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R Korbel, M Schubert, M Erhard, C Wöhr, S Bergmann, S Rückschloss, S Thiel, H Engelhardt, S Engelhardt
Ostrich farming and keeping in Germany is of increasing interest. Ostrich farming includes keeping the animals as agricultural livestock (production of meat, leather, eggs), for display, hobby farming and keeping in zoological collections. Based on scientific research there is a steady increase in knowledge of keeping ratites according to sophisticated standards in terms of animal welfare legislation. Legislation and recommondations for keeping of ratitae are described.
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Kang Yiu Lai, George Wing Yiu Ng, Kit Fai Wong, Ivan Fan Ngai Hung, Jeffrey Kam Fai Hong, Fanny Fan Cheng, John Kwok Cheung Chan
China is undergoing a recent outbreak of a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (nH7N9) infection that has thus far involved 132 human patients, including 37 deaths. The nH7N9 virus is a reassortant virus originating from the H7N3, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. nH7N9 isolated from humans contains features related to adaptation to humans, including a Q226L mutation in the hemagglutinin cleavage site and E627K and D701N mutations in the PB2 protein. Live poultry markets provide an environment for the emergence, spread and maintenance of nH7N9 as well as for the selection of mutants that facilitate nH7N9 binding to and replication in the human upper respiratory tract...
August 2013: Emerging Microbes & Infections
P C Ozegbe, T A Aire, M S Deokar
The cellular composition of the testicular capsule, seminiferous peritubular tissue, the epithelia as well as periductal muscle cell layers of the excurrent ducts was studied, in sexually mature and active Masked Weaver (Ploceus velatus) birds of the passerine family, Ploceidae. Ultrastructure of the contractile cells in the testicular capsule, peritubular and periductal tissues showed that these cells were smooth muscles of typical morphological characteristics. Variability in the immunohistochemical co-expression of microfilaments and intermediate filaments in the different tissues was evident...
February 2012: Tissue & Cell
M B J Picasso
The Greater Rhea is the largest cursorial Ratitae bird native to South America. Due to its increasing importance in farming and therefore in the sustainable use of this species, a comprehensive knowledge of their anatomy is essential. The goal of this study was to provide an anatomical description of the hindlimb muscles of Rhea americana. Six adult birds of both sexes were macroscopically studied analysing the origin and insertion of thigh and shank muscles. The thigh showed the highest number of muscles, whereas the shank showed the lowest number; this feature minimizes inertia and allows achieving high stride frequencies...
October 2010: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Kyoko Shinya, Akiko Makino, Makoto Ozawa, Jin Hyun Kim, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Mutsumi Ito, Quynh Mai Le, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Amino acids at positions 627 and 701 in the PB2 protein (PB2-627 and PB2-701, respectively) of avian influenza A viruses affect virus replication in some mammalian cells. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses possessing mammalian-type PB2-627 were detected during the Qinghai Lake outbreak in 2005 and spread to Europe and Africa. Via a database search, we found a high rate of viral isolates from Ratitae, including ostrich, possessing mammalian-type PB2-627 or -701. Here, we report that H5N1 avian influenza viruses possessing mammalian-type amino acids in PB2-627 or -701 are selected during replication in ostrich cells in vitro and in vivo...
December 2009: Journal of Virology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1959: Acta Anatomica
Y Itoh, M Suzuki, A Ogawa, I Munechika, K Murata, S Mizuno
A 0.6 kb EcoRI fragment (EE0.6), cloned from the W chromosome of chickens, is a nonrepetitive sequence and contains an exonlike sequence, ET15, which is likely a part of a pseudogene. The EE0.6 sequence is conserved in all species of birds examined both in Carinatae and Ratitae. A counterpart sequence of EE0.6 is present on the Z chromosome. The extent of diversity between the W- and Z-linked sequences are variable among species. The W- and Z-linked EE0.6 sequences, cloned from 12 different species, were compared and four forward and three reverse primers were selected to amplify parts of the EE0...
