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Tapio Antero Koisaari, Tiina Leivo, Ahmad Sahraravand, Anna-Kaisa Haavisto, Pekka Sulander, Timo M T Tervo
OBJECTIVE We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using two different data sets. METHODS The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams (RAIT) was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-12 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from 1...
January 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
B Čertík, V Třeška, J Bierhanzlová, J Matějka, J Zeman, T Matějka
Renal artery thrombosis is a rare complication of blunt abdominal injury. It occurs most frequently in car accidents in which sudden deceleration results in multiple internal injuries. Renal artery occlusion occurs rarely as an isolated blunt trauma. This report presents a case of traumatic occlusion of the left renal artery with complete ischaemia of the left kidney in a haemodynamically stable girl who suffered multiple seat-belt injuries in a car crash. Ambiguous findings on a CT scan of the abdominal cavity indicated surgical inspection of the abdomen and, since the injury-to-surgery interval was short, an attempt at revascularisation of the left kidney was made...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
Tony R Laituri, Scott Henry, Kevin Pline, Guosong Li, Michael Frankstein, Para Weerappuli
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently published a Request for Comments regarding a potential upgrade to the US New Car Assessment Program (US NCAP) - a star-rating program pertaining to vehicle crashworthiness. Therein, NHTSA (a) cited two metrics for assessing head risk: Head Injury Criterion (HIC15) and Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC), and (b) proposed to conduct risk assessment via its risk curves for those metrics, but did not prescribe a specific method for applying them. Recent studies, however, have indicated that the NHTSA risk curves for BrIC significantly overstate field-based head injury rates...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Bingbing Nie, Jason L Forman, Hamed Joodaki, Taotao Wu, Richard W Kent
OBJECTIVE: Occupants with extreme body size and shape, such as the small female or the obese, were reported to sustain high risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Dimensional scaling approaches are widely used in injury biomechanics research based on the assumption of geometrical similarity. However, its application scope has not been quantified ever since. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the valid range of scaling approaches in predicting the impact response of the occupants with focus on the vulnerable populations...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
S C Kim, K H Lee, H Y Choi, J Noble, K Lee, H J Jeon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine on-scene factors that predict severe injury to the occupants of passenger cars involved in frontal crashes. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2014, we collected data from patients who were taken to two emergency centres following a frontal motor vehicle crash. Binomial logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (sex, age, body mass index), vehicle damage (according to the collision deformation classification code), and safety devices on severe injuries (injury severity score >15)...
July 28, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Vincenzo M Grassi, Flaminia Castagnola, Massimo Miscusi, Fabio De-Giorgio
Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra...
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Winifred L Boal, Jia Li, Rosa L Rodriguez-Acosta
Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%...
June 17, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Francisco Soldado, Marcos F Ghizoni, Jayme Bertelli
The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in stretch injuries of the brachial plexus. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries (BPI) were asked about the mechanism of injury during the actual injury event, particularly about the type of trauma to their shoulder, shoulder girdle and head. Fifty-seven of the patients provided enough information about their accident to allow for analysis of the shoulder trauma. The injury mechanism for all patients having upper root or total palsy (n=46) was described as a direct vertical impact to the shoulder...
February 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Yu I Pigolkin, I A Dubrovin, E P Sedykh, A S Mosoyan
The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind...
January 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade, Nayara Gomes, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Otaliba Libânio de Morais Neto, Ademar Arthur Chioro dos Reis, Antônio Carlos Figueiredo Nardi
The article aims to describe the injuries in traffic according to demographic characteristics, use of protective equipment, use of health services, activity limitations and disabilities. The percentage involvement in traffic accidents with injuries, the percentage of use of protective equipment, use of health services, limitation of daily activities, disability and sequelae, according to educational level, race, color, sex, age and region of residence it estimated.The use of safety belt in the adult population was 79...
February 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
I Pigolkin, A Dubrovin, E p Sedykh, Mosoyan
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident...
November 2015: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
F Auriault, C Brandt, A Chopin, B Gadegbeku, A Ndiaye, M-P Balzing, L Thollon, M Behr
This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants...
April 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Stephen R Piontkowski, Jon S Peabody, Christine Reede, José Velascosoltero, Gordon Tsatoke, Timothy Shelhamer, Kenny R Hicks
Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use...
December 2015: Global Health, Science and Practice
Priya Prasad, Dainius Dalmotas, Aline Chouinard
Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world...
November 2015: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Antonio Ernstberger, Alexander Joeris, Monica Daigl, Miklos Kiss, Katharina Angerpointner, Michael Nerlich, Uli Schmucker
BACKGROUND: The WHO initiated the "Decade of Action for Road Safety" because the fatality on road traffic accidents could become the fifth leading cause of death in 2030. On the contrary, fatalities continue to decrease in high income countries. The aim of the study was to find evidence for changes in injury severity of passenger car occupants after road traffic accidents in Germany over time, and to find contributing factors. METHODS: Data from the German In Depth Accident Study (GIDAS), representative for Germany, was used...
October 2015: Injury
B Stoica, S Paun, I Tanase, I Negoi, A Runcanu, M Beuran
INTRODUCTION: Despite the high frequency of thoracic injuries secondary to traffic related accidents, the blunt cardiac valve rupture is extremely rare. METHOD: Case report and review of the literature using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. RESULT: A 38 year old female patient, victim of car accident was admitted. On primary survey the patient was conscious, cooperative and hemodynamic and respiratory stable. On secondary survey was found a bilateral open leg fracture and a seat belt sign...
September 2015: Chirurgia
Karthikeyan Ekambaram, Richard Frampton, Lisa Bartlett
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether varying the seat belt load limiter (SBL) according to crash and occupant characteristics could have real-world injury reduction benefits in frontal impacts and, if so, to quantify those benefits. METHODS: Real-world UK accident data were used to identify the target population of vehicle occupants and frontal crash scenarios where improved chest protection could be most beneficial. Generic baseline driver and front passenger numerical models using a 50th percentile dummy were developed with MADYMO software...
2015: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ada H Tsoi, Hampton C Gabler
OBJECTIVE: Vehicle change in velocity (delta-v) is a widely used crash severity metric used to estimate occupant injury risk. Despite its widespread use, delta-v has several limitations. Of most concern, delta-v is a vehicle-based metric which does not consider the crash pulse or the performance of occupant restraints, e.g. seatbelts and airbags. Such criticisms have prompted the search for alternative impact severity metrics based upon vehicle kinematics. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the occupant impact velocity (OIV), acceleration severity index (ASI), vehicle pulse index (VPI), and maximum delta-v (delta-v) to predict serious injury in real world crashes...
2015: Traffic Injury Prevention
Nicholas S Johnson, Hampton C Gabler
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to evaluate the crash performance of guardrail end terminals in real-world crashes. Guardrail end terminals are installed at the ends of guardrail systems to prevent the rail from spearing through the car in an end-on collision. Recently, there has been a great deal of controversy as to the safety of certain widely used end terminal designs, partly because there is surprisingly little real-world crash data for end terminals. Most existing studies of end terminal crashes used data from prior to the mid-1990s...
2015: Traffic Injury Prevention
Erin K Sauber-Schatz, Andrea M Thomas, Lawrence J Cook
PROBLEM: Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among children. Age- and size-appropriate restraint use is an effective way to prevent motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. However, children are not always properly restrained while riding in a motor vehicle, and some are not restrained at all, which increases their risk for injury and death in a crash. REPORTING PERIOD: 2005-2008. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM: The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) is a multistate program facilitated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to probabilistically link police crash reports and hospital databases for traffic safety analyses...
October 2, 2015: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
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