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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877735/priming-astrocytes-with-tnf-enhances-their-susceptibility-to-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-and-creates-a-self-sustaining-inflammatory-milieu
#1
Andrea Alice Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Silva, Daniel Gibaldi, Rafael Meyer Mariante, Jessica Brandão Dos Santos, Isabela Resende Pereira, Otacílio Cruz Moreira, Joseli Lannes-Vieira
BACKGROUND: In conditions of immunosuppression, the central nervous sty 5ystem (CNS) is the main target tissue for the reactivation of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In experimental T. cruzi infection, interferon gamma (IFNγ)(+) microglial cells surround astrocytes harboring amastigote parasites. In vitro, IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi, and IFNγ-stimulated infected astrocytes are implicated as potential sources of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871264/neuroinflammation-bone-marrow-stem-cells-and-chronic-pain
#2
REVIEW
Yul Huh, Ru-Rong Ji, Gang Chen
Current treatments for chronic pain, such as inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, and cancer pain are insufficient and cause severe side effects. Mounting evidence suggests that neuroinflammation in the peripheral and central nervous system (PNS and CNS) plays a pivotal role in the genesis and maintenance of chronic pain. Characteristic features of neuroinflammation in chronic pain conditions include infiltration of immune cells into the PNS [e.g., the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG)], activation of glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes in the CNS (spinal cord and brain), and production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [TNF, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL1]...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813640/innate-immune-signaling-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-contributes-to-drug-primed-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking
#3
Kyle T Brown, Sophia C Levis, Casey E O'Neill, Alexis L Northcutt, Timothy J Fabisiak, Linda R Watkins, Ryan K Bachtell
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by persistent perturbations to an organism's homeostatic processes that result in maladaptive drug seeking. Although considerable attention has been directed at the consequences of neuronal changes following chronic cocaine taking, few studies have examined the role of microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, following chronic cocaine administration. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) is a molecular pattern receptor that recognizes pathogens, danger signals, and xenobiotics and induces proinflammatory signaling in the central nervous system...
August 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808187/g-aminobutyric-acid-promotes-methionine-choline-deficient-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
Yoon Seok Roh, Ara Cho, Zixiong Zhou, Hyuneui Jeong, Jeong-Eun Park, Youn-Soo Cha, Suk-Heung Oh, Chae-Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795439/g-protein-coupled-receptor-37-like-1-modulates-astrocyte-glutamate-transporters-and-neuronal-nmda-receptors-and-is-neuroprotective-in-ischemia
#5
Sarah Jolly, Narges Bazargani, Alejandra C Quiroga, Nigel P Pringle, David Attwell, William D Richardson, Huiliang Li
We show that the G protein-coupled receptor GPR37-like 1 (GPR37L1) is expressed in most astrocytes and some oligodendrocyte precursors in the mouse central nervous system. This contrasts with GPR37, which is mainly in mature oligodendrocytes. Comparison of wild type and Gpr37l1(-/-) mice showed that loss of GPR37L1 did not affect the input resistance or resting potential of astrocytes or neurons in the hippocampus. However, GPR37L1-mediated signalling inhibited astrocyte glutamate transporters and - surprisingly, given its lack of expression in neurons - reduced neuronal NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity during prolonged activation of the receptors as occurs in ischemia...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740186/carotid-sinus-nerve-electrical-stimulation-in-conscious-rats-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-via-chemoreceptor-activation
#6
Fernanda Machado Santos-Almeida, Gean Domingos-Souza, César A Meschiari, Laura Campos Fávaro, Christiane Becari, Jaci A Castania, Alexandre Lopes, Thiago M Cunha, Davi J A Moraes, Fernando Q Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro, Geisa C S V Tezini, Helio C Salgado
Recent studies demonstrated a critical functional connection between the autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) nervous and the immune systems. The carotid sinus nerve (CSN) conveys electrical signals from the chemoreceptors of the carotid bifurcation to the central nervous system where the stimuli are processed to activate sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent signals. Here, we reported that chemoreflex activation via electrical CSN stimulation, in conscious rats, controls the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide attenuating the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739640/egcg-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-by-regulating-the-irs-akt-and-erk-creb-bdnf
#7
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Rong Fan, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Yuqi Gao, Xuebo Liu
Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738820/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-attenuates-microglial-induced-inflammation-by-inhibiting-the-hmgb1-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Xiangrong Chen, Shukai Wu, Chunnuan Chen, Baoyuan Xie, Zhongning Fang, Weipeng Hu, Junyan Chen, Huangde Fu, Hefan He
BACKGROUND: Microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response in the central nervous system play important roles in secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an important mediator in late inflammatory responses, interacts with transmembrane receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate downstream signaling pathways, such as the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway, leading to a cascade amplification of inflammatory responses, which are related to neuronal damage after TBI...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714025/effect-of-ccl2-sirna-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-the-u251-human-glioma-cell-line
#9
Bin Lu, Yue Zhou, Zhongzhou Su, Ai Yan, Peng Ding
Glioma is one of the most common types of tumor of the central nervous system. Increased expression of C‑C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) has previously been observed in various types of cancer. The effect of CCL2 small interfering (si)RNA on the proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis of the glioma cell line U251 was investigated in the present study. Data on CCL2 expression in glioma and normal tissues were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A total of 30 patients with glioma were enrolled in the present study...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687727/alpha-2-na-k-atpase-silencing-induces-loss-of-inflammatory-response-and-ouabain-protection-in-glial-cells
#10
Paula F Kinoshita, Lidia M Yshii, Ana Maria M Orellana, Amanda G Paixão, Andrea R Vasconcelos, Larissa de Sá Lima, Elisa M Kawamoto, Cristoforo Scavone
Ouabain (OUA) is a cardiac glycoside that binds to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA), a conserved membrane protein that controls cell transmembrane ionic concentrations and requires ATP hydrolysis. At nM concentrations, OUA activates signaling pathways that are not related to its typical inhibitory effect on the NKA pump. Activation of these signaling pathways protects against some types of injury of the kidneys and central nervous system. There are 4 isoforms of the alpha subunit of NKA, which are differentially distributed across tissues and may have different physiological roles...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680855/p21-activated-kinase-4-signaling-promotes-japanese-encephalitis-virus-mediated-inflammation-in-astrocytes
#11
Wen He, Zikai Zhao, Awais Anees, Yunchuan Li, Usama Ashraf, Zheng Chen, Yunfeng Song, Huanchun Chen, Shengbo Cao, Jing Ye
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) targets central nervous system, resulting in neuroinflammation with typical features of neuronal death along with hyper activation of glial cells. Exploring the mechanisms responsible for the JEV-caused inflammatory response remains a pivotal area of research. In the present study, we have explored the function of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) in JEV-mediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes. The results showed that JEV infection enhances the phosphorylation of PAK4 in U251 cells and mouse brain...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680530/mir-let7a-controls-the-cell-death-and-tight-junction-density-of-brain-endothelial-cells-under-high-glucose-condition
#12
Juhyun Song, So Ra Yoon, Oh Yoen Kim
Hyperglycemia-induced stress in the brain of patients with diabetes triggers the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to diverse neurological diseases including stroke and dementia. Recently, the role of microRNA becomes an interest in the research for deciphering the mechanism of brain endothelial cell damage under hyperglycemia. Therefore, we investigated whether mircoRNA Let7A (miR-Let7A) controls the damage of brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells against high glucose condition. Cell viability, cell death marker expressions (p-53, Bax, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase), the loss of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and claudin-5), proinflammatory response (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrite production were confirmed using MTT, reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Griess reagent assay...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677369/propofol-attenuates-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-up-regulation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-microglia-through-inhibiting-the-activation-of-nf-b%C3%AE%C2%BA-p38-mapk-signalling
#13
Song Liu, Jin-Yuan Sun, Lian-Ping Ren, Kui Chen, Bo Xu
<i>As immune sentinels of the central nervous system (CNS), microglia is pivotal cellular mediator of neuroinflammatory processes. Activation of microglia might elicit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the progression of neuroinflammatory diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has an effective anti-inflammatory property. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), as a result of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), could lead to neuron damage and neuroinflammation in the CNS...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674491/microglial-activation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-huntington-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Hui-Ming Yang, Su Yang, Shan-Shan Huang, Bei-Sha Tang, Ji-Feng Guo
