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Hibernation associated protein

Daisuke Tsukamoto, Michihiko Ito, Nobuhiko Takamatsu
The chipmunk hibernation-related protein 25 (HP-25) is involved in the circannual control of hibernation in the brain. The liver-specific expression of the HP-25 gene is repressed in hibernating chipmunks under the control of endogenous circannual rhythms. However, the molecular mechanisms that differentially regulate the HP-25 gene during the nonhibernation and hibernation seasons are unknown. Here, we show that the hibernation-associated HP-25 expression is regulated epigenetically. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that significantly less hepatocyte nuclear receptor HNF-4 bound to the HP-25 gene promoter in the liver of hibernating chipmunks compared to nonhibernating chipmunks...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tatsuya Akiyama, Kerry S Williamson, Robert Schaefer, Shawna Pratt, Connie B Chang, Michael J Franklin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy in part because the biofilms contain subpopulations of dormant antibiotic-tolerant cells. The dormant cells can repopulate the biofilms following alleviation of antibiotic treatments. While dormant, the bacteria must maintain cellular integrity, including ribosome abundance, to reinitiate the de novo protein synthesis required for resuscitation. Here, we demonstrate that the P. aeruginosa gene PA4463 [hibernation promoting factor (HPF)], but not the ribosome modulation factor (PA3049), is required for ribosomal RNA preservation during prolonged nutrient starvation conditions...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaokun Geng, Fengwu Li, James Yip, Changya Peng, Omar Elmadhoun, Jiamei Shen, Xunming Ji, Yuchuan Ding
Previous studies have demonstrated depressive or hibernation-like roles of phenothiazine neuroleptics [combined chlorpromazine and promethazine (C + P)] in brain activity. This ischemic stroke study aimed to establish neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress and improving brain metabolism with post-ischemic C + P administration. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient (2 or 4 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 6 or 24 h reperfusion, or permanent (28 h) MCAO without reperfusion...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Sina Schäkermann, Pascal Prochnow, Julia E Bandow
Current research is focusing on ribosome heterogeneity as a response to changing environmental conditions and stresses, such as antibiotic stress. Altered stoichiometry and composition of ribosomal proteins as well as association of additional protein factors are mechanisms for shaping the protein expression profile or hibernating ribosomes. Here, we present a method for the isolation of ribosomes to analyze antibiotic-induced changes in the composition of ribosomes in Bacillus subtilis or other bacteria. Ribosomes and associated proteins are isolated by ultracentrifugation and proteins are identified and quantified using label-free mass spectrometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jay S Kirkwood, Corey D Broeckling, Seth Donahue, Jessica E Prenni
Endocannabinoids (ECs) represent a class of endogenous, small molecules that bind and activate the G-protein coupled EC receptors. They are involved in a variety of fundamental biological processes and are associated with many disease states. Endocannabinoids are often present in complex matrices and at low concentrations, complicating their measurement. Here we describe a highly sensitive method for the quantitation of the following ECs in serum: N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), N-oleoylethanolamine, N-palmitoylethanolamine, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and its inactive isomer 1-arachidonoylglycerol...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Scott T Cooper, Shawn S Sell, Molly Fahrenkrog, Kory Wilkinson, David R Howard, Hannah Bergen, Estefania Cruz, Steve E Cash, Matthew T Andrews, Marshall Hampton
Mammalian hibernators adapt to prolonged periods of immobility, hypometabolism, hypothermia, and oxidative stress, each capable of reducing bone marrow activity. In this study bone marrow transcriptomes were compared among thirteen-lined ground squirrels collected in July, winter torpor, and winter interbout arousal (IBA). The results were consistent with a suppression of acquired immune responses, and a shift to innate immune responses during hibernation through higher complement expression. Consistent with the increase in adipocytes found in bone marrow of hibernators, expression of genes associated with white adipose tissue are higher during hibernation...
