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Neurovascular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908788/time-to-wake-up-studying-neurovascular-coupling-and-brain-wide-circuit-function-in-the-un-anesthetized-animal
#1
REVIEW
Yu-Rong Gao, Yuncong Ma, Qingguang Zhang, Aaron T Winder, Zhifeng Liang, Lilith Antinori, Patrick J Drew, Nanyin Zhang
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the noninvasive study of task-based and resting-state brain dynamics in humans by inferring neural activity from blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes. An accurate interpretation of the hemodynamic changes that underlie fMRI signals depends on the understanding of the quantitative relationship between changes in neural activity and changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation and volume. While there has been extensive study of neurovascular coupling in anesthetized animal models, anesthesia causes large disruptions of brain metabolism, neural responsiveness and cardiovascular function...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903281/improving-the-clinical-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-through-the-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-peripheral-blood-biomarkers
#2
Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi, Damir Janigro
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as well as the effects of glomerular filtration, age, gender, and ethnicity. To study these factors, and to provide a method for markers' analyses, we developed a kinetic model that allows the integrated interpretation of these properties...
November 30, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900714/is-there-asymmetry-between-the-concave-and-convex-pedicles-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-ct-investigation
#3
Colin M Davis, Caroline A Grant, Mark J Pearcy, Geoffrey N Askin, Robert D Labrom, Maree T Izatt, Clayton J Adam, J Paige Little
BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine characterized by deformities in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Spinal fusion using pedicle screw instrumentation is a widely used method for surgical correction in severe (coronal deformity, Cobb angle > 45°) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves. Understanding the anatomic difference in the pedicles of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is essential to reduce the risk of neurovascular or visceral injury through pedicle screw misplacement...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900344/neurovascular-coupling-develops-alongside-neural-circuits-in-the-postnatal-brain
#4
COMMENT
Mariel G Kozberg, Elizabeth M C Hillman
In the adult brain, increases in local neural activity are accompanied by increases in regional blood flow. This relationship between neural activity and hemodynamics is termed neurovascular coupling and provides the blood flow-dependent contrast detected in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neurovascular coupling is commonly assumed to be consistent and reliable from birth; however, numerous studies have demonstrated markedly different hemodynamics in the early postnatal brain. Our recent study in J...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897128/defining-the-limits-of-endoscopic-access-to-internal-auditory-canal
#5
Adam Master, Mickie Hamiter, Maura Cosetti
OBJECTIVE: To quantify surgical access to the internal auditory canal (IAC) using an exclusively endoscopic transcanal approach (EETA) and investigate surgically relevant relationships with neurovascular and osseous landmarks of the temporal bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anatomical dissection of two paired temporal bones and 15 unpaired temporal bones was performed using an exclusively endoscopic approach to IAC. The dissection proceeded until the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) could be accessed...
November 28, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890758/surgical-outcome-of-patients-with-very-small-intracranial-aneurysms-a-single-center-experience-from-southern-iran
#6
Abdolkarim Rahmanian, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Nima Derakhshan
OBJECTIVES: To report the surgical outcome of very small intracranial aneurysms (VSIAs; ≤3mm) in a large referral neurovascular center in Southern Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Southern Iran during a6-year period between 2010 and 2016. We included all the patients with VSIAs (≤3mm) who underwent surgery in our center. All the patients were operated by a single neurosurgeon. Pre- and postoperative CT angiography, intraoperative imaging with indo-cyanine green video angiography was performed in all the cases...
