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Elisa Albini, Verdiana Rosini, Marco Gargaro, Giada Mondanelli, Maria L Belladonna, Maria Teresa Pallotta, Claudia Volpi, Francesca Fallarino, Antonio Macchiarulo, Cinzia Antognelli, Roberta Bianchi, Carmine Vacca, Paolo Puccetti, Ursula Grohmann, Ciriana Orabona
The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyses the initial, rate-limiting step in tryptophan (Trp) degradation, resulting in tryptophan starvation and the production of immunoregulatory kynurenines. IDO1's catalytic function has long been considered as the one mechanism responsible for IDO1-dependent immune suppression by dendritic cells (DCs), which are master regulators of the balance between immunity and tolerance. However, IDO1 also harbours immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, (ITIM1 and ITIM2), that, once phosphorylated, bind protein tyrosine phosphatases, (SHP-1 and SHP-2), and thus trigger an immunoregulatory signalling in DCs...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Shardulendra Sherchand, Joyce A Ibana, Alison J Quayle, Ashok Aiyar
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that cannot synthesize several amino acids, including tryptophan. Rather, C. trachomatis acquires these essential metabolites from its human host cell. Chlamydial dependence on host-provided tryptophan underlies a major host defense mechanism against the bacterium; namely, the induction of the host tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO1) by interferon gamma (IFNγ), which leads to eradication of C. trachomatis by tryptophan starvation...
August 2016: Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology
Antonio Coluccia, Sara Passacantilli, Valeria Famiglini, Manuela Sabatino, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Rino Ragno, Carmela Mazzoccoli, Lorenza Sisinni, Alato Okuno, Osamu Takikawa, Romano Silvestri, Giuseppe La Regina
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Herein, we report a virtual screening study which led to the identification of compound 5 as a new IDO1 inhibitor. In order to improve the biological activity of the identified hit, arylthioindoles 6-30 were synthesized and tested. Among these, derivative 21 exhibited an IC50 value of 7 microM, being the most active compound of the series. Furthermore, compounds 5 and 21 induced a dose-dependent growth inhibition in IDO1 expressing cancer cell lines HTC116 and HT29...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ning Na, Yun Luo, Daqiang Zhao, Shicong Yang, Liangqing Hong, Heng Li, Bin Miao, Jiang Qiu
Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) are bone marrow-derived professional antigen-presenting cells, exhibit very low levels of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1), CD86 (B7-2), and CD40 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and play a critical role in triggering antigen-specific immunotolerance. The enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a cytosolic tryptophan catabolism rate-limiting step enzyme. IDO secreted by DCs shows an association with the suppression of T-cell responses and promotion of tolerance...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Immunology
D Fumagalli, T R Wilson, R Salgado, X Lu, J Yu, C O'Brien, K Walter, L Y Huw, C Criscitiello, I Laios, V Jose, D N Brown, F Rothé, M Maetens, D Zardavas, P Savas, D Larsimont, M J Piccart-Gebhart, S Michiels, M R Lackner, C Sotiriou, S Loi
BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers (BCs) constitute the most frequent BC subtype. The molecular landscape of ER+ relapsed disease is not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to describe the genomic evolution between primary (P) and matched metastatic (M) ER+ BCs after failure of adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 182 ER+ metastatic BC patients with long-term follow-up were identified from a single institution. P tumor tissue was available for all patients, with 88 having matched M material...
