshot in time. Four-dimensional CTA (4D-CTA) is a dynamic type of imaging and has emerged as a valuable imaging technique for different neurovascular disorders...
June 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624098/utility-of-neurovascular-imaging-in-acute-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#4
Ishita Siddiq, Derek Armstrong, Ann-Marie Surmava, Nomazulu Dlamini, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Rand Askalan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) findings and clinically characterize neonates with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) who have abnormal or variable vasculature. STUDY DESIGN: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients with neonatal stroke from 1991 to 2012. We reviewed charts and neuroimaging, including MRA, in neonates with AIS. Clinical data of patients with MRA findings were compared with the control group of neonates with AIS and a normal MRA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615922/influence-of-circulating-endothelin-1-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-on-whole-brain-circulation-time-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Lucia Monti, Lucia Morbidelli, Lorenzo Bazzani, Alessandro Rossi
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, inflammatory and immune cell activation, and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion are features of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim is to determine the influence of endothelin-1 (ET1) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) on cerebral circulation time (CCT) in patients with MS. In all, 64 patients with MS (39 relapsing-remitting [RR]-MS; 25 secondary progressive [SP]-MS subtype) and 37 controls (C) were studied. Cerebral circulation time was obtained by angiography. Plasmatic ET1 and ADMA were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607895/true-parapharyngeal-space-tumors-case-series-from-a-teaching-oncology-center
#6
Ajay Chanakya Vallabhaneni, Subramanyam Ganesh Mandakulutur, Srilahari Vallabhaneni, Amritha Prabha, Ravi Keerthi Banavara
The Parapharyngeal Space (PPS) tumors are rare tumors accounting for 0.5% of the tumors in head and neck region. A retrospective study conducted at Department of Surgical oncology, Vydehi institute of Medical Sciences & Research center, Bengaluru, between 2010 and 2015 identified nine cases treated for PPS tumors. Patients are diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination fine needle aspiration cytology and imaging and considered for excision by one of the varied surgical approaches {transoral(1), transcervical(4), transparotid(0), transcervical-transparotid(1), transmandibular(3) or intratemporal(0) approach}...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605551/abc-2-method-does-not-accurately-predict-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-volume
#7
Christopher Roark, Venu Vadlamudi, Neeraj Chaudhary, Joseph J Gemmete, Joshua Seinfeld, B Gregory Thompson, Aditya S Pandey
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a treatment option for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to prevent intracranial hemorrhage. The decision to proceed with SRS is usually based on calculated nidal volume. Physicians commonly use the ABC/2 formula, based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), when counseling patients for SRS. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether AVM volume calculated using the ABC/2 method on DSA is accurate when compared to the exact volume calculated from thin-cut axial sections used for SRS planning...
June 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601571/intrasellar-dermoid-cyst-mimicking-pituitary-apoplexy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Yuan-Bo Pan, Zhao-Liang Sun, Dong-Fu Feng
Intrasellar dermoid cysts are extremely unusual lesions, with only four cases reported to date, and have not been previously reported in association with sudden-onset symptoms. Here, we present the case of an intrasellar dermoid cyst with sudden-onset symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy in an elderly woman. A 69year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache, dizziness, and decreased visual acuity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sellar region showed an intrasellar lesion, which showed mixed hyper- and hypointense signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and enhanced peripherally...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584677/microvascular-decompression-for-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-secondary-to-vertebral-artery-compression-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Yasuhiro Kuroi, Shigeru Tani, Hidenori Ohbuchi, Hidetoshi Kasuya
BACKGROUND: Neurovascular-compression syndrome (NCS) is described as a prominent pathological contact between cranial nerves and vessels. Trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are typical clinical entities associated with NCS. On the other hand, the hyoglossal nerve is rarely affected by NCS. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) secondary to vertebral artery (VA) compression. A 47-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of dysarthria and dysphagia...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583591/difficult-removal-of-subdermal-contraceptive-implants-a-multidisciplinary-approach-involving-a-peripheral-nerve-expert
#10
Elizabeth B Odom, David L Eisenberg, Ida K Fox
OBJECTIVES: We aim to describe our experiences and identify patients who may benefit from referral to a peripheral nerve surgeon for removal of contraceptive subdermal implants in which neurovascular injury may occur and describe a treatment pathway for optimal care. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the charts of 22 patients who were referred to the Division of Family Planning for difficult removal of etonogestrel contraceptive implants between January 1, 2014 and April, 1 2016...
June 2, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578467/demonstration-of-impaired-neurovascular-coupling-responses-in-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-functional-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging
#11
Stefano Tarantini, Gabor A Fulop, Tamas Kiss, Eszter Farkas, Dániel Zölei-Szénási, Veronica Galvan, Peter Toth, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Increasing evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicates that cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and microcirculatory damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many types of dementia in the elderly, including both vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include impairment of neurovascular coupling responses/functional hyperemia ("neurovascular uncoupling"). Due to the growing interest in understanding and pharmacologically targeting pathophysiological mechanisms of VCID, there is an increasing need for sensitive, easy-to-establish methods to assess neurovascular coupling responses...
June 3, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577579/patterns-of-relapse-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-inferences-regarding-the-role-of-the-neuro-vascular-unit-and-monoclonal-antibodies-in-treating-occult-cns-disease
#12
Prakash Ambady, Rongwei Fu, Joao Prola Netto, Cymon Kersch, Jenny Firkins, Nancy D Doolittle, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The radiologic features and patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at initial presentation are well described. High response rates can be achieved with first-line high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based regimens, yet many relapse within 2 years of diagnosis. We describe the pattern of relapse and review the potential mechanisms involved in relapse. METHODS: We identified 78 consecutive patients who attained complete radiographic response (CR) during or after first-line treatment for newly diagnosed PCNSL (CD20+, diffuse large B cell type)...