July 2001: Journal of Heredity
C Nishida-Umehara, A Fujiwara, A Ogawa, S Mizuno, S Abe, M C Yoshida
We identified sex chromosomes of the double-wattled cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) by a replication banding method. The acrocentric Z chromosome, the fifth largest pair in males and slightly smaller W chromosome show no sign of heterochromatinization and share a nearly identical banding pattern in the distal half of the long arm. These chromosomes were further characterized by FISH with three probes linked either to Z or W chromosome in most avian species examined thus far. Contrary to the situation in the chicken, we obtained positive signals with Z-specific ZOV3 and W-specific EEO...
1999: Chromosome Research
E L Taylor, P Vercoe, J Cockrem, D Groth, J D Wetherall, G B Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1999: Molecular Ecology
F P Fischer
The emu, being a member of the rather primitive bird group of the palaeognathid Ratitae, may reveal primitives features of the avian basilar papilla. There are, however, no qualitative differences with the papillae of other birds such as the chicken or the starling. There are only quantitative differences in the continuous morphological gradients (such as hair cell height, stereovillar height) from neural to abneural, and from the base to the apex of the papilla. Only few (about two in the emu) afferent terminals and on average one efferent fiber contact each hair cell...
July 1998: Hearing Research
A Ogawa, K Murata, S Mizuno
Perhaps the most striking fact about early Cenozoic avian history some 70 million years ago was the rapid radiation of large, flightless, ground-living birds. It has been suggested that, for a time, there was active competition between these large terrestrial birds and the early mammals. Probably reflecting the above noted early start of Ratitae of the infraclass Eoaves, the presumptive sex chromosomes of their present day survivors, such as the emu and the ostrich, largely remained homomorphic. The signs of genetic differentiation between their still-homomorphic Z and W chromosomes were tested by using two marker genes (Z-linked ZOV3 and the gene for the iron-responsive element-binding protein) and one marker sequence of a part of a presumptive pseudogene (W-linked EE0...
April 14, 1998: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M I Pigozzi, A J Solari
Pachytene oocytes from the ratite bird Rhea americana were used for synaptonemal complex analysis with a surface spreading technique and phosphotungstic acid staining. The ZW bivalent is slightly smaller than the fourth autosomal bivalent and clearly shows unequal W and Z axes only in 27% of the bivalents. Most of the ZW pairs are completely adjusted and thus the W and Z axes are almost equal in length. A sample of 134 recombination nodules (RNs) from 63 ZW pairs showed a striking departure of number and location of these nodules compared with those of carinate birds...
September 1997: Chromosome Research
H H Sambraus
The African ostrich (Struthio camelus) is different from other birds not only because it is a running bird (Ratitae), but also because it urinates and the male bird has a penis. On a specialized farm in Israel the sexual behaviour of ostriches was studied. Courtship behaviour and mating have a very refined pattern. The copulation, which starts with an immission of the penis and ends with an orgasm, lasts about one minute. Most of the copulations take place during the morning morning hours. Occasionally, female ostriches demonstrate courtship behaviour to other females...
December 1994: Tierärztliche Praxis
K D Budras, U Meier
The epididymis of ratitae is subdivided into a main part and a appendix epididymidis. The appendix epididymidis consists of the ductus aberrans and ductuli aberrantes. The ductus aberrans is the cranial continuation of the ductus epididymidis. The appendix epididymidis is cranially attached to the adrenal gland. In the main part of the epididymis the largest part of the rete testis is found. The rete testis is composed of an intratesticular rete (also named tubuli recti), and intracapsular rete (with a longitudinal cistern and a true rete), and an extratesticular rete (predominantly consisting of approximately 20 longitudinal channels)...
1981: Anatomy and Embryology
W Firbas, K Zweymüller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1971: Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch
N Takagi, M Ito, M Sasaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1972: Chromosoma
K P Bhatnagar, H D Frahm, H Stephan
This investigation is based upon the pineal organs of 92 specimens of 36 species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera). The size of the megachiropteran pineal correlates well with body size (r = 0.864), confirming the former conclusions that generally larger bodied bats have larger pineals. The range of the pineal size index in 36 megachiropteran species is from 33 to 4393. In most species the pineal organs are small, deeply recessed under the cerebral hemispheres and of Type A (except in Dobsonia and Pteropus, where they are of Type alpha beta C and AB, respectively)...
February 1990: Journal of Anatomy
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