October 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Lay Khoon Too, Kong M Li, Cacang Suarna, Ghassan J Maghzal, Roland Stocker, Iain S McGregor, Nicholas H Hunt
This article demonstrates behavioral changes in mice in response to free adaptation and drinking session adaptation modules implemented in their social home environment, the IntelliCage. These data complement the study "Deletion of TDO2, IDO-1 and IDO-2 differentially affects mouse behavior and cognitive function" (Too LK, Li KM, Suarna C, Maghzal GJ, Stocker R, McGregor IS, et al., 2016) [1]. Prior to programmed drinking sessions, all mice were exposed to a home cage adaptation module during which there was no time limit on water access - the free adaptation module...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Jaya Prakash Chalise, Maria Teresa Pallotta, Sudeep Chenna Narendra, Björn Carlsson, Alberta Iacono, Joanitah Namale, Louis Boon, Ursula Grohmann, Mattias Magnusson
IFN-α prevents Ag-induced arthritis (AIA), and in this study we investigated the role of IDO1 and TGF-β signaling for this anti-inflammatory property of IFN-α. Arthritis was induced by methylated BSA (mBSA) in mBSA-sensitized wild-type (WT), Ido1(-/-), or Ifnar(-/-) mice, treated or not with IFN-α or the IDO1 product kynurenine (Kyn). Enzymatic IDO1 activity, TGF-β, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were neutralized by 1-methyltryptophan and Abs against TGF-β and pDC, respectively. IDO1 expression was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot, and FACS, and enzymatic activity by HPLC...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Melissa Kane, Trinity M Zang, Suzannah J Rihn, Fengwen Zhang, Tonya Kueck, Mudathir Alim, John Schoggins, Charles M Rice, Sam J Wilson, Paul D Bieniasz
Interferons (IFNs) exert their anti-viral effects by inducing the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The activity of known ISGs is insufficient to account for the antiretroviral effects of IFN, suggesting that ISGs with antiretroviral activity are yet to be described. We constructed an arrayed library of ISGs from rhesus macaques and tested the ability of hundreds of individual macaque and human ISGs to inhibit early and late replication steps for 11 members of the retroviridae from various host species...
September 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Sudhir Kumar, Jiang Wang, Angus W Thomson, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi
Immunosuppressive, naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box p3(+) (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (nTregs) offer potential for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. However, potential instability of ex vivo-expanded nTregs following their adoptive transfer may be a significant limitation. LPS-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce expansion and enhance the suppressive function and stability of allogeneic nTregs We aimed to delineate mechanisms underlying HSC-induced expansion and increased potency of nTregs HSCs and nTregs were isolated from mouse livers and spleens, respectively...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
I-Chien Chen, Kuen-Haur Lee, Ying-Hua Hsu, Wei-Ran Wang, Chuan-Mu Chen, Ya-Wen Cheng
Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients...
2016: Disease Markers
Josephine F Trott, Jeffrey Kim, Omran Abu Aboud, Hiromi Wettersten, Benjamin Stewart, Grace Berryhill, Francisco Uzal, Russell C Hovey, Ching-Hsien Chen, Katie Anderson, Ashley Graef, Aaron L Sarver, Jaime F Modiano, Robert H Weiss
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasing in incidence, and a complete cure remains elusive. While immune-checkpoint antibodies are promising, interferon-based immunotherapy has been disappointing. Tryptophan metabolism, which produces immunosuppressive metabolites, is enhanced in RCC. Here we show indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) expression, a kynurenine pathway enzyme, is increased not only in tumor cells but also in the microenvironment of human RCC compared to normal kidney tissues. Neither kynurenine metabolites nor IDO inhibitors affected the survival or proliferation of human RCC or murine renal cell adenocarcinoma (RENCA) cells in vitro...
August 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Francesco Antonio Greco, Answald Bournique, Alice Coletti, Chiara Custodi, Daniela Dolciami, Andrea Carotti, Antonio Macchiarulo
In the last decade, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) has attracted a great deal of attention being recognized as key regulator of immunosuppressive pathways in the tumor immuno-editing process. Several classes of inhibitors have been developed as potential anticancer agents, but only few of them have advanced in clinical trials. Hence, the quest of novel potent and selective inhibitors of the enzyme is still active and mostly pursued by structure-based drug design strategies based on early and more recent crystal structures of IDO1...
September 2016: Molecular Informatics
Hajime J Yuasa
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the pyrrole ring of l-Trp to generate N-formyl-kynurenine. Two IDO genes, IDO1 and IDO2, are found in vertebrates. Mammalian IDO1s are high-affinity, l-Trp-degrading enzymes, whereas IDO2s generally have a relatively low affinity. It has been suggested that the distal-Ser (corresponding to Ser167 of human IDO1) was crucial for improvement in the affinity for l-Trp but this idea was insufficient to explain the high affinity shown by mammalian IDO1...