November 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890181/imaging-of-vascular-compression-syndromes
#7
REVIEW
Joseph H Donahue, David A Ornan, Sugoto Mukherjee
Trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, vestibulocochlear neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia represent the most common neurovascular compression syndromes. Repeated vascular pulsations at the vulnerable transitional zone of the individual cranial nerves lead to focal axonal injury and demyelination. High-resolution 3-D T2-weighted MR imaging is essential in detecting and mapping neurovascular compression for directed therapy. Knowledge of the specific nerve root exit, the transitional zones, and the adjacent vasculature is critical in proper management...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890179/expanded-endonasal-endoscopic-approaches-to-the-skull-base-for-the-radiologist
#8
REVIEW
Christopher R Roxbury, Masaru Ishii, Ari Meir Blitz, Douglas D Reh, Gary L Gallia
The cranial base is a complex 3-D region that contains critical neurovascular structures. Pathologies affecting this region represent some of the most challenging lesions to manage due to difficulty with access and risk of significant postoperative morbidity. With the development of expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches, skull base surgeons use the nose and paranasal sinuses as a corridor to access selected ventral skull base lesions. This review discusses high-resolution imaging in the evaluation of patients with skull base lesions considered for endonasal endoscopic surgery, summarizes various expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches, and provides examples of commonly used expanded endonasal endoscopic procedures...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888078/basilar-artery-herniation-into-the-sphenoid-sinus-secondary-to-traumatic-skull-base-fractures-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Arthur Wang, John Wainwright, Jared Cooper, Michael S Tenner, Adesh Tandon
BACKGROUND: Traumatic clival fractures occur with < 0.6% frequency and can be associated with significant neurovascular injuries. The most serious of these injuries is to the basilar artery in which the artery is dissected or is fully occluded resulting in infarction of the brainstem and cerebellum. Among early reports of these injuries, postmortem autopsy showed entrapment, or incarceration, of the basilar artery at the clival fracture site. A literature search revealed 11 cases of entrapment of the basilar artery within a clival fracture...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878463/tracking-of-the-inferior-alveolar-nerve-its-implication-in-surgical-planning
#10
Jimoh O Agbaje, Elke Van de Casteele, Ahmed S Salem, Dickson Anumendem, Ivo Lambrichts, Constantinus Politis
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to assess the correlation between the mandibular canal tracing done on cone beam CT (CBCT) data, with the size, shape, and position of the neurovascular bundle (NB) obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six human cadaver mandibles were scanned with a CBCT Promax® scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and with an Ingenia® 3.0 T MR system (Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The NB was segmented from the MRI dataset, while the mandibular canal (MC) tracing was done on the CBCT images...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876582/subperitoneal-approach-in-revision-arthroplasty-for-acetabular-component-protrusion-analysis-of-practiceswithin-the-french-hip-and-knee-society-sfhg
#11
F Gouin, V Crenn, J Tabutin
INTRODUCTION: The complications related to revision for acetabular component protrusion with material migrating into the intrapelvic region remain rare but potentially serious. Today, the literature reports no epidemiological data on the subperitoneal approach (SPA) in revision total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) for protrusion. Therefore we conducted a retrospective study on a large revision arthroplasty database to answer the following questions: 1) What is the frequency of this approach in this population? 2) What are the factors related to this procedure? 3) Is morbidity and mortality of the SPA higher than for an isolated conventional approach? HYPOTHESIS: Major protrusions with material in the superomedial quadrant (SMQ)have a higher probability of being operated using a SPA...
November 19, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874892/idiopathic-livedo-racemosa-presenting-with-splenomegaly-and-diffuse-lymphadenopathy
#12
Laura Bukavina, Joshua Weaver, Teri Nagy, Robert T Brodell, Eliot N Mostow
Sneddon syndrome (SS) is a rare condition and the diagnosis is made only when other more common disease entities have been excluded. Common manifestations in SS patients include hypertension, coronary artery disease, venous thrombosis, miscarriages, psychiatric disturbances, and arterial and venous thrombotic events. Most patients present in their early 30s with classic neurovascular and dermatologic signs. Currently, the main criteria for the diagnosis of SS include livedo racemosa, focal neurological deficits or evidence of stroke on magnetic resonance imaging, or characteristic vascular alterations seen on biopsy...
October 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869302/brain-function-is-linked-to-ldl-cholesterol-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk
#13
Liesel-Ann C Meusel, Nicole D Anderson, Matthew D Parrott, William Yuen, Ekaterina Tchistiakova, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sid Feldman, Carol E Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: To determine how cardiovascular risk is associated with working memory task performance and task-related suppression of default-mode network (DMN) activity in cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study of older adults with cardiovascular risk factors. SETTING: Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty older adults with cardiovascular risk factors...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866732/impact-of-a-direct-admission-stroke-pathway-on-delays-of-admission-care-and-rates-of-intravenous-thrombolysis
#14
REVIEW
C Mouthon-Reignier, I Bonnaud, M Gaudron, S Vannier-Bernard, J-F Bodin, J-P Cottier, B De Toffol, S Debiais
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the impact of a "direct potential thrombolysis" pathway with direct admission to a neurological stroke unit (SU) on delays of admission, stroke care and proportion of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) treated with intravenous (IV) rtPA. METHODS: This prospective study included all patients admitted in the intensive SU for potential thrombolysis over a 2-month period. Data collected included the time of symptom onset, mode of transport, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on arrival, delays of care, delays of imaging and modalities, diagnosis and therapeutic data...