June 2, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574144/robot-assisted-nerve-sparing-radical-prostatectomy-using-near-infrared-fluorescence-technology-and-indocyanine-green-initial-experience
#13
Mario S Mangano, Alberto De Gobbi, Francesco Beniamin, Claudio Lamon, Matteo Ciaccia, Luigino Maccatrozzo
INTRODUCTION: Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent molecule that provokes detectable photon emission. The use of ICG with near-infrared (NIR) imaging system (Akorn, Lake Forest, IL) has been described during robotic partial nephrectomy (RAPN) as an adjunctive means of identifying renal artery and parenchymal perfusion.We propose the use of the ICG with NIR fluorescence during laparoscopic robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), to identify the benchmark artery improving the preservation of neurovascular bundle and to improve the visualization of the vascularization and then the hemostasis...
May 23, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573491/p2x7-receptor-large-pore-signaling-in-avian-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cells
#14
Robson X Faria, Hercules R Freitas, Ricardo A M Reis
ATP is a pleiotropic molecule that promotes extra- and intracellular signaling to regulate numerous functions. This nucleotide activates purine and pyrimidine receptors at the plasma membrane, categorized as ionotropic P2X or G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) P2Y receptors. P2X are ligand-gated ion channel receptors, expressed in both retinal neurons and Müller cells leading to neuron-glia communication, calcium waves and neurovascular coupling. However, how P2X pore is formed upon ATP activation and how signaling pathways regulates the complex is still a matter of controversy...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572033/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-diabetic-mice-is-linked-to-nrf2-signaling-deficits-role-of-abcb10
#15
Ravi K Sajja, Shikha Prasad, Suni Tang, Mohammad A Kaisar, Luca Cucullo
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage is a critical neurovascular complication of diabetes mellitus that adversely affects the CNS health and function. Previously, we showed the protective role of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), a redox sensitive transcription factor, in regulation of BBB integrity. Given the pathogenic role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in diabetes-related microvascular complications, we focused on assessing: 1) the impact of diabetes on brain Nrf2 in correlation with BBB permeability and 2) Nrf2-dependent regulation of the mitochondrial transporter ABCB10, an essential player in mitochondrial function and redox balance at BBB endothelium...
May 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560239/image-reconstruction-of-oxidized-cerebral-cytochrome-c-oxidase-changes-from-broadband-near-infrared-spectroscopy-data
#16
Sabrina Brigadoi, Phong Phan, David Highton, Samuel Powell, Robert J Cooper, Jeremy Hebden, Martin Smith, Ilias Tachtsidis, Clare E Elwell, Adam P Gibson
In diffuse optical tomography (DOT), overlapping and multidistance measurements are required to reconstruct depth-resolved images of oxy- ([Formula: see text]) and deoxy- (HHb) hemoglobin concentration changes occurring in the brain. These can be considered an indirect measure of brain activity, under the assumption of intact neurovascular coupling. Broadband systems also allow changes in the redox state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO) to be measured, which can be an important biomarker when neurovascular coupling is impaired...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554135/anatomic-evaluation-of-the-retromolar-canal-by-histologic-and-radiologic-analyses
#17
Heung-Joong Kim, Hansoo Kang, Yo-Seob Seo, Do Kyung Kim, Sun-Kyoung Yu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the detailed anatomic morphology of the retromolar canal using histologic sections and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two sides of the mandible obtained from cadavers and CBCT images of 72 patients (144 sides) were analyzed. All mandibles were prepared using conventional methods of tissue processing, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and measured to elucidate the composition and dimensions of the retromolar canal with the aid of a light microscope...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553198/a-resilient-non-neuronal-source-of-the-spatiotemporal-lag-structure-detected-by-bold-signal-based-blood-flow-tracking
#18
Toshihiko Aso, Guanhua Jiang, Shin-Ichi Urayama, Hidenao Fukuyama
Recent evidence has suggested that blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals convey information about brain circulation via low frequency oscillation of systemic origin (sLFO) that travels through the vascular structure ("lag mapping"). Prompted by its promising application in both physiology and pathology, we examined this signal component using multiple approaches. A total of 30 healthy volunteers were recruited to perform two reproducibility experiments at 3 Tesla using multiband echo planar imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551173/natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-partial-prostatectomy-a-real-time-image-guided-focal-extirpative-feasibility-study
#19
Haidar M Abdul-Muhsin, Nicholas J Jakob, Akira Kawashima, Alvin C Silva, Melisa L Stanton, Gianni Moshero, Erik P Castle, Paul E Andrews, Mitchell R Humphreys
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of focal endoscopic excision of PCa under guidance of real time magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion (MUF). METHODS: Using a cadaveric model, multi-focal PCa was simulated using two MRI-compatible fiducial markers.These were inserted transrectally and used to generate regions of interests (ROIs) on a 1.5 T surface coil MRI. The first marker was placed in the right mid peripheral zone (ROI 1) and the second marker was placed in the left seminal vesicle as a referent lesion for subsequent imaging...
May 24, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549641/treatment-of-moyamoya-disease-and-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysm-in-floating-harbor-syndrome-a-case-report
#20
Daniel J Coughlin, Charles A Miller, A Jesse Schuette
BACKGROUND: This is the first report of the successful treatment of moyamoya disease (MMD) and an unruptured intracranial aneurysm in a patient with Floating-Harbor Syndrome (FHS). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 35 year-old, phenotypically syndromic woman presented with signs and symptoms consistent with ischemic stroke. MRI and catheter angiography confirmed diagnosis of moyamoya and a 6 mm basilar apex artery aneurysm (BAA). She underwent right sided craniotomy for direct and indirect revascularization by means of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass and encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS)...
May 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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