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Veteran PTSD War Veterans

Miriam Reisman
More than a decade of war in the Middle East has pushed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to the forefront of public health concerns. The author defines the disorder and discusses risk factors, treatments, and the barriers to effective care.
October 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Garen A Collett, Kangwon Song, Carlos A Jaramillo, Jennifer S Potter, Erin P Finley, Mary Jo Pugh
BACKGROUND: The increase in the quantities of central nervous system (CNS)-acting medications prescribed has coincided with increases in overdose mortality, suicide-related behaviors, and unintentional deaths in military personnel deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Data on the extent and impact of prescribing multiple CNS drugs among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAVs) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the characteristics of IAVs with CNS polypharmacy and examine the association of CNS polypharmacy with drug overdose and suicide-related behaviors controlling for known risk factors...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Gadi Zerach, Yossi Levi-Belz, Menucha Michelson, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVES: The associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicidal ideation (SI) among ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) has recently been exemplified. Several studies have revealed the toll of war captivity in the secondary traumatization (ST) of ex-POWs' wives. This study aimed to assess SI among ex-POWs' wives and the longitudinal associations between their husbands' PTSD and their own ST. METHOD: A sample of 233 Israeli couples (142 ex-POW couples and a comparison group of 91 veteran couples) completed self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, SI, and depression at two time points: T1 (2003) and T2 (2008), 30 and 37 years after the 1973 Yom Kippur War...
2016: Psychiatry
Navid Ghaffarzadegan, Alireza Ebrahimvandi, Mohammad S Jalali
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD...
2016: PloS One
Avigal Snir, Liat Itzhaky, Zahava Solomon
Inspired by the two-stage model of countervailing forces, we explored the mechanism underlining inward and outward aggression among ex-combatants. Israeli veterans (N = 230) reported their partner's violence (outward aggression), suicidal ideation (inward aggression), aggressive impulses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), paranoid ideation and guilt. Suicidal ideation was related to aggressive impulses only in the presence of PTSD, or under high guilt; whereas paranoid ideation buffered these effects...
September 27, 2016: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Daniel Lindqvist, Firdaus S Dhabhar, Synthia H Mellon, Rachel Yehuda, S Marlene Grenon, Janine D Flory, Linda M Bierer, Duna Abu-Amara, Michelle Coy, Iouri Makotkine, Victor I Reus, F Saverio Bersani, Charles R Marmar, Owen M Wolkowitz
INTRODUCTION: Several lines of evidence indicate that increased inflammation is associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We have previously reported that peripheral inflammatory markers are significantly higher in combat-exposed veterans with than without PTSD. This study was designed to replicate these findings in a new study cohort using the same population and recruitment strategies. METHODS: Sixty-one male war veterans (31 PTSD and 30 control subjects) were included in this replication study...
September 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Shelly Nicolai, Gadi Zerach, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVES: This prospective study aims to assess the role of fathers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PTSS), the course of these symptoms over the years, and the relationship between these symptoms and their adult offspring's own PTSS and level of differentiation of self. METHOD: A sample of 123 Israeli father-child dyads (79 ex-prisoners of war [ex-POWs] dyads and a comparison group of 44 veterans' dyads) completed self-report measures. The fathers participated in 2 waves of measurements (1991 and 2008), while the offspring took part in 2013-2014...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Paul A Dennis, Nora M Dennis, Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Involvement in wartime combat often conveys a number of deleterious outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, hostility aggression, and suicidal ideation. Less studied is the effect of engagement in wartime atrocities, including witnessing and perpetrating abusive violence. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed path analysis to examine the direct effects of involvement in wartime atrocities on hostility, aggression, depression, and suicidal ideation independent of combat exposure, as well as the indirect effects via guilt and PTSD symptom severity among 603 help-seeking male Vietnam War veterans...
