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Philippe Desmarais, Catherine Miville, Ángela Milán-Tomás, Quoc Dinh Nguyen, Carmen Ojeda-López, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black, Danielle Molinari Andrade, Nathan Herrmann
OBJECTIVES: To analyze age representation trends over time in antiepileptic drug (AED) trials and to assess trial design elements as possible barriers to enrollment of elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, and meta-analyzed demographic data of cohorts enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of AEDs published since 1991. Data analysis included trends of age representation over time and trial design elements associated with average age of enrolled cohorts...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Débora Finger, Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Clarissa Müller Brusco, Lucas Helal, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. METHODS: , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Taner Arabaci, Mevlut Albayrak
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study to evaluate the contributions of titanium-prepared platelet-rich fibrin (T-PRF) combined with open flap debridement (OFD) on biological markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)and periodontal outcomes. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants with chronic periodontitis were treated either with autologous T-PRF+OFD or OFD alone. GCF growth factor levels and relative receptor activator nuclear factor kappa-B/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) ratio at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperatively were analyzed, and clinical parameters such as probing depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL) and gingival margin level (GML) at baseline and 9 months after surgery were compared...
March 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Myung Han Hyun, Young-Sun Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Chan Uk Lee, Young Kul Jung, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun
According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease treatment guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of surgery has been expanded beyond the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm. We compared primary hepatectomy (PH) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with intermediate to advanced (BCLC stage-B/C) stage HCC to determine the current evidence. Through database search, we included 18 high-quality studies (1 randomized controlled trial [RCT], 5 propensity-score matching non-randomized comparative trials [NRCT], and 12 NRCTs) that compared survival outcomes of 5,986 patients after PH and TACE...
March 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jeff M Michalski, Jennifer Moughan, James Purdy, Walter Bosch, Deborah W Bruner, Jean-Paul Bahary, Harold Lau, Marie Duclos, Matthew Parliament, Gerard Morton, Daniel Hamstra, Michael Seider, Michael I Lock, Malti Patel, Hiram Gay, Eric Vigneault, Kathryn Winter, Howard Sandler
Importance: Optimizing radiation therapy techniques for localized prostate cancer can affect patient outcomes. Dose escalation improves biochemical control, but no prior trials were powered to detect overall survival (OS) differences. Objective: To determine whether radiation dose escalation to 79.2 Gy compared with 70.2 Gy would improve OS and other outcomes in prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NRG Oncology/RTOG 0126 randomized clinical trial randomized 1532 patients from 104 North American Radiation Therapy Oncology Group institutions March 2002 through August 2008...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Franck Maunoury, Aurore Clément, Chizoba Nwankwo, Laurie Levy-Bachelot, Armand Abergel, Vincent Di Martino, Eric Thervet, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimen in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment. DESIGN: This study uses a health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating previously untreated and treatment experienced chronic hepatitis C patients who have severe and end stage renal disease with the elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen versus no treatment in the French context...
2018: PloS One
Ken Iseri, Masayuki Iyoda, Makoto Watanabe, Kei Matsumoto, Daisuke Sanada, Takashi Inoue, Shohei Tachibana, Takanori Shibata
INTRODUCTION: The clinical utility of denosumab for the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) has yet to be established. This study aimed to compare the effects of denosumab on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers to those of alendronate in patients with GIOP. METHODS: A prospective, single-center study of 32 patients (18 men; median age, 66.0 years) with glomerular disease receiving prednisolone (PSL) who were diagnosed as having GIOP and had not received bisphosphonates before was conducted...
2018: PloS One
Chen-Yi Liao, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Pauling Chu, Kuang-Yu Wei, Tseng-Min Feng, Fu-Huang Lin, Chang-Huei Tsao, Chia-Chao Wu, Wu-Chien Chien
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the risk of osteoporosis in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) using a nationwide population-based dataset. METHODS: In a cohort study of 986,713 individuals, we selected 2,493 PBC patients who were aged 18 years or older and had been diagnosed with PBC, based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) codes 571.6, during 20002010. The control cohort comprised 9,972 randomly selected, propensity matched patients (by age, gender, and index date), without PBC...
2018: PloS One
Leone de Voogd, Reinout W Wiers, Peter J de Jong, Robert J Zwitser, Elske Salemink
INTRODUCTION: Negatively biased interpretations play an important role in anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, and changing such biases might thus reduce or prevent emotional disorders. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of an online interpretation bias modification training in unselected adolescents to explore its potential in preventing anxiety and depression. METHODS: Participants (N = 173) were randomly allocated to eight online sessions of interpretation or placebo training...