July 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Niels Jessen, Thomas S Nielsen, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Rikke Viggers, Ole-Gunnar Støen, Alina Evans, Ole Frøbert
Prior to hibernation, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) exhibits unparalleled weight gain. Unlike humans, weight gain in bears is associated with lower levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and increased insulin sensitivity. Understanding how free-ranging brown bears suppress lipolysis when gaining weight may therefore provide novel insight toward the development of human therapies. Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected from immobilized free-ranging brown bears (fitted with GPS-collars) during hibernation in winter and from the same bears during the active period in summer in Dalarna, Sweden...
April 2016: Physiological Reports
Shannon N Tessier, Kenneth B Storey
Striated muscle shows an amazing ability to adapt its structural apparatus based on contractile activity, loading conditions, fuel supply, or environmental factors. Studies with mammalian hibernators have identified a variety of molecular pathways which are strategically regulated and allow animals to endure multiple stresses associated with the hibernating season. Of particular interest is the observation that hibernators show little skeletal muscle atrophy despite the profound metabolic rate depression and mechanical unloading that they experience during long weeks of torpor...
May 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
Laura Soler, Ingrid Miller, Karin Hummel, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Flemming Jessen, Damian Escribano, Theo Niewold
The growth promoting effect of supplementing animal feed with antibiotics like tetracycline has traditionally been attributed to their antibiotic character. However, more evidence has been accumulated on their direct anti-inflammatory effect during the last two decades. Here we used a pig model to explore the systemic molecular effect of feed supplementation with sub therapeutic levels of oxytetracycline (OTC) by analysis of serum proteome changes. Results showed that OTC promoted growth, coinciding with a significant down regulation of different serum proteins related to inflammation, oxidation and lipid metabolism, confirming the anti-inflammatory mechanism of OTC...
May 2016: Electrophoresis
Norbertas Noreika, Natalia E L Madsen, Kim Jensen, Søren Toft
Carnivorous animals are known to balance their consumption of lipid and protein, and recent studies indicate that some mammalian carnivores also regulate their intake of carbohydrate. We investigated macronutrient balancing and lipid restoration following hibernation in the ground beetle Anchomenus dorsalis, hypothesizing that carbohydrates might be important energy sources upon hibernation when predator lipid stores are exhausted and prey are equally lean. We recorded the consumption of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate over nine days following hibernation, as the beetles foraged to refill their lipid stores...
May 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Joshua Hefler, Cheng-Wei Wu, Kenneth B Storey
The transcription factor p53 is located at the centre of multiple pathways relating the cellular response to stress. Commonly known as a tumor suppressor, it is responsible for initiating diverse actions to protect the integrity of the genome, ranging from cell cycle arrest to apoptosis. This study investigated the regulation of p53 protein in hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus during multiple stages of the torpor-arousal cycle. Transcript and protein levels of p53 were both elevated in the skeletal muscle during early and late torpor stages of the hibernation cycle...
2015: Biochemistry Research International
Lucie Kučerová, Olga I Kubrak, Jonas M Bengtsson, Hynek Strnad, Sören Nylin, Ulrich Theopold, Dick R Nässel
BACKGROUND: In models extensively used in studies of aging and extended lifespan, such as C. elegans and Drosophila, adult senescence is regulated by gene networks that are likely to be similar to ones that underlie lifespan extension during dormancy. These include the evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF, TOR and germ line-signaling pathways. Dormancy, also known as dauer stage in the larval worm or adult diapause in the fly, is triggered by adverse environmental conditions, and results in drastically extended lifespan with negligible senescence...
2016: BMC Genomics
Alejandro Antón-Fernández, Gonzalo León-Espinosa, Javier DeFelipe, Alberto Muñoz
Hibernating animals have been used as models to study several aspects of the plastic changes that occur in the metabolism and physiology of neurons. These models are also of interest in the study of Alzheimer's disease because the microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated during the hibernation state known as torpor, similar to the pretangle stage of Alzheimer's disease. Hibernating animals undergo torpor periods with drops in body temperature and metabolic rate, and a virtual cessation of neural activity...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Alexander M Hecht, Beate C Braun, Eberhard Krause, Christian C Voigt, Alex D Greenwood, Gábor Á Czirják
Hibernation is a physiological adaptation to overcome extreme environmental conditions. It is characterized by prolonged periods of torpor interrupted by temporary arousals during winter. During torpor, body functions are suppressed and restored rapidly to almost pre-hibernation levels during arousal. Although molecular studies have been performed on hibernating rodents and bears, it is unclear how generalizable the results are among hibernating species with different physiology such as bats. As targeted blood proteomic analysis are lacking in small hibernators, we investigated the general plasma proteomic profile of European Myotis myotis and hibernation associated changes between torpid and active individuals by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
November 20, 2015: Scientific Reports
Antón Vila-Sanjurjo
Escherichia coli strains normally used under laboratory conditions have been selected for maximum growth rates and require maximum translation efficiency. Recent studies have shed light on the structural and functional changes undergone by the translational machinery in E. coli during heat and cold shock and upon entry into stationary phase. In these situations both the composition and the partitioning of this machinery into the different pools of cellular ribosomes are modified. As a result, the translational capacity of the cell is dramatically altered...
