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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736342/tfos-dews-ii-diagnostic-methodology-report
#1
REVIEW
James S Wolffsohn, Reiko Arita, Robin Chalmers, Ali Djalilian, Murat Dogru, Kathy Dumbleton, Preeya Gupta, Paul Karpecki, Sihem Lazreg, Heiko Pult, Benjamin D Sullivan, Alan Tomlinson, Louis Tong, Edoardo Villani, Kyung Chul Yoon, Lyndon Jones, Jennifer Craig
The role of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society (TFOS) Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) II Diagnostic Methodology Subcommittee was 1) to identify tests used to diagnose and monitor dry eye disease (DED), 2) to identify those most appropriate to fulfil the definition of DED and its sub-classifications, 3) to propose the most appropriate order and technique to conduct these tests in a clinical setting, and 4) to provide a differential diagnosis for DED and distinguish conditions where it is a comorbidity. Symptom screening with the DEQ-5 or OSDI confirms that a patient might have DED and triggers the diagnostic tests of (ideally non-invasive) breakup time, osmolarity and ocular surface staining with fluorescein and lissamine green (observing the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelid margin)...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736341/tfos-dews-ii-iatrogenic-report
#2
REVIEW
José Alvaro P Gomes, Dimitri T Azar, Christophe Baudouin, Nathan Efron, Masatoshi Hirayama, Jutta Horwath-Winter, Terry Kim, Jodhbir S Mehta, Elisabeth M Messmer, Jay S Pepose, Virender S Sangwan, Alan L Weiner, Steven E Wilson, James S Wolffsohn
Dry eye can be caused by a variety of iatrogenic interventions. The increasing number of patients looking for eye care or cosmetic procedures involving the eyes, together with a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of dry eye disease (DED), have led to the need of a specific report about iatrogenic dry eye within the TFOS DEWS II. Topical medications can cause DED due to their allergic, toxic and immuno-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. Preservatives, such as benzalkonium chloride, may further aggravate DED...
May 5, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736339/tfos-dews-ii-pain-and-sensation-report
#3
REVIEW
Carlos Belmonte, Jason J Nichols, Stephanie M Cox, James A Brock, Carolyn G Begley, David A Bereiter, Darlene A Dartt, Anat Galor, Pedram Hamrah, Jason J Ivanusic, Deborah S Jacobs, Nancy A McNamara, Mark I Rosenblatt, Fiona Stapleton, James S Wolffsohn
Pain associated to mechanical and chemical irritation of the eye surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglia mechano- and polymodal nociceptor neurons while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain and reflex blinking. ViVc ocular neurons project to brain regions that control lacrimation and spontaneous blinking and to the sensory thalamus...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736338/the-tfos-international-dry-eye-workshop-ii-report-of-the-tear-film-subcommittee
#4
REVIEW
Mark D P Willcox, Pablo Argüeso, Georgi Georgiev, Juha Holopainen, Gordon Laurie, Tom Millar, Eric Papas, Jannick Rolland, Tannin Schmidt, Ulrike Stahl, Tatiana Suarez, Lakshman Subbaraman, Omür Uçakhan, Lyndon Jones
The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research...
March 30, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736336/tfos-dews-ii-sex-gender-and-hormones-report
#5
REVIEW
David A Sullivan, Eduardo M Rocha, Pasquale Aragona, Janine A Clayton, Juan Ding, Blanka Golebiowski, Ulrike Hampel, Alison M McDermott, Debra A Schaumberg, Sruthi Srinivasan, Piera Versura, Mark D P Willcox
The members of the Sex, Gender, and Hormones Subcommittee reviewed the role of sex, gender and hormones in the regulation of ocular surface and adnexal tissues, and in the difference in the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) between women and men. The Subcommittee also recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the interrelationships between sex, gender, hormones and DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership.
April 21, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736335/tfos-dews-ii-definition-and-classification-report
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer P Craig, Kelly K Nichols, Esen K Akpek, Barbara Caffery, Harminder S Dua, Choun-Ki Joo, Zuguo Liu, J Daniel Nelson, Jason J Nichols, Kazuo Tsubota, Fiona Stapleton
The goals of the TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Subcommittee were to create an evidence-based definition and a contemporary classification system for dry eye disease (DED). The new definition recognizes the multifactorial nature of dry eye as a disease where loss of homeostasis of the tear film is the central pathophysiological concept. Ocular symptoms, as a broader term that encompasses reports of discomfort or visual disturbance, feature in the definition and the key etiologies of tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, and ocular surface inflammation and damage were determined to be important for inclusion in the definition...