2018: PloS One
Yefu Zhang, Meimei Ji, Jiaojiao Zou, Tong Yuan, Jing Deng, Lina Yang, Mingzhi Li, Hong Qin, Jihua Chen, Qian Lin
Left-behind children (LBC) are a unique population in China, whose numbers have increased dramatically in recent years. Most caregivers of left-behind children (CLBC) are grandparents who lack knowledge about proper nutrition and food practice, putting LBC at greater risk for malnutrition. A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried to assess the effectiveness of the conditional cash transfer (CCT) program. Forty rural villages from Fenghuang County and Pingjiang County of Hunan province were selected...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Han Sun, Xiong Zhang, Yacong Zhao, Yu Zhang, Xuefei Zhong, Zhaowen Fan
The novel human-computer interface (HCI) using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC) and Fisher discrimination (FD) criteria...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Peter Kranke, Sergio D Bergese, Harold S Minkowitz, Timothy I Melson, David G Leiman, Keith A Candiotti, Ngai Liu, Leopold Eberhart, Ashraf S Habib, Jan Wallenborn, Anthony L Kovac, Pierre Diemunsch, Gabriel Fox, Tong J Gan
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting causes distress for patients and can prolong care requirements. Consensus guidelines recommend use of multiple antiemetics from different mechanistic classes as prophylaxis in patients at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The prophylactic efficacy of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist amisulpride in combination with other antiemetics was investigated. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, international, multicenter trial was conducted in 1,147 adult surgical patients having three or four postoperative nausea and vomiting risk factors...
March 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
Wuxiang Xie, Fanfan Zheng, Evangelos Evangelou, Ou Liu, Zhenchun Yang, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Yangfeng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of five commonly used blood pressure-lowering drugs in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with nonacute cardiovascular disease, but without heart failure. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on 18 March 2017. The primary outcome was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, and the secondary outcomes were all-cause death, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Annie Liu, Alexis Botkin, Christian Murray, David Goldstein, Stefan O P Hofer, Nowell Solish, Jessica Kitchen, An-Wen Chan
BACKGROUND: Lentigo maligna is an in situ form of cutaneous melanoma that commonly arises on the head and neck. Various surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are available but no randomized trials exist to guide practice. OBJECTIVE: To determine the current treatment practices for lentigo maligna of the head and neck in Ontario, Canada. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and head and neck surgeons...
March 13, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Farzad Jalali, Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi
BACKGROUND: From one hand, depression is one of the symptoms that occur after abstinence from methamphetamine. On the other people living with HIV/AIDS are in isolation due to the nature of their illness and depression is one of the most common mental health problems they experience. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of saffron on reducing depression among recovered consumers of methamphetamine living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The design of this study was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control (placebo) groups...
March 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Stefanos Farfaras, Ninni Sernert, Lars Rostgard Christensen, Erling K Hallström, Jüri-Toomas Kartus
BACKGROUND: The long-term outcome after the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) with either nonsurgical or surgical methods has not been thoroughly investigated. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and the presence of rotator cuff injuries and osteoarthritis (OA) after the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of SAIS. The hypothesis was that, at a minimum 10 years after the initial treatment, patients who had undergone acromioplasty would have a better clinical outcome and run a lower risk of developing rotator cuff ruptures and OA as compared with those treated with physical therapy...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Christopher L Camp, Stan Conte, John D'Angelo, Stephen A Fealy, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in the annual number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions performed in amateur baseball pitchers. Accordingly, increasing numbers of players are entering professional baseball having already undergone the procedure; however, the effect of prior UCL reconstruction on future success remains unknown. PURPOSE: (1) To provide an epidemiologic report on baseball players who undergo UCL reconstruction before being selected in the Major League Baseball (MLB) Draft, (2) to define the outcomes in terms of statistical performance, and (3) to compare these results with those of matched controls (ie, non-UCL reconstruction)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Tine K Jensen, Tonje Holt, Silje Mørup Ormhaug, Krister W Fjermestad, Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with serious impairments in psychological, social, and academic functioning in youth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in posttraumatic cognitions mediate treatment effects. Participants were multitraumatized youth (N = 156, mean age = 15.1 years, range = 10-18; 79.5% girls) randomly assigned to receive trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Mixed-effects models were applied to investigate the impact of treatment conditions on posttraumatic cognitions...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
H-H Brackmann, G C White, E Berntorp, T Andersen, C Escuriola-Ettingshausen
Development of inhibitory antibodies to infused factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates continues to be the most serious complication of haemophilia A management. Induction of immune tolerance by administering high doses of FVIII concentrate (antigen) and prothrombin complex concentrates to control bleeding was originated in the 1970s in Bonn, Germany, by Dr Hans-Hermann Brackmann, and became known as the Bonn protocol. ITI transformed the life of the index patient, who was 19 years of age when he began treatment, and dramatically improved the medical landscape for all patients with haemophilia and inhibitors...
April 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Jeffrey T Sakamoto, Heather Burrell Ward, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Stephanie A Eucker
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Pain is a common complaint in the Emergency Department (ED). Its management currently depends heavily on pharmacologic treatment, but evidence suggests non-pharmacologic interventions may be beneficial. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether non-pharmacologic interventions in the ED are effective in reducing pain. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on all types of non-pharmacologic interventions in the ED with pain reduction as an outcome...
March 15, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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