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Radio anatomy

F Bootz, S Greschus, T van Bremen
The parapharyngeal space extends from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx. It is bordered medially by the pharyngeal wall and the constrictor pharyngis muscles, and laterally by the mandible. One distinguishes between a pre- and a poststyloid space. Tumors of the parapharyngeal space are rare and represent less than 1 % of all head and neck neoplasms. Benign (70-80 %) as well as malignant (20-30 %) tumors arise from different structures of the parapharyngeal space, mainly from salivary glands and nerve structures...
October 18, 2016: HNO
Ahmad Chaddad, Camel Tanougast
To isolate the brain from non-brain tissues using a fully automatic method may be affected by the presence of radio frequency non-homogeneity of MR images (MRI), regional anatomy, MR sequences, and the subjects of the study. In order to automate the brain tumor (Glioblastoma) detection, we proposed a novel approach of skull stripping for axial slices derived from MRI. Then, the brain tumor was detected using multi-level threshold segmentation based on histogram analysis. Skull-stripping method, was applied by adaptive morphological operations approach...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska, Mateusz K Hołda, Mateusz Koziej, Jakub Hołda, Katarzyna Piątek, Kamil Tyrak, Filip Bolechała
The aim of this study was to provide useful information about the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) and surrounding areas morphology, which may help to plan CTI radio-frequency ablation. We examined 140 autopsied human hearts from Caucasian individuals of both sexes (29.3% females) with a mean age of 49.1±17.2 years. We macroscopically investigated the lower part of the right atrium, the CTI, the inferior vena cava ostium and the terminal crest. The paraseptal isthmus (18.5±4.0 mm) was significantly shorter than the central isthmus (p<0...
2016: PloS One
Ivan M Buzurovic, Jorgen L Hansen, Mandar S Bhagwat, Desmond A O'Farrell, Scott Friesen, Thomas C Harris, Antonio L Damato, Robert A Cormack, Neil E Martin, Phillip M Devlin
PURPOSE: In this study, we present the clinical implementation of a novel transoral balloon centering esophageal applicator (BCEA) and the initial clinical experience in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment of esophageal cancer, using this applicator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Acceptance testing and commissioning of the BCEA were performed prior to clinical use. Full performance testing was conducted including measurements of the dimensions and the catheter diameter, evaluation of the inflatable balloon consistency, visibility of the radio-opaque markers, congruence of the markers, absolute and relative accuracy of the HDR source in the applicator using the radiochromic film and source position simulator, visibility and digitization of the applicator on the computed tomography (CT) images under the clinical conditions, and reproducibility of the offset...
August 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Satoru Noda, Naoyoshi Onoda
Although parathyroid surgery is not a complicated surgical procedure, enough knowledge of the surgical anatomy and accurate information for localization of involved gland are required from the fact of the variation in the number and the location of the parathyroid gland. Surgical treatment for patients with hyperparathyroidism has been in the transition state from the era of both sides exploration to minimally invasive surgery. In addition, intraoperative radio guide method, intraoperative iPTH measurement, and intraoperative neuromonitoring have been introduced for the safe and reliable operation...
June 2016: Clinical Calcium
Nicolas Grenier, Pierre Merville, Christian Combe
Radiologic imaging has the potential to identify several functional and/or structural biomarkers of acute and chronic kidney diseases that are useful diagnostics to guide patient management. A renal ultrasound examination can provide information regarding the gross anatomy and macrostructure of the renal parenchyma, and ultrasound imaging modalities based on Doppler or elastography techniques can provide haemodynamic and structural information, respectively. CT is also able to combine morphological and functional information, but the use of CT is limited due to the required exposure to X-ray irradiation and a risk of contrast-induced nephropathy following intravenous injection of a radio-contrast agent...
June 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Oana Carmen Drăgan, Alexandru Ştefan Fărcăşanu, Radu Septimiu Câmpian, Romulus Valeriu Flaviu Turcu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Visualization of the internal and external root canal morphology is very important for a successful endodontic treatment; however, it seems to be difficult considering the small size of the tooth and the complexity of the root canal system. Film-based or digital conventional radiographic techniques as well as cone beam computed tomography provide limited information on the dental pulp anatomy or have harmful effects. A new non-invasive diagnosis tool is magnetic resonance imaging, due to its ability of imaging both hard and soft tissues...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
S Delclaux, T T Trang Pham, N Bonnevialle, C Aprédoaei, M Rongières, P Bonnevialle, P Mansat
BACKGROUND: Distal radius malunion is a major complication of distal radius fractures, reported in 0 to 33% of cases. Corrective osteotomy to restore normal anatomy usually provides improved function and significant pain relief. We report the outcomes in a case-series with special attention to the potential influence of the initial management. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This single-centre retrospective study included 12 patients with a mean age of 35years (range, 14-60years) who were managed by different surgeons...
May 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
A O Akinyamoju, A O Adisa
BACKGROUND: Sialolithiasis is the most common salivary gland disorder characterized by calculi formation within the gland and/or its duct. The submandibular gland is most frequently affected due to the peculiar anatomy of the duct and the nature of its secretion. Varying sizes have been described for salivary calculi and unusually large sialoliths measuring above 3.5cm have been reported. Similarly, a few giant sialoliths have been reported in Africans. We therefore report the case of a large sialolith in the Wharton's duct of a Nigerian male...