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG trinucleotide repeats (>36) in exon 1 of HTT gene that encodes huntingtin protein. Although HD is characterized by a predominant loss of neurons in the striatum and cortex, previous studies point to a critical role of aberrant accumulation of mutant huntingtin in microglia that contributes to the progressive neurodegeneration in HD, through both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673004/puerarin-prevents-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-of-pc12-cells-via-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#15
Feng Liang, Shenggao Xie
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a potential proinflammatory cytokine, is an important component involved in neuronal apoptosis associated with neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. It has been reported that puerarin possesses pharmacological effects, such as anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, anti-osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of puerarin on apoptosis induced by TNF-α (3×10(5) U/l) and its detailed mechanisms in PC12 cells...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666870/a-novel-role-for-earthworm-peptide-lumbricusin-as-a-regulator-of-neuroinflammation
#16
Minchul Seo, Joon Ha Lee, Minhee Baek, Mi-Ae Kim, Mi-Young Ahn, Seong Hyun Kim, Eun-Young Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang
Recently, we reported that Lumbricusin, an antimicrobial peptide isolated from earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, enhanced neuronal proliferation and ameliorated motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is the primary pathological feature of acute or chronic inflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage of the central nervous system. Therefore, microglial activation inhibitors may be useful as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656176/a-three-dimensional-cell-culture-system-to-model-rna-virus-infections-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#17
John C Bramley, Coyne G Drummond, Nicholas J Lennemann, Charles A Good, Kwang Sik Kim, Carolyn B Coyne
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) comprises the foremost protective barrier in the brain and is composed in part of a layer of microvascular endothelial cells that line the capillaries surrounding the brain. Here, we describe a human three-dimensional (3-D) cell-based model of the BBB microvascular endothelium that recapitulates properties of these cells in vivo, including physiologically relevant transcriptional profiles, the capacity to induce potent antimicrobial innate immune signaling, and the ability to resist infection by diverse RNA viruses, including members of the enterovirus (coxsackievirus B, echovirus 11, enterovirus 71, poliovirus) and flavivirus (dengue virus, Zika virus [ZIKV]) families...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646884/the-increased-concentration-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-tick-borne-encephalitis
#18
Sambor Grygorczuk, Miłosz Parczewski, Renata Świerzbińska, Piotr Czupryna, Anna Moniuszko, Justyna Dunaj, Maciej Kondrusik, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Host factors determining the clinical presentation of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are not fully elucidated. The peripheral inflammatory response to TBE virus is hypothesized to facilitate its entry into central nervous system by disrupting the blood-brain barrier with the involvement of a signaling route including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and pro-inflammatory cytokines macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646196/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-nrtis-induce-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-cns-via-wnt5a-signaling
#19
Ting Wu, Juan Zhang, Mingxing Geng, Shao-Jun Tang, Wenping Zhang, Jianhong Shu
HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, patients staying on long-term HAART still develop various HIV-associated neurological disorders, even when the viral load is low. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Emerging evidence implicated that persistent neuroinflammation plays an important role in NeuroAIDS. Although residual virus or viral proteins are commonly thought as the causal factors, we are interested in the alternative possibility that HAART critically contributes to the neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619678/april-taci-axis-is-dispensable-for-the-immune-response-to-rabies-vaccination
#20
Shannon L Haley, Evgeni P Tzvetkov, Andrew G Lytle, Kishore R Alugupalli, Joseph R Plummer, James P McGettigan
There is significant need to develop a single-dose rabies vaccine to replace the current multi-dose rabies vaccine regimen and eliminate the requirement for rabies immune globulin in post-exposure settings. To accomplish this goal, rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines must rapidly activate B cells to secrete antibodies which neutralize pathogenic RABV before it enters the CNS. Increased understanding of how B cells effectively respond to RABV-based vaccines may improve efforts to simplify post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens...
August 2017: Antiviral Research
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