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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437447/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-car3-is-not-required-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-does-not-protect-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#1
Sarah W Renner, Lauren M Walker, Lawrence J Forsberg, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436948/mitochondrial-elongation-mediated-glucose-metabolism-reprogramming-is-essential-for-tumour-cell-survival-during-energy-stress
#2
J Li, Q Huang, X Long, X Guo, X Sun, X Jin, Z Li, T Ren, P Yuan, X Huang, H Zhang, J Xing
To date, mechanisms of tumour cell survival under energy stress are not well understood. Cumulative evidence is beginning to reveal that specific mitochondrial morphologies are often associated with energetic states and survival of cells. However, the functional roles of mitochondria in the metabolic adaptation of tumour cells to energy stress remain to be elucidated. In this study, we first investigated the changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by nutrition deprivation in tumour cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436761/androgen-and-estrogen-shifts-in-men-before-and-after-bariatric-surgery-and-links-to-vitamins-and-trace-elements
#3
Alberto Rosenblatt, Joel Faintuch, Ivan Cecconello
Androgens and estrogens play a key role regarding sexual life and reproduction. Along with hypotestosteronemia, obese men exhibit a 2-fold increase in estradiol concentration, adversely infl uencing these parameters. Estrogens and adipokines also infl uence bone metabolism, exerting a direct effect on vitamin D, calcium homeostasis and bone health. Bariatric procedures normalize some sex hormones, and may reverse several obesity-related conditions. Estrogens levels may remain elevated postoperatively, and despite its protective effect on the skeleton, bariatric patients are more prone to fractures when compared to the general population...
April 24, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436163/social-defeat-models-in-animal-science-what-we-have-learned-from-rodent-models
#4
REVIEW
Atsushi Toyoda
Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders...
April 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436102/nutrition-in-adolescents-physiology-metabolism-and-nutritional-needs
#5
REVIEW
Jai K Das, Rehana A Salam, Kent L Thornburg, Andrew M Prentice, Susan Campisi, Zohra S Lassi, Berthold Koletzko, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of age), late adolescence (15-19 years of age), and young adulthood (20-24 years of age). Adolescence is marked by physical and sexual maturation, social and economic independence, development of identity, acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning...
April 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436100/global-and-regional-trends-in-the-nutritional-status-of-young-people-a-critical-and-neglected-age-group
#6
REVIEW
Nadia Akseer, Sara Al-Gashm, Seema Mehta, Ali Mokdad, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Adolescence and emerging adulthood form a critical time period for the achievement of optimal health and nutrition across all stages of the life course. We undertook a review of published literature and global data repositories for information on nutrition levels, trends, and patterns among young people aged 10-24 years from January 1, 2016 to September 20, 2016. We describe patterns for both males and females at the global level and for geographic regions for the period covering 1990-2015. The results of this study paint a less than ideal picture of current young people's nutrition, suggesting dual burdens of underweight and high body-mass index in many countries and variable improvements in micronutrient deficiencies across geographical regions...
April 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434761/improvement-in-nutritional-status-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-4-by-a-nutrition-education-program-with-no-impact-on-renal-function-and-determined-by-male-sex
#7
Almudena Pérez-Torres, Elena González Garcia, Helena Garcia-Llana, Gloria Del Peso, Ana María López-Sobaler, Rafael Selgas
OBJECTIVE: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a rapid deterioration of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is little information regarding the effect of nutrition intervention. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutrition education program (NEP) in patients with nondialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD), based on the diagnostic criteria for PEW proposed by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#8
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434010/dynamic-analysis-of-kidney-function-and-its-correlation-with-nutritional-indicators-in-a-large-sample-of-hospitalized-elderly-patients
#9
Li Qingping, Wei Ribao, Wang Yang, Su Tingyu, Yang Xi, Huang Mengjie, Miao Hui, Chen Xiangmei
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze changes in kidney function and its correlation with nutritional metabolism indicators in hospitalized elderly patients in a large medical center over the past 7 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS The renal function of patients over 60 years old in the Chinese PLA General Hospital in 2008, 2011, and 2014 were comparatively analyzed. The hemoglobin, serum albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, and urea nitrogen data were collected and used as the nutritional metabolism indicators...
