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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427008/lateral-hypothalamic-circuits-for-sleep-wake-control
#1
REVIEW
Takayuki Yamashita, Akihiro Yamanaka
The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the diencephalon is crucially involved in controlling instinctive behavior such as sleep-wake cycle and feeding behavior. LHA is a heterogeneous structure that contains spatially intermingled, genetically distinct cell populations. Among LHA neurons, orexin/hypocretin (OX) neuron is the key cell type that promotes waking, and specific loss of OX neurons results in narcolepsy. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) containing neurons are known to be active during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stimulation of these neurons promotes REM sleep...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396432/serotonin-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-mediate-the-anticataplectic-action-of-orexin-neurons-by-reducing-amygdala-activity
#2
Emi Hasegawa, Takashi Maejima, Takayuki Yoshida, Olivia A Masseck, Stefan Herlitze, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Takeshi Sakurai, Michihiro Mieda
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons and marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and a sudden weakening of muscle tone, or cataplexy, often triggered by strong emotions. In a mouse model for narcolepsy, we previously demonstrated that serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) mediate the suppression of cataplexy-like episodes (CLEs) by orexin neurons. Using an optogenetic tool, in this paper we show that the acute activation of DRN serotonin neuron terminals in the amygdala, but not in nuclei involved in regulating rapid eye-movement sleep and atonia, suppressed CLEs...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366327/underutilization-of-the-mslt-in-sleepy-patients-with-a-short-onset-rem-period-soremp-in-the-sleep-clinic
#3
Alyssa Cairns, Richard Bogan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: A nocturnal sleep onset REM period (defined as REM onset latency ≤ 15 min; SOREMP) occurs rarely and research has shown that the phenomenon is specific for type 1 and 2 narcolepsy. However, little is known about the meaningfulness of the phenotype in general sleep clinic patients because those that exhibit the phenomenon often present with few traditional narcolepsy symptoms. As such, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the rate of eventual MSLT testing for those with a SOREMP on routine PSG when the phenomenon occurred in the absence of potential explanatory factors and (2) quantify the stability of the SOREMP phenotype...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329117/muscle-activity-during-sleep-in-human-subjects-rats-and-mice-towards-translational-models-of-rem-sleep-without-atonia
#4
Alessandro Silvani, Raffaele Ferri, Viviana Lo Martire, Stefano Bastianini, Chiara Berteotti, Agnese Salvadè, Giuseppe Plazzi, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Claudio L Bassetti, Mauro Manconi, Giovanna Zoccoli
Study Objectives: rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) is a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and is common in narcolepsy. Available techniques for electromyogram (EMG) analysis are species-specific, limiting translational research on RSWA. We developed an automated technique based on distributions of normalized EMG values (DNE) to overcome this limitation. With DNE, we tested whether the control of neck and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during sleep in wild-type rats and mice validly models the control of submentalis (chin) and TA muscles in healthy humans...
February 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326118/spectral-analysis-of-polysomnography-in-narcolepsy
#5
Seok Ho Yun, Ho Dong Choi, Wan Seok Seo
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify differences between people with narcolepsy and the normal control of delta and theta activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) spectrum analysis of nocturnal polysomnography (PSG). METHODS: Seven narcolepsy patients and seven age-sex matched normal controls underwent PSG and multiple sleep latency tests. Participants' non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep EEGs in PSG was analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform technique...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219726/diagnostic-value-of-sleep-stage-dissociation-as-visualized-on-a-2-dimensional-sleep-state-space-in-human-narcolepsy
#6
Anders Vinther Olsen, Jens Stephansen, Eileen Leary, Paul E Peppard, Hong Sheungshul, Poul Jørgen Jennum, Helge Sorensen, Emmanuel Mignot
BACKGROUND: Type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) is characterized by symptoms believed to represent Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep stage dissociations, occurrences where features of wake and REM sleep are intermingled, resulting in a mixed state. We hypothesized that sleep stage dissociations can be objectively detected through the analysis of nocturnal Polysomnography (PSG) data, and that those affecting REM sleep can be used as a diagnostic feature for narcolepsy. NEW METHOD: A Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model using 38 features extracted from EOG, EMG and EEG was used in control subjects to select features differentiating wake, stage N1, N2, N3 and REM sleep...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123336/narcolepsy-and-cataplexy-a-pediatric-case-report
#7
Tülin Savaş, Ilknur Erol, Semra Saygı, Mehmet Ali Habeşoğlu
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis during the rapid eye movement period of sleep. Herein, we present a boy aged eight years who was diagnosed as having narcolepsy and cataplexy about thirteen months after his first presentation. He was admitted with symptoms of daytime sleepiness. In the follow-up, cataplexy in the form of head dropping attacks developed seven months after the first admission. The patient was investigated for different prediagnoses and was eventually diagnosed as having narcolepsy and cataplexy through polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests thirteen months after the first presentation...
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087252/novel-method-for-evaluation-of-eye-movements-in-patients-with-narcolepsy
#8
Julie A E Christensen, Lykke Kempfner, Helle L Leonthin, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Miki Nikolic, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy causes abnormalities in the control of wake-sleep, non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep and REM sleep, which includes specific eye movements (EMs). In this study, we aim to evaluate EM characteristics in narcolepsy as compared to controls using an automated detector. METHODS: We developed a data-driven method to detect EMs during sleep based on two EOG signals recorded as part of a polysomnography (PSG). The method was optimized using the manually scored hypnograms from 36 control subjects...