June 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
Maximilian Schulze, Achim Seeger, Katrin Reimann, Uwe Klose, Ulrike Ernemann, Till-Karsten Hauser
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare a standard T2 SPACE sequence (standard-SPACE) used in temporal bone imaging at 3 T with a new parallel-transmit-accelerated 2D-selective radio frequency excitation technique for SPACE which was either time-improved or resolution-improved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive patients were examined in this IRB-approved study using a standard T2 SPACE sequence, and then a time-improved zoomed SPACE sequence (short z-SPACE) with identical resolution but accelerated image acquisition and a resolution-improved zoomed SPACE sequence (high-resolution z-SPACE) with identical acquisition time but higher resolution at a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging system...
April 2016: Otology & Neurotology
John A Pearce
Electrosurgical dispersive electrodes must safely carry the surgical current in monopolar procedures, such as those used in cutting, coagulation and radio frequency ablation (RFA). Of these, RFA represents the most stringent design constraint since ablation currents are often more than 1 to 2 Arms (continuous) for several minutes depending on the size of the lesion desired and local heat transfer conditions at the applicator electrode. This stands in contrast to standard surgical activations, which are intermittent, and usually less than 1 Arms, but for several seconds at a time...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Cyprian Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki, Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz
Ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal system is superior to other imaging methods in many aspects, such as multidimensional character of imaging, possibility of dynamic evaluation and precise assessment of soft tissues. Moreover, it is a safe and relatively inexpensive method, broadly available and well-tolerated by patients. A correctly conducted ultrasound examination of the wrist delivers detailed information concerning the condition of tendons, muscles, ligaments, nerves and vessels. However, the knowledge of anatomy is crucial to establish a correct ultrasound diagnosis, also in wrist assessment...
June 2015: Journal of Ultrasonography
W Andrew Lee, Adriana J Saroki, Sverre Løken, Christiano A C Trindade, Tyler R Cram, Broc R Schindler, Robert F LaPrade, Marc J Philippon
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the acetabulum has been described extensively in the literature, but radiographic acetabular guidelines have not been well established. This study provides a radiographic map of acetabular landmarks in the hip. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to quantify the precise radiographic location of arthroscopic landmarks around the acetabulum. The hypothesis was that their locations were reproducible despite variability in the anatomy and positioning of pelvic specimens...
January 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Kwang Hyoung Lee, Jae Ho Chung, Kwang Taik Kim, Sung Ho Lee, Ho Sung Son, Jae Seung Jung, Hee Jung Kim, Seung Hun Lee
BACKGROUND: Conventional stripping is considered to be the standard procedure for great saphenous vein (GSV) varicosities, but many other alternative treatments such as cryostripping, endovenous laser therapy (EVLT), radio-frequency ablation, and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy have been developed. Among them, both cryostripping and laser therapy have been reported to be less traumatic, with lower rates of complications and recurrences when compared to conventional stripping. To compare the efficacy of these treatments, we have analyzed and compared the mid-term clinical outcomes of cryostripping and EVLT...
October 2015: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Lakshana Selvaraj, Indumathi Sundaramurthi
INTRODUCTION: Blood vessel anomalies are always interesting from embryological view and of considerable significance from a clinical or a surgical standpoint. Vascular anomalies are usually asymptomatic; they may cause problems in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography or any operative procedure. The length and course of the coeliac artery are variable and its branches frequently arise separately from the main trunk. Several other branches may additionally arise from the coeliac trunk, for example, inferior phrenic arteries, the dorsal pancreatic artery, and the middle colic artery...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Geoffroy P J C Noël, Ciaran C Connolly
The correct tracking and monitoring of anatomical specimens is not only imperative in any modern body donation programs but also in any universities for which teaching the next generation of health care professionals is the primary mission. This has long been an arduous process for anatomy institutions across the world, and the recent focus of new curricula on self-directed learning adds new stress on specimens which are used by students. The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been proposed as a very effective tracking system in healthcare considering that it enables automatic identification and data capture of multiple items at once...
March 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Jonathan P Eskander, Juan G Ripoll, Frank Calixto, Burton D Beakley, Jeffrey T Baker, Patrick J Healy, O H Gunduz, Lizheng Shi, Jamie A Clodfelter, Jinan Liu, Alan D Kaye, Sanjay Sharma
BACKGROUND: Pain emanating from the sacroiliac (SI) joint can have variable radiation patterns. Single physical examination tests for SI joint pain are inconsistent with multiple tests increasing both sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of fluoroscopy in the diagnosis of SI joint pain. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective double blind comparison study. SETTING: Pain clinic and radiology setting in urban Veterans Administration (VA) in New Orleans, Louisiana...
September 2015: Pain Physician
M E Rettmann, D R Holmes, C A Linte, D L Packer, R A Robb
In catheter-based cardiac ablation, the pulmonary vein ostia are important landmarks for guiding the ablation procedure, and for this reason, have been the focus of many studies quantifying their size, structure, and variability. Analysis of pulmonary vein structure, however, has been limited by the lack of a standardized reference space for population based studies. Standardized maps are important tools for characterizing anatomic variability across subjects with the goal of separating normal inter-subject variability from abnormal variability associated with disease...
February 15, 2014: Proceedings of SPIE
Juan Córcoles, Earl Zastrow, Niels Kuster
Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient's anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant's RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI...
September 21, 2015: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Daniel Habermehl, Patrick Naumann, Rolf Bendl, Uwe Oelfke, Simeon Nill, Jürgen Debus, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: With the development of more conformal and precise radiation techniques such as Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT), patients with hepatic tumors could be treated with high local doses by sparing normal liver tissue. However, frequently occurring large HCC tumors are still a dosimetric challenge in spite of modern high sophisticated RT modalities. This interventional clinical study has been set up to evaluate the value of different fiducial markers, and to use the modern imaging methods for further treatment optimization using physical and informatics approaches...
2015: Radiation Oncology
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