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Linguistic relativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424634/when-the-second-language-takes-the-lead-neurocognitive-processing-changes-in-the-first-language-of-adult-attriters
#1
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420589/associations-between-language-acculturation-age-of-immigration-and-obesity-in-the-mexican-american-mano-a-mano-cohort
#2
Matthew Chrisman, Wong-Ho Chow, Carrie R Daniel, Xifeng Wu, Hua Zhao
INTRODUCTION: As Mexican immigrants to the U.S. become acculturated, they face worsening health outcomes such as obesity. The role of language acculturation in the development of obesity has not been thoroughly examined. METHODS: To examine associations between language acculturation and obesity, data were drawn from the Mexican-American Mano A Mano cohort study. Participants aged 20 years and over (n=18,298) completed baseline questionnaires on socio-demographic and behavioural factors, including physical activity and sitting time...
April 15, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416691/neurophysiological-dynamics-of-phrase-structure-building-during-sentence-processing
#3
Matthew J Nelson, Imen El Karoui, Kristof Giber, Xiaofang Yang, Laurent Cohen, Hilda Koopman, Sydney S Cash, Lionel Naccache, John T Hale, Christophe Pallier, Stanislas Dehaene
Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416204/-they-must-understand-we-are-people-pregnancy-and-maternity-service-use-among-signing-deaf-women-in-cape-town
#4
Margaret W Gichane, Marion Heap, Mayara Fontes, