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Stefan Flohr
About 100 hominin bones were found during excavations at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia. More than 60 of them were assigned to the partial skeleton LB1 which was designated as the holotype of a new species, Homo floresiensis . Analyses of skeletal proportions of LB1 led to the conclusion that its foot was exceptionally long relative to femur and tibia, respectively. This ratio was considered a unique feature that contributes to the definition of the new species. The published illustrations of the in situ -situation and the published inventory of the bones suggest a high degree of commingling rather than the presence of larger anatomically joining units that was asserted in the publications on the findings...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Elizabeth Delve, Justin Parreno, Vivian Co, Po-Han Wu, Jasmine Chong, Matteo Di Scipio, Rita A Kandel
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that initially manifests as loss of the superficial zone (SZ) of articular cartilage. SZ chondrocytes (SZC) differ in morphology from other chondrocytes as they are elongated and oriented parallel to the tissue surface. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) and tenascin C (TNC) are molecules expressed by SZC, which have been shown to be chondroprotective. Identification of the signalling pathway(s) regulating expression of SZ molecules may lead to a therapeutic target that can be used to delay or prevent the onset of OA...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Georgios Filippou, Carlo Alberto Scirè, Antonella Adinolfi, Nemanja S Damjanov, Greta Carrara, George A W Bruyn, Tomas Cazenave, Maria Antonietta D'Agostino, Andrea Delle Sedie, Valentina Di Sabatino, Mario Enrique Diaz Cortes, Emilio Filippucci, Frederique Gandjbakhch, Marwin Gutierrez, Daryl K Maccarter, Mihaela Micu, Ingrid Möller Parera, Gaël Mouterde, Mohamed Atia Mortada, Esperanza Naredo, Carlos Pineda, Francesco Porta, Anthony M Reginato, Iulia Satulu, Wolfgang A Schmidt, Teodora Serban, Lene Terslev, Violeta Vlad, Florentin Ananu Vreju, Pascal Zufferey, Panagiotis Bozios, Carmela Toscano, Valentina Picerno, Annamaria Iagnocco
OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability of the OMERACT ultrasound (US) definitions for the identification of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) at the metacarpal-phalangeal, triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist (TFC), acromioclavicular (AC) and hip joints. METHODS: A web-based exercise and subsequent patient-based exercise were carried out. A panel of 30 OMERACT members, participated at the web-based exercise by evaluating twice a set of US images for the presence/absence of CPPD...
March 13, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Cristian Cuadra, Angelo Bartsch, Paula Tiemann, Sasha Reschechtko, Mark L Latash
We explored whether the synergic control of the hand during multi-finger force production tasks depends on the hand muscles involved. Healthy subjects performed accurate force production tasks and targeted force pulses while pressing against loops positioned at the level of fingertips, middle phalanges, and proximal phalanges. This varied the involvement of the extrinsic and intrinsic finger flexors. The framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis was used to analyze the structure of inter-trial variance, motor equivalence, and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the force pulse in the spaces of finger forces and finger modes (hypothetical finger-specific control signals)...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
İsmail Burak Atalay, Selçuk Yılmaz, Mehmet Akif Şimşek, Mehmet Fatih Ekşioğlu, Bedii Şafak Güngör
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment approaches of the rarely seen chondrosarcomas of the phalanges of the hand. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients (27 males, 25 females; mean age 41.2 years; range 12 to 70 years) with chondroid lesions localized in hand phalanges who were performed surgical treatment between December 2012 and September 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The study included 62 phalangeal chondroid lesions. Patients' mean follow-up duration was 60...
April 2018: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
Kai Xu, Huan Liu, Zhaoyu Zhang, Xiangyang Zhu
Among the advances in upper extremity prostheses in the past decades, only a small portion of the results were obtained for partial hand prostheses, possibly due to the highly diverse partial hand presentations and limited space for component integration. In an attempt to address these challenges, this paper presents the design, construction, installation, and experimental characterization of a wrist-powered partial hand prosthesis developed in Shanghai Jiao Tong University (hereafter referred to as the JTP hand), customized for a specific amputee...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Hyung-Sup Shim, Byung Yeun Kwon, Bommie F Seo, Ho Kwon, Sung-No Jung
BACKGROUND: The treatment of choice for fingertip amputation is replantation to restore function and aesthetics. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates and salvage periods between patients with Tamai's zone I amputation injuries treated with bony fixation and suture fixation. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with Tamai's zone I amputations with bony involvement were included in this study. The patients were allocated randomly to two groups treated by bony fixation with Kirschner (K-)wire and suture fixation, respectively...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Nebojsa Jovanovic, Ehab Aldlyami, Basem Saraj, Mohamed Fm Seidam, Hamed Badawi, Ahmed Shaat, Khalid Alawadi Facharzt, Chaitanya Dodakundi
Multiple methods have been described for treating unstable proximal and middle phalangeal fractures. Irrespective of using an open or closed technique of fixation, stiffness and extensor lag at the proximal/distal interphalangeal joint almost always occur. This issue can be avoided by allowing the patients to mobilize the fingers out of plaster or splint as early as possible from the day of surgery. We describe a technique of intramedullary percutaneous fixation of extra-articular proximal and middle phalanx fractures allowing immediate mobilization of fingers, concurrent stabilization with progressive healing and thus preventing such complications...