July 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733649/an-in-vitro-model-for-the-ocular-surface-and-tear-film-system
#7
Qiaozhi Lu, Hongbo Yin, Michael P Grant, Jennifer H Elisseeff
Dry eye is a complicated ocular surface disease whose exact pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. For the therapeutic evaluation and pathogenesis study of dry eye, we established an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) coculture model for the ocular surface. It is composed of rabbit conjunctival epithelium and lacrimal gland cell spheroids, and recapitulates the aqueous and mucin layers of the tear film. We first investigated the culture conditions for both cell types to optimize their secretory functions, by employing goblet cell enrichment, air-lifting culture, and 3D spheroid formation techniques...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730091/aberrant-expression-of-genes-and-proteins-in-pterygium-and-their-implications-in-the-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Qing-Yang Feng, Zi-Xuan Hu, Xi-Ling Song, Hong-Wei Pan
Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease induced by a variety of factors. The exact pathogenesis of pterygium remains unclear. Numbers of genes and proteins are discovered in pterygium and they function differently in the occurrence and development of this disease. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed throughout history for literatures about the subject. The keywords we used contain pterygium, gene, protein, angiogenesis, fibrosis, proliferation, inflammation, pathogenesis and therapy. In this review, we summarize the aberrant expression of a range of genes and proteins in pterygium compared with normal conjunctiva or cornea, including growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, interleukins, tumor suppressor genes, proliferation related proteins, apoptosis related proteins, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, heat shock proteins and tight junction proteins...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730085/ocular-surface-evaluation-in-eyes-with-chronic-glaucoma-on-long-term-topical-antiglaucoma-therapy
#9
Manu Saini, Murugesan Vanathi, Tanuj Dada, Tushar Agarwal, Rebika Dhiman, Sudarshan Khokhar
AIM: To evaluate ocular surface changes and its correlation with the central corneal subbasal nerve fibre layer in chronic glaucoma patients. METHODS: A prospective comparative study of ocular surface evaluation was performed in 50 eyes of 25 patients using two or more antiglaucoma medications for at least 6mo and 50 eyes of 25 normal subjects without any ocular problems as controls. The study parameters evaluated included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular surface evaluation parameters [fluorescein break-up time (FTBUT), Schirmer's I test, ocular surface staining scores and ocular surface disease index score (OSDI)], central corneal sensation (Cochet Bonnett aesthesiometer), central subbasal nerve fiber layer density (SBNFLD) by confocal microscopy...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728282/-epidemiologic-study-of-tear-film-lipid-layer-thickness-measurement-in-the-population-of-taishitun-community-in-beijing
#10
Q F Liang, X H Du, Y D Su, N L Wang, Z J Wei, Antoine Labbé
Objective: To investigate the distribution of tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and the relationship between symptoms and signs of dry eye and tear film LLT in the population of Taishitun Community in Beijing. Methods: A cross-sectional study. From May 2016 to August 2016, three streets of Taishitun Community were randomly selected as survey districts and 540 persons were taken as investigation subjects. Every participant completed 6 items of dry eye examinations as follows: questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI), measurement of tear film LLT, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, SchirmerⅠtest and the infrared meibomian photography...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727604/preclinical-development-of-ebi-005-an-il-1-receptor-1-inhibitor-for-the-topical-ocular-treatment-of-ocular-surface-inflammatory-diseases
#11
Joseph Kovalchin, Bracken King, Allyson Masci, Elizabeth Hopkins, Jeremy Fry, Jay Hou, Christian Li, Kelly Tenneson, Steve Weber, Gary Wolfe, Kathy Collins, Eric S Furfine
OBJECTIVE: Topical interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (R)1 blockade is therapeutically active in reducing signs and symptoms of dry eye disease. Herein, we describe in vitro and in vivo nonclinical Investigational New Drug (IND)-enabling studies of EBI-005, a novel protein chimera of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra or anakinra) that potently binds IL-1R1 and blocks signaling. These studies provide an assessment of receptor affinity, drug bioavailability, immunogenic response, safety, and tolerability in mice and rabbits...
July 18, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721823/genetic-risk-factors-for-glaucoma-and-exfoliation-syndrome-identified-by-genome-wide-association-studies
#12
Yoichi Sakurada, Fumihiko Mabuchi
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve axons. According to its anatomical features, glaucoma is mainly subdivided into primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and glaucoma (XFG) are characterized by the accumulation of extracellular materials in ocular tissues, particularly the lens surface and pupillary border. In addition to the two major forms of glaucoma, XFG is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma...
July 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715851/paradigm-shifts-peregrinations-and-pixies-in-ophthalmology
#13
REVIEW
A O Minas Coroneo
Defending vision, our highest bandwidth sense, challenges human ingenuity. Replacing or repairing highly specialized but scarce tissue within constraints of transparency, tissue shape and alignment, tissue borders and pressure maintenance, presents special challenges. Many, mostly destructive surgical procedures, were developed prior to an understanding of underlying pathophysiology. For a number of conditions, both reconstructive and destructive procedures co-exist yet there are few guidelines as to the better approach...