September 2008: EcoSal Plus
Lisa Fazzino, Kit Tilly, Daniel P Dulebohn, Patricia A Rosa
Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a zoonotic pathogen that survives in nutrient-limited environments within a tick, prior to transmission to its mammalian host. Survival under these prolonged nutrient-limited conditions is thought to be similar to survival during stationary phase, which is characterized by growth cessation and decreased protein production. Multiple ribosome-associated proteins are implicated in stationary-phase survival of Escherichia coli. These proteins include hibernation-promoting factor (HPF), which dimerizes ribosomes and prevents translation of mRNA...
December 2015: Infection and Immunity
Torsten Bullmann, Gudrun Seeger, Jens Stieler, János Hanics, Katja Reimann, Tanja Petra Kretzschmann, Isabel Hilbrich, Max Holzer, Alán Alpár, Thomas Arendt
The microtubule-associated protein tau, in its hyperphosphorylated form, is the major component of paired helical filaments and other aggregates in neurodegenerative disorders commonly referred to as "tauopathies". Recent evidence, however, indicates that mislocalization of hyperphosphorylated tau to subsynaptic sites leads to synaptic impairment and cognitive decline even long before formation of tau aggregates and neurodegeneration occur. A similar, but reversible hyperphosphorylation of tau occurs under physiologically controlled conditions during hibernation...
March 2016: Hippocampus
Miguel A Lanaspa, L Elaine Epperson, Nanxing Li, Christina Cicerchi, Gabriela E Garcia, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Jessica Trostel, Swati Jain, Colin T Mant, Christopher J Rivard, Takuji Ishimoto, Michiko Shimada, Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Takahiko Nakagawa, Alkesh Jani, Peter Stenvinkel, Sandra L Martin, Richard J Johnson
Hibernating animals develop fatty liver when active in summertime and undergo a switch to a fat oxidation state in the winter. We hypothesized that this switch might be determined by AMP and the dominance of opposing effects: metabolism through AMP deaminase (AMPD2) (summer) and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (winter). Liver samples were obtained from 13-lined ground squirrels at different times during the year, including summer and multiples stages of winter hibernation, and fat synthesis and β-fatty acid oxidation were evaluated...
2015: PloS One
Dharmesh Sabharwal, Tianyan Song, Kai Papenfort, Sun Nyunt Wai
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging regulatory elements in bacteria. The Vibrio cholerae sRNA VrrA has previously been shown to down-regulate outer membrane proteins (OmpA and OmpT) and biofilm matrix protein (RbmC) by base-pairing with the 5' region of the corresponding mRNAs. In this study, we present an additional target of VrrA in V. cholerae, the mRNA coding for the ribosome binding protein Vrp. Vrp is homologous to ribosome-associated inhibitor A (RaiA) of Escherichia coli which facilitates stationary phase survival through ribosome hibernation...
2015: RNA Biology
Bryan E Luu, Shannon N Tessier, Dianna L Duford, Kenneth B Storey
Hibernation is an adaptive strategy used by various mammals to survive the winter under situations of low ambient temperatures and limited or no food availability. The heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) has the remarkable ability to descend to low, near 0°C temperatures without falling into cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that the transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2-5 may play a role in cardioprotection by facilitating the expression of key downstream targets such as troponin I, troponin C, and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)...
2015: PloS One
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