December 21, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919403/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonists-as-narcolepsy-therapeutics
#9
Sarah W Black, Michael D Schwartz, Tsui-Ming Chen, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy, a disorder of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, a loss of muscle tone triggered by emotional stimulation. Current narcolepsy pharmacotherapeutics include controlled substances with abuse potential or drugs with undesirable side effects. As partial agonists at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) promote wakefulness in mice and rats, we evaluated whether TAAR1 agonism had beneficial effects in two mouse models of narcolepsy...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#10
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905666/spectral-electroencephalography-profile-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-at-sleep-onset-in-narcolepsy-type-1
#11
F Pizza, R Ferri, S Vandi, F Rundo, M Iloti, G Neccia, G Plazzi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) period (SOREMP), the hallmark of narcolepsy, may be a specific state and not the simple anticipation of REM sleep. METHODS: We analyzed the electroencephalographic spectral content in untreated patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) during the sleep-onset period (SOP) and during nocturnal REM sleep in two consecutive nocturnal recordings from 31 patients with NT1 (mean age 34 ± 15 years, 18 males) and a single nocturnal recording from 36 controls (mean age 38 ± 13 years, 21 males)...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860547/the-discovery-of-suvorexant-the-first-orexin-receptor-drug-for-insomnia
#12
Paul J Coleman, Anthony L Gotter, W Joseph Herring, Christopher J Winrow, John J Renger
Historically, pharmacological therapies have used mechanisms such as γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor potentiation to drive sleep through broad suppression of central nervous system activity. With the discovery of orexin signaling loss as the etiology underlying narcolepsy, a disorder associated with hypersomnolence, orexin antagonism emerged as an alternative approach to attenuate orexin-induced wakefulness more selectively. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) block the activity of orexin 1 and 2 receptors to both reduce the threshold to transition into sleep and attenuate orexin-mediated arousal...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857041/narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-in-a-child-with-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-case-report
#13
Feixia Zheng, Shuang Wang
We report an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with both CMT1 and narcolepsy, which were not reported simultaneously presenting in one person. The boy presented with a history of increased suddenly falling frequency and excessive daytime sleepiness for 3 months. CMT1 was diagnosed by electrophysiology and genetic testing. Narcolepsy had not been diagnosed until the frequently falling caused by sudden and transient episodes of legs weakness triggered by emotion was found. Multiple sleep latency test showed multiple sleep onset REM periods with reduced sleep latency...
September 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855741/normal-morning-melanin-concentrating-hormone-levels-and-no-association-with-rapid-eye-movement-or-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-parameters-in-narcolepsy-type-1-and-type-2
#14
Maren Schrölkamp, Poul J Jennum, Steen Gammeltoft, Anja Holm, Birgitte R Kornum, Stine Knudsen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810187/impact-of-sodium-oxybate-modafinil-and-combination-treatment-on-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-patients-who-have-narcolepsy-with-or-without-cataplexy
#15
Jed Black, Todd Swick, Richard Bogan, Chinglin Lai, Lawrence P Carter
BACKGROUND: Effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) on patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) or without cataplexy (NWOC) have not been separately evaluated in clinical trials. METHODS: Retrospective analysis evaluated data from a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of SXB, modafinil, and SXB + modafinil versus placebo in adult NC patients (n = 95) or NWOC patients (n = 127). NC patients were identified based on medical history, concomitant medications, and sleep-onset REM periods on nocturnal polysomnography...
August 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810179/diurnal-and-nocturnal-cardiovascular-variability-and-heart-rate-arousal-response-in-idiopathic-hypersomnia
#16
Emilia Sforza, Frédéric Roche, Jean Claude Barthélémy, Vincent Pichot
OBJECTIVES: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction has been described in narcolepsy with cataplexy affecting sympathetic functions. In this study we analyzed whether altered diurnal and nocturnal cardiovascular control is present in idiopathic hypersomnia (IH). METHODS: Fourteen drug-free patients aged 26.2 ± 7 years and 14 age-matched controls were examined. Clinical data, 24-h polysomnography, heart rate (HR) variability, and the HR response to spontaneous arousal were available...
August 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807903/effect-of-sodium-oxybate-on-disrupted-nighttime-sleep-in-patients-with-narcolepsy
#17
Thomas Roth, Yves Dauvilliers, Diane Guinta, Sarah Alvarez-Horine, Efim Dynin, Jed Black
This post hoc analysis evaluated the dose-related effects of sodium oxybate on sleep continuity and nocturnal sleep quality in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Polysomnography data, including shifts to Stage N1/Wake, were from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sodium oxybate. Patients were ≥16 years old with a diagnosis of narcolepsy including symptoms of cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness. Treatment was for 8 weeks with placebo or sodium oxybate 4.5, 6 or 9 g administered as two equally divided nightly doses...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807183/efficacy-of-sodium-oxybate-on-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-in-a-patient-with-narcolepsy-type-1
#18
Geert Mayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765468/memory-consolidation-in-sleep-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Nicola Cellini
In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information...
September 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668524/smoking-prevalence-and-its-clinical-correlations-in-patients-with-narcolepsy-cataplexy
#20
Pavla Peřinová, Eva Feketeová, David Kemlink, Petra Kovalská, Karolína Chlebušová, Jiří Nepožitek, Veronika Ibarburu, Eva Králíková, Soňa Nevšímalová, Karel Šonka
Narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) is a chronic neurological disease with suggested autoimmune etiopathogenesis. Nicotine stimulates central nervous system and smoking increases the risk of autoimmune diseases. Assessment of smoking habits and its correlation to clinical parameters among 87 adult NC patients (38 male, 49 female) included night polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test. In our sample, 43.7% NC patients were regular smokers, and 19.5% former smokers compared to 22.2%, and 12.6%, respectively, in the general population...
2016: Prague Medical Report
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