July 17, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715398/a-non-invasive-way-to-isolate-and-phenotype-cells-from-the-conjunctiva
#14
Tanima Bose, Aihua Hou, Ryan Lee, Louis Tong, K George Chandy
Traditionally, ocular surface cytology is studied with techniques such as spatula technology and brush technology. The problem with these techniques is that they may induce traumatic lesions on the surface of the eye, which can progress to scarring, eyelid deformity, limbal stem cell deficiency and in some cases, cause great discomfort to the subject. To avoid these clinical problems, impression cytology (IC) was developed to diagnose dry eye disease and later neoplasia, atopic disease, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710815/lacrimal-gland-development-from-signaling-interactions-to-regenerative-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Ankur Garg, Xin Zhang
The lacrimal gland plays a pivotal role in keeping the ocular surface lubricated, and protecting it from environmental exposure and insult. Dysfunction of the lacrimal gland results in deficiency of the aqueous component of the tear film, which can cause dryness of the ocular surface, also known as the aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Left untreated, this disease can lead to significant morbidity, including frequent eye infections, corneal ulcerations and vision loss. Current therapies do not treat the underlying deficiency of the lacrimal gland, but merely provide symptomatic relief...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710682/thelazia-callipaeda-infection-in-a-5-month-old-infant
#16
Xinyue Zhao, Yao Shi, Zhengming Fang, Zhi Wang, Xiaobo Yang
BACKGROUND: Thelazia callipaeda is the main causative organism in thelaziasis, commonly infecting orbital cavities and associated tissues of carnivores. Thelazia callipaeda infection is rarely reported in humans, especially in infants. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-month-old male infant presented with 2 weeks of redness and increased secretions in the left eye. On examination, the left eye revealed the presence of one creamy thread-like mobile worm in the conjunctival sac...
July 14, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710528/-anatomy-and-immunology-of-the-eye
#17
U Pleyer, D Pohlmann
The eye has all the mechanisms necessary for detection and processing (afferent immune reaction) as well as adequate initiation of an (efferent) immune response. Apart from the typical antigen-processing cells, locally present elements (e.g. glial cells and retinal pigment epithelium) can also be involved in the afferent reaction. For the efferent mechanisms a complex regulative system exists, which includes cellular and humoral responses and is essentially determined by surface molecules. In addition, the ocular environment is rich in immunosuppressive molecules that contribute to the regulation of immune cells...
July 14, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709803/an-ocular-commensal-protects-against-corneal-infection-by-driving-an-interleukin-17-response-from-mucosal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#18
Anthony J St Leger, Jigar V Desai, Rebecca A Drummond, Abirami Kugadas, Fatimah Almaghrabi, Phyllis Silver, Kumarkrishna Raychaudhuri, Mihaela Gadjeva, Yoichiro Iwakura, Michail S Lionakis, Rachel R Caspi
Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. We isolated one such candidate commensal, Corynebacterium mastitidis, and showed that this organism elicited a commensal-specific interleukin-17 response from γδ T cells in the ocular mucosa that was central to local immunity...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708219/one-year-efficacy-and-safety-of-0-1-cyclosporine-a-cationic-emulsion-in-the-treatment-of-severe-dry-eye-disease
#19
Christophe Baudouin, Maite Sainz de la Maza, Mourad Amrane, Jean-Sébastien Garrigue, Dahlia Ismail, Francisco C Figueiredo, Andrea Leonardi
PURPOSE: The SANSIKA study evaluated the efficacy/safety of 0.1% (1 mg/mL) cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) for treating dry eye disease (DED) with severe keratitis. The double-masked phase demonstrated that CsA CE was effective in reducing corneal damage and ocular surface inflammation, and was well-tolerated over 6 months. Here we report efficacy and safety findings of SANSIKA's open-label extension (OLE). METHODS: In this multicenter, double-masked, phase III study, patients with severe DED (corneal fluorescein staining [CFS] grade 4, modified Oxford scale) were randomized to once-daily CsA CE (Ikervis®) or its vehicle for 6 months, followed by 6-month open-label, once-daily CsA CE (CsA CE/CsA CE and vehicle/CsA CE groups)...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706958/toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-nf-kappa-b-pathway-activation-in-ocular-surface-epithelial-cells
#20
Aihua Hou, Min Qi Tin, Louis Tong
BACKGROUND: Gram-positive bacteria stimulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and then activate the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. As the human ocular surface is heavily colonised by gram-positive cocci bacteria, a balance of activation/repression of NF-κB target genes is essential to avoid uncontrolled infection or autoimmune-related inflammation. It is advantageous to test NF-κB targeting molecules in an ocular surface culture system that allows assessment of temporal NF-κB activation in a longitudinal fashion without destruction of cells...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
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