August 31, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Tsung-Yang Wang, Han-Ting Wei, Ying-Jay Liou, Tung-Ping Su, Ya-Mei Bai, Shih-Jen Tsai, Albert C Yang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Chia-Fen Tsai, Mu-Hong Chen
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggested a relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the specific population (i.e., war survivors and veterans) and subsequent dementia risk. However, whether patients with PTSD in the general population were at an increased risk for developing dementia in later life remained unclear. METHODS: The Cox regression analysis was performed using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study sample comprised 1750 patients diagnosed with PTSD between 2001 and 2009 and 7000 age-/sex-matched individuals without PTSD...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Thomas J Yager, Nicole Gerszberg, Bruce P Dohrenwend
This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Marpe Bam, Xiaoming Yang, Elizabeth E Zumbrun, Yin Zhong, Juhua Zhou, Jay P Ginsberg, Quinne Leyden, Jiajia Zhang, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Post-traumatic stress disorder patients experience chronic systemic inflammation. However, the molecular pathways involved and mechanisms regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammatory pathways in PTSD are reported inadequately. Through RNA sequencing and miRNA microarray, we identified 326 genes and 190 miRNAs that were significantly different in their expression levels in the PBMCs of PTSD patients. Expression pairing of the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs indicated an inverse relationship in their expression...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amarnath Yennu, Fenghua Tian, Alexa Smith-Osborne, Robert J Gatchel, Fu Lye Woon, Hanli Liu
Studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing attentional deficits have implicated abnormal activities in the frontal lobe. In this study, we utilized multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate selective attention-related hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex among 15 combat-exposed war-zone veterans with PTSD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. While performing the incongruent Stroop task, healthy controls showed significant activations in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) compared to baseline readings...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mattia I Gerin, Harlan Fichtenholtz, Alicia Roy, Christopher J Walsh, John H Krystal, Steven Southwick, Michelle Hampson
Many patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially war veterans, do not respond to available treatments. Here, we describe a novel neurofeedback (NF) intervention using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging for treating and studying PTSD. The intervention involves training participants to control amygdala activity after exposure to personalized trauma scripts. Three combat veterans with chronic PTSD participated in this feasibility study. All three participants tolerated well the NF training...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Nathan A Kimbrel, Bryann B DeBeer, Eric C Meyer, Suzy B Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
The present study examined the association between history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and history of suicide attempts (SA) among 292 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, half of whom carried a lifetime diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consistent with hypotheses, veterans who reported a history of NSSI were significantly more likely to report a history of SA than veterans without a history of NSSI. In addition, logistic regression demonstrated that NSSI remained a significant predictor of SA even after a wide range of covariates (i...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Mary R Newsome, Andrew R Mayer, Xiaodi Lin, Maya Troyanskaya, George R Jackson, Randall S Scheibel, Annette Walder, Ajithraj Sathiyaraj, Elisabeth A Wilde, Shalini Mukhi, Brian A Taylor, Harvey S Levin
OBJECTIVES: Blast explosions are the most frequent mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in recent wars, but little is known about their long-term effects. METHODS: Functional connectivity (FC) was measured in 17 veterans an average of 5.46 years after their most serious blast related TBI, and in 15 demographically similar veterans without TBI or blast exposure. Subcortical FC was measured in bilateral caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. The default mode and fronto-parietal networks were also investigated...
July 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Kanaklakshmi Masodkar, Justine Johnson, Michael J Peterson
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obesity are on the rise, and evidence continues to support the observation that individuals who have symptoms of PTSD are more likely to develop obesity in their lifetime. The incidence of obesity in individuals with PTSD, including war veterans, women, and children exposed to trauma, is not solely attributable to psychotropic medications, but actual pathophysiologic mechanisms have not been fully delineated. Additionally, there are no studies to date demonstrating that obese individuals are predisposed to developing PTSD compared to the general population...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
James R Couch, Kenneth E Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the extent and severity of headache following deployment-related TBI (D-TBI) in veterans of the Iraq (OIF) and Afghanistan (OEF) wars over a follow-up period of 4-11 years with comparison to age, sex, race, and time of deployment matched controls. BACKGROUND: TBI has been recognized as the "signature Injury" of the OEF/OIF campaigns occurring in 14-20% of deployed soldiers. Currently, there are very few data on the longer term follow-up of soldiers with D-TBI...
June 2016: Headache
Zhewu Wang, Howard Mandel, Corinne A Levingston, M Rita I Young
Studies have suggested PTSD to be associated with an inflammatory state, although few studies have examined the balances between stimulatory and inhibitory immune mediators in PTSD. An exploratory approach was taken to assess the immune imbalances between Th1 stimulatory, inflammatory and inhibitory mediators associated with PTSD. This approach focused on a tightly-controlled and relatively homogeneous population of Veterans, all with similar levels of combat exposure in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, but some testing negative and others testing positive for PTSD...
August 2016: Human Immunology
Chia-Lin Ho, William E Schlenger, Richard A Kulka, Charles R Marmar
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been regarded as a signature injury of war and elevated to one of the major behavioral health problems faced by military service members and veterans deployed to warzones. In PTSD diagnosis, self-report measures have often been used with a cutoff score to identify those with an elevated likelihood of having PTSD prior to conducting a second-tier diagnostic interview. With an attempt to guide the selection of cutoffs in self-report PTSD measures for various purposes, this study examined how five common criteria for establishing an optimal cutoff influenced the performance of self-report measures for warzone PTSD in relation to the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) and whether the influence differed for the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD...
May 16, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Gennifer Furst
A grassroots movement of nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations is creating programs in which incarcerated individuals train rescued shelter dogs as therapeutic canines for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Driven in part by reports of Veterans not receiving adequate treatment for PTSD, the programs are the latest iteration of prison-based animal programs and are founded on the principles of animal therapy and healing powers of animals. The far-reaching and deleterious collateral consequences of PTSD create social and economic burdens on the country; providing beneficial interventions for Veterans is a pressing social problem...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
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