April 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#10
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432848/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-extreme-obesity-among-korean-children-and-adolescents-from-2001-to-2014
#11
Hyo-Kyoung Nam, Hye Ryun Kim, Young-Jun Rhie, Kee-Hyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: We assessed nationwide trends in extreme obesity prevalence and its impact on metabolic syndrome in Korean youth. METHODS: Data from 19,593 youth (10,271 boys) aged 2-19 were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2001-2014). The prevalence of extreme obesity and the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome were calculated. Questionnaires on body weight perceptions and weight control behaviors were administered. RESULTS: The prevalence of extreme obesity increased significantly among boys (p<0...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432465/ppar%C3%AE-activation-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-lactate-production-in-rat-sertoli-cells
#12
A Gorga, G M Rindone, M Regueira, E H Pellizzari, M C Camberos, S B Cigorraga, M F Riera, M N Galardo, S B Meroni
Sertoli cells provide the structural and nutritional support for germ cell development; they actively metabolize glucose and convert it to lactate, which is an important source of energy for germ cells. Furthermore, Sertoli cells can oxidize fatty acids, a metabolic process that is assumed to fulfill their own energy requirements. Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerides within lipid droplets. The regulation of fatty acid storage in conjunction with the regulation of lactate production may thus be relevant to seminiferous tubule physiology...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431619/age-sex-and-race-ethnic-temporal-trends-in-metabolic-syndrome-prevalence-among-individuals-with-myocardial-infarction-or-stroke-in-the-united-states
#13
Alain Lekoubou, Bruce Ovbiagele, Daniela Markovic, Nerses Sanossian, Amytis Towfighi
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, affects 1 in 3 adults in the United States. Recent trends in MetS prevalence among MI and stroke survivors are unknown. METHODS: We assessed age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socio-economic status specific trends in rates of MetS among adults ≥18years who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 and who fasted for 8h (n=12,502)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429918/relationship-between-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-and-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-disorders-in-korean-women-according-to-menopausal-status
#14
Seo Ah Hong, Mi Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The association between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been elucidated fully, particularly by menopausal status. Method and Study Design: The study population was 2,999 women aged 40-64 years participating in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The definition of MetS and its components was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) for Koreans...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429671/ethanolamine-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract-mechanisms-patterns-and-importance
#15
J Zhou, X Xiong, K Wang, L Zou, D Lv, Y Yin
Nutritional exchanges and cooperation between bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and the mammalian host play an important role in health and disease. Ethanolamine is an essential dietary lipid nutrient for animals and is abundant in both intestinal and bacterial cell membranes. Ethanolamine can be utilized by intestinal eukaryotic cells via the cytidine phosphoethanolamine pathway for de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine, and certain bacteria are able to catabolize it as a major carbon and/or nitrogen source with the help of ethanolamine utilization proteins...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429514/maternal-metabolic-adaptations-to-pregnancy-among-young-women-in-cebu-philippines
#16
Ruby L Fried, Nanette L Mayol, Thom W McDade, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: Evidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines. METHODS: Fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines)...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429322/photo-and-nutritional-regulation-of-euglena-organelle-development
#17
Steven D Schwartzbach
Euglena can use light and CO2, photosynthesis, as well as a large variety of organic molecules as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Light induces the enzymes, in this case an entire organelle, the chloroplast, that is required to use CO2 as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Ethanol, but not malate, inhibits the photoinduction of chloroplast enzymes and induces the synthesis of the glyoxylate cycle enzymes that comprise the unique metabolic pathway leading to two carbon, ethanol and acetate, assimilation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429318/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-vitamins-in-euglena
#18
Fumio Watanabe, Kazuya Yoshimura, Shigeru Shigeoka
Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428966/nutrition-and-metabolism-in-burn-patients
#19
REVIEW
Audra Clark, Jonathan Imran, Tarik Madni, Steven E Wolf
Severe burn causes significant metabolic derangements that make nutritional support uniquely important and challenging for burned patients. Burn injury causes a persistent and prolonged hypermetabolic state and increased catabolism that results in increased muscle wasting and cachexia. Metabolic rates of burn patients can surpass twice normal, and failure to fulfill these energy requirements causes impaired wound healing, organ dysfunction, and susceptibility to infection. Adequate assessment and provision of nutritional needs is imperative to care for these patients...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428782/a-recombinant-potato-virus-y-infectious-clone-tagged-with-the-rosea1-visual-marker-pvy-ros1-facilitates-the-analysis-of-viral-infectivity-and-allows-the-production-of-large-amounts-of-anthocyanins-in-plants
#20
Teresa Cordero, Mohamed A Mohamed, Juan-José López-Moya, José-Antonio Daròs
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major threat to the cultivation of potato and other solanaceous plants. By inserting a cDNA coding for the Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 transcription factor into a PVY infectious clone, we created a biotechnological tool (PVY-Ros1) that allows infection by this relevant plant virus to be tracked by the naked eye with no need for complex instrumentation. Rosea1 is an MYB-type transcription factor whose expression activates the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments in a dose-specific and cell-autonomous manner...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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