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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910747/effect-of-dietary-fat-on-gene-expression-in-poultry-a-review
#1
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910746/nutrition-and-diabetes-mellitus-how-are-they-interlinked
#2
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910201/meal-insulin-cycle-a-visual-summary-of-the-biochemical-events-between-meals
#3
Stavros Kalogiannis
In the present article, a scheme that summarizes the biochemical events occurring in the human body after the consumption of a meal is proposed. The scheme illustrates the metabolic sequence as a series of counteracting components occupying opposite positions in a cycle, indicating their opposite actions or physiological states, such as meal versus energy consumption, increase versus decrease of blood glucose levels, and excretion of insulin versus excretion of glucagon. Furthermore, the cycle is complemented by a table indicating the acceleration or inhibition of selected metabolic pathways and actions...
December 2, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909992/roles-for-orexin-hypocretin-in-the-control-of-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#4
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909782/associations-between-serum-vitamin-e-concentration-and-bone-mineral-density-in-the-us-elderly-population
#5
J Zhang, X Hu, J Zhang
: Mixed findings regarding effects of vitamin E on bone metabolism existed. We were the first to find a negative association between serum α-tocopherol concentration and bone mineral density in the US elderly population. Using vitamin E supplement as α-tocopherol to promote bone health was not warranted at this time. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to examine the associations between serum vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) status and bone mineral density (BMD) among the US elderly population...
December 1, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#7
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906623/orotate-orotic-acid-an-essential-and-versatile-molecule
#8
M Löffler, E A Carrey, E Zameitat
Orotate (OA) is well-known as a precursor in biosynthesis of pyrimidines; in mammals it is released from the mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) for conversion to UMP by the cytoplasmic UMP synthase enzyme. OA is also a normal part of the diet, being found in milk and dairy products, and it is converted to uridine for use in the pyrimidine salvage pathway predominantly in liver, kidney and erythrocytes. Early research into nutrition identified orotate as "vitamin B13," and its use as a complex with organic cations or metal ions was promulgated in body-building, and in assisting therapies of metabolic syndromes...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906055/mesenchymal-stem-cells-multipotent-stromal-cells-mscs-are-glycolytic-and-thus-glucose-is-a-limiting-factor-of-in-vitro-models-of-msc-starvation
#9
Austin Nuschke, Melanie Rodrigues, Albin W Wells, Kyle Sylakowski, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair but are challenged during wound healing when the blood supply is disrupted, thereby limiting nutrient delivery. Survival mechanisms against 'starvation' include autophagy, which we previously found to enhance differentiation efficiency. MSC response to models of in vitro nutrient deprivation are of great interest for improving MSC survival and therapeutic efficacy; however, the rate-limiting nutrients are unknown...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904629/effect-of-various-kinds-of-beverages-on-stress-oxidative-f2-isoprostane-serum-lipid-and-blood-glucose-of-elite-taekwondo-players
#10
Zahra Maghsoudi, Ashfin Shiranian, Gholamreza Askai, Reza Ghaisvand
BACKGROUND: Athletes' recovery is important in improving their performance. Nutritional strategies can be effective in enhancing recovery rate. Choosing the best food items in appropriate intervals can play effective roles in resynthesis of fuels and recovery of muscle injury. Beverage micro and macronutrient content are helpful in fuel restoration. In this study, we assess the effects of various kinds of beverages on oxidative stress, muscle injury, and metabolic risk factors in taekwondo players...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903998/survival-benefit-of-hemodiafiltration-compared-with-prolonged-high-flux-hemodialysis
#11
Petar S Djuric, Aleksandar Jankovic, Jovan Popovic, Jelena Tosic Dragovic, Ana Bulatovic, Zivka Djuric, Milos Mitrovic, Nada Dimkovic
INTRODUCTION:  Patients on dialysis have a high rate of death, mainly of cardiovascular cause. Nephrologists are actively looking for ways to improve patients' outcomes, and alternative dialysis strategies, such as long conventional hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration, are currently being investigated. The aim of this study was to compare anemia, nutrition, inflammation, mineral metabolism, and 3-year survival rates between patients treated with hemodiafiltration and prolonged high-flux hemodialysis (HFH)...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903996/survival-of-patients-on-hemodialysis-and-predictors-of-mortality-a-single-centre-analysis-of-time-dependent-factors
#12
Shahrzad Ossareh, Farhat Farrokhi, Marjan Zebarjadi
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the outcome and predictors of survival in hemodialysis patients of Hasheminejad Kidney Center where a comprehensive dialysis care program has been placed since 2004. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 560 hemodialysis patients were used to evaluate 9-year survival rates and predictors of mortality. Cox regression models included comorbidities as well as averaged and 6-month-averaged time-dependent values of laboratory findings as independent factors...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#13
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902988/smell-and-taste-to-improve-nutrition-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#14
Friederike Beker, Gillian Opie, Elizabeth Noble, Yannan Jiang, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control)...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902788/fertilization-of-grapevine-based-on-gene-expression
#15
Cheng Zhang, Haifeng Jia, Jingjue Zeng, Tariq Perraiz, Zhenqiang Xie, Xudong Zhu, Chen Wang
The application of genetic information in agricultural production is an important issue, which is highly worthy of attention. Gene expression data can accurately reflect the growth and metabolic status of plants, with which we can predict and monitor the nutritional requirements of plants and then derive accurate fertilization strategies. In this study, to verify the feasibility and workability of gene information-based fertilization strategies and to figure out the specific nutritional requirements of grapevine ( L...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902777/the-two-component-system-arlrs-and-alterations-in-metabolism-enable-staphylococcus-aureus-to-resist-calprotectin-induced-manganese-starvation
#16
Jana N Radin, Jessica L Kelliher, Paola K Párraga Solórzano, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
During infection the host imposes manganese and zinc starvation on invading pathogens. Despite this, Staphylococcus aureus and other successful pathogens remain capable of causing devastating disease. However, how these invaders adapt to host-imposed metal starvation and overcome nutritional immunity remains unknown. We report that ArlRS, a global staphylococcal virulence regulator, enhances the ability of S. aureus to grow in the presence of the manganese-and zinc-binding innate immune effector calprotectin...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902262/saccharedens-versatilis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-sugar-degrading-member-of-the-burkholderiales-isolated-from-cephalotes-rohweri-ant-guts
#17
Jonathan Y Lin, William J Hobson, John T Wertz
Cephalotes "turtle" ants host a core group of gut-associated symbionts, but their potential contributions to ant nutrition and disease resistance remain uncharacterized in vitro. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic capability of core symbionts belonging to the Burkholderiales, we cultivated and characterized strain CAG32T, isolated from the guts of Cephalotes rohweri ants. Strain CAG32T was rod-shaped, Gram-negative, motile, and formed pale-white colonies on trypticase soy agar. Optimum growth occurred under an atmosphere of 20% O2 supplemented with 1% CO2...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901037/control-of-energy-expenditure-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
K R Westerterp
Energy expenditure is determined by body size and body composition and by food intake and physical activity. Body size and body composition are the determinants of resting energy expenditure. Higher weight results in higher energy requirement through a higher resting requirement because of a higher maintenance cost of a larger body. Activity-induced energy expenditure is the most variable component of total energy expenditure. Smaller and leaner subjects generally move more as activity energy expenditure in larger subjects is not higher in proportion to the cost of moving with a higher body weight...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#19
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#20
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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