December 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864848/age-related-small-vessel-disease-a-potential-contributor-to-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca, Jacqueline Palace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system wherein, after an initial phase of transient neurological defects, slow neurological deterioration due to progressive neuronal loss ensues. Age is a major determinant of MS progression onset and disability. Over the past years, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the key drivers of neurodegeneration and disability accumulation in MS. However, the effect of commonly encountered age-related cerebral vessel disease, namely small vessel disease (SVD), has been largely neglected and constitutes the aim of this review...
November 19, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857878/magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-vascular-contact-of-the-facial-nerve-in-the-asymptomatic-patient
#16
Nicholas L Deep, Geoffrey P Fletcher, Kent D Nelson, Ameet C Patel, David M Barrs, Bernard R Bendok, Joseph M Hoxworth
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial nerve vascular contact on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients without hemifacial spasm (HFS). Study Design Our radiology database was queried to identify consecutive adult patients without a history of HFS, intracranial tumor, brain radiation therapy, intracranial surgery, traumatic brain injury, or trigeminal nerve vascular compression. One hundred high-resolution MRIs of the posterior fossa were independently reviewed by two neuroradiologists for facial nerve vascular contact (200 sides)...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857469/holding-versus-seeing-pathology-three-dimensional-printing-of-the-bony-pelvis-for-preoperative-planning-of-a-complex-pelvis-fracture-a-case-report
#17
Parang S Sanghavi, Bhavin G Jankharia
Pelvic injuries are not uncommon. The complex anatomy of the pelvic bones, the complex pattern of injuries, associated important structures such as neurovascular bundles, and difficult access make the reduction and fixation of these fractures difficult. Often the surgical outcomes are not satisfactory. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging using computed tomography (CT) scan (3DCT) has been the mainstay of preoperative evaluation since the 1980s, however, even with these images it may be difficult to understand complex injury patterns...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847570/parasellar-extension-grades-and-surgical-extent-in-endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-pituitary-adenomas-a-single-surgeon-s-consecutive-series-with-the-aspects-of-reliability-and-clinical-validity
#18
Sang-Hyo Lee, Jae-Sung Park, Song Lee, Sung-Won Kim, Yong-Kil Hong
OBJECTIVE: The inter-rater reliability of the modified Knosp's classification was measured before the analysis. The clinical validity of the parasellar extension grading system was evaluated by investigating the extents of resection and complication rates among the grades in the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for pituitary adenomas. METHODS: From November 2008 to August 2015, of the 286 patients who underwent EETS by the senior author, 208 were pituitary adenoma cases (146 non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenomas, 31 growth hormone-secreting adenomas, 17 prolactin-secreting adenomas, and 4 thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting adenomas; 23 microadenomas, 174 macroadenomas, and 11 giant adenomas)...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817008/trigeminal-neuralgia-due-to-venous-neurovascular-conflicts-outcome-after-microvascular-decompression-in-a-series-of-55-consecutive-patients
#19
Chloe Dumot, Andrei Brinzeu, Julien Berthiller, Marc Sindou
BACKGROUND: Implication of veins as neurovascular conflict (NVC) in the genesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) remains a matter of debate. Few reports dealing with venous NVC have been published. The objective of this study is to describe the outcome in a historical cohort of consecutive patients with classical TN due to venous compression. METHODS: All patients with TN treated by microvascular decompression (MVD) from 2005 to 2013 were included if a marked venous compression was found at the surgery either alone or accompanied by an artery...
November 5, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814981/hemi-gland-focal-low-dose-rate-prostate-brachytherapy-an-analysis-of-dosimetric-outcomes
#20
Robert Laing, Adrian Franklin, Jennifer Uribe, Alex Horton, Santiago Uribe-Lewis, Stephen Langley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prostate sampling enable early identification of men with low to intermediate risk prostate cancer who are candidates for focal therapies that minimise side effects. We report dosimetry data from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of hemi-gland low dose rate (HG-LDR) brachytherapy as a focal therapy approach to control unilateral localised disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two men underwent HG-LDR brachytherapy...
November 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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