October 2016: FEBS Journal
Margaret N Kosek, Estomih Mduma, Peter S Kosek, Gwenyth O Lee, Erling Svensen, William K Y Pan, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Jay H Bream, Crystal Patil, Cesar Ramal Asayag, Graciela Meza Sanchez, Laura E Caulfield, Jean Gratz, Pablo Peñataro Yori
Early childhood enteric infections have adverse impacts on child growth and can inhibit normal mucosal responses to oral vaccines, two critical components of environmental enteropathy. To evaluate the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) activity and its relationship with these outcomes, we measured tryptophan and the kynurenine-tryptophan ratio (KTR) in two longitudinal birth cohorts with a high prevalence of stunting. Children in rural Peru and Tanzania (N = 494) contributed 1,251 plasma samples at 3, 7, 15, and 24 months of age and monthly anthropometrics from 0 to 36 months of age...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Erik Ladomersky, Lijie Zhai, Galina Gritsina, Matthew Genet, Kristen L Lauing, Meijing Wu, C David James, Derek A Wainwright
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with an average age of 64 years at the time of diagnosis. To study GBM, a number of mouse brain tumor models have been utilized. In these animal models, subjects tend to range from 6 to 12 weeks of age, which is analogous to that of a human teenager. Here, we examined the impact of age on host immunity and the gene expression associated with immune evasion in immunocompetent mice engrafted with syngeneic intracranial GL261. The data indicate that, in mice with brain tumors, youth conveys an advantage to survival...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Juanjuan Li, Yang Li, Dan Yang, Nan Hu, Zhanling Guo, Chunxiang Kuang, Qing Yang
As an analogue of IDO1 (indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1), the well-known new therapeutic target, IDO2 is receiving increased attention. Herein, the expression and purification of recombinant human IDO2 (hIDO2) and the establishment of a hIDO2 bioassay system on both enzymatic and cellular levels are described. Nine tryptanthrin derivatives were screened for potential hIDO2 inhibitory activities, and their Ki values, enzymatic and cellular IC50 values, as well as the types of inhibition were measured. The typtanthrin derivatives 5i, 5c and 5d (especially 5i) were found to be potent hIDO2 inhibitors with superior efficiency far better than that of the most frequently-used inhibitor L-1-MT...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Aitziber Buqué, Norma Bloy, Fernando Aranda, Isabelle Cremer, Alexander Eggermont, Wolf Hervé Fridman, Jitka Fucikova, Jérôme Galon, Radek Spisek, Eric Tartour, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Progressing malignancies establish robust immunosuppressive networks that operate both systemically and locally. In particular, as tumors escape immunosurveillance, they recruit increasing amounts of myeloid and lymphoid cells that exert pronounced immunosuppressive effects. These cells not only prevent the natural recognition of growing neoplasms by the immune system, but also inhibit anticancer immune responses elicited by chemo-, radio- and immuno therapeutic interventions. Throughout the past decade, multiple strategies have been devised to counteract the accumulation or activation of tumor-infiltrating immunosuppressive cells for therapeutic purposes...
June 2016: Oncoimmunology
Ute F Röhrig, Somi Reddy Majjigapu, Daniela Caldelari, Nahzli Dilek, Patrick Reichenbach, Kelly Ascencao, Melita Irving, George Coukos, Pierre Vogel, Vincent Zoete, Olivier Michielin
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve immune escape such as cancer. In contrast to IDO1, only a very limited number of inhibitors have been described for IDO2 due to inherent difficulties in expressing and purifying a functionally active, soluble form of the enzyme. Starting from our previously discovered highly efficient 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazole IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we used computational structure-based methods to design inhibitors of IDO2 which we then tested in cellular assays...
September 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jason Boer, Ruth Young-Sciame, Fiona Lee, Kevin J Bowman, Xiaoqing Yang, Jack G Shi, Frank M Nedza, William Frietze, Laurine Galya, Andrew P Combs, Swamy Yeleswaram, Sharon Diamond
Epacadostat (EPA, INCB024360) is a first-in-class, orally active, investigational drug targeting the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). In Phase I studies, EPA has demonstrated promising clinical activity when used in combination with checkpoint modulators. When the metabolism of EPA was investigated in humans, three major, IDO1-inactive, circulating plasma metabolites were detected and characterized: M9, a direct O-glucuronide of EPA; M11, an amidine; and M12, N-dealkylated M11. Glucuronidation of EPA to form M9 is the dominant metabolic pathway, and in vitro, this metabolite is formed by UGT1A9...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Vinay Dhiman, Kalpesh Kumar Giri, Suresh P S, Mohd Zainuddin, Sriram Rajagopal, Ramesh Mullangi
A sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of epacadostat in mice plasma using tolbutamide as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Sample preparation was accomplished through a protein precipitation. Chromatographic separation was performed on Atlantis dC18 column using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (acetonitrile) and B (0.2% formic acid in water) at a flow rate of 0.90 mL/min. Elution of epacadostat and IS occurred at ~2...
July 23, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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