March 2, 2018: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
Stefan Flohr, Isabelle Jasch, Antje Langer, Martin Riesenberg, Julia Hahn, Axel Wisotzki, Horst Kierdorf, Uwe Kierdorf, Joachim Wahl
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is rarely diagnosed in archaeological human skeletons. Here, we report on the well-preserved skeleton of a middle-adult man from the early Medieval settlement site of Lauchheim (Germany) that exhibits pronounced multi-layered shell-like periosteal new bone formation in a bilaterally symmetric fashion on the long bones, the skeletal elements of the pelvis and those of the pectoral girdle. In addition, the two distal phalanges recovered show signs of osteoclastic resorption on their distal tuberosities...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Agata Marta Plonczak, Gordon J McArthur, Nicola Goldsmith, Maxim Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Most hand injuries in children can be managed non-operatively and are associated with excellent outcomes. Whilst the majority of our patients are discharged to the care of hand therapists, there is no literature to support this protocol. Our aim was to ensure this is safe and effective practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients referred to our paediatric hand trauma clinic for closed injuries over a four month period between December 2014 and March 2015...
December 30, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
Rosemarie A Curley, Alycia Markowski
A 50-year-old woman with an 8-year history of diffuse systemic sclerosis, a form of scleroderma, was referred by her rheumatologist to physical therapy for decreased finger range of motion (ROM) and pain that adversely affected her dexterity and ability to perform activities of daily living. To determine whether joint mobilization would be appropriate for this patient, posterior-to-anterior and modified lateral radiographs of both hands were requested by the physical therapist. Images showed significant bone loss in the distal phalanges of both thumbs and in the left third and fourth digits, and calcinosis in the tips of both thumbs...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Dianlei Han, Haijin Wan, Xiujuan Li, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
In ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. Thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. However, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. The results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system Simi Motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angles. The motion of the toe phalanges when walking and running on sand is basically the same...
2018: PloS One
A R Saied, M Sabet Jahromi
INTRODUCTION: For extraarticular proximal phalanx fractures, two methods are employed, transarticular fixation in which the metacarpophalangeal joint is crossed and the extraarticular method in which the pins are introduced through the base of the proximal Phalanx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a prospective one on patients with proximal phalanx transverse or short oblique fractures. In one of the groups we used parallel pins from metacarpal head through MCP joint to proximal phalanx...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
U Hagag, M G Tawfiek
The aims of the present study were to describe the normal ultrasonographic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) appearances of the bovine metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal (MCP/MTP) joints and to assess the normal cross-sectional dimensions of the superficial (SDFT) and deep (DDFT) digital flexor tendons. A systematic ultrasound examination was performed on the MCP/MTP joints of 22 healthy cattle and two bovine cadavers, and the cross-sectional dimensions of the SDFT and DDFT were recorded...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
Shi-Jian Luo, Ge Shu, Yan Gong
Individual finger force (FF) in a grip task is a vital concern in rehabilitation engineering and precise control of manipulators because disorders in any of the fingers will affect the stability or accuracy of the grip force (GF). To understand the functions of each finger in a dynamic grip exertion task, a GF following experiment with four individual fingers without thumb was designed. This study obtained four individual FFs from the distal phalanges with a cylindrical handle in dynamic GF following tasks...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Efrain Farias, Mayron Lichterman, Mark Yuhas, Sunil M Thirkannad
We describe a technique of interlocking Kirschner wires to improve stability after fixation of fractures of the hand. This enables immediate mobilization of the injured fingers thus reducing the need for prolonged postoperative physical therapy and consequently diminishing chances of posttraumatic stiffness. This study analyzes outcomes in 83 fractures in 70 patients including 26 metacarpal and 57 phalangeal fractures. The technique has proven to be simple, versatile, and cost-effective. Patient compliance and satisfaction has been high and results have been gratifying...
March 2018: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
Fred T Finney, Simon Lee, Jaron Scott, Todd A Irwin, James R Holmes, Paul G Talusan
BACKGROUND: Lesser toe metatarsal-phalangeal (MTP) joint instability can be a major source of pain and dysfunction. Instability occurs when there is incompetence of the plantar plate and/or collateral ligaments. Newer operative treatments focus on performing anatomic repairs of the plantar plate. The goal of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of 3 suture configurations that may be used for plantar plate repairs. METHODS: Biomechanical analysis of 27 lesser toe plantar plates from fresh frozen human cadavers was completed...
February 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Quan-Quan Song, Hui Liu, Wei Lian, Yue Wang, Li-Yan Sun, Mei Gao, Yun-Qi Liu, Hong-Xia Deng, Qing Deng, Ning Liu, Jun Yu
When screening for Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) in children, hand X-ray examination is the most important measure. However, there is high rate of misdiagnosis because of confusing X-ray signs. We studied the characteristics of positive and confusing hand X-ray signs. Clinical and radiological examinations were conducted in all 7- to 12-year-olds in selected villages from some KBD and non-KBD areas. We analysed the radiological and epidemiological characteristics of the X-ray signs of KBD and the confusing signs...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
M R Garcia, A D Nicholson, A M Nduaguba, J O Sanders, R W Liu, D R Cooperman
Purpose: There are multiple skeletal maturity grading systems, but none of them utilizes the phalanges of the foot. To minimize radiation, it would be ideal if one could assess the skeletal maturity of a foot based on bones seen on routine foot radiographs, if guided growth is being considered as a treatment option. We developed a system that correlates changes of the appearance of the foot phalanges to peak height velocity (PHV) and the recently described calcaneal apophyseal ossification grading system...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
T Franz, Q Haxhosaj, U von Wartburg, U Hug
Most extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanges (P1) of the triphalangeal fingers can be treated conservatively with good results. Prerequisites for successful fracture treatment are intact soft tissue without any lesions of the extensor hood and stable initial fracture reduction. The key to functional conservative treatment of P1 fractures is to immobilize the metacarpophalangeal joints in flexion, resulting in equilibrium of flexor and extensor forces across the fracture site, which converts these inherently unstable fractures into relatively stable fractures...
February 13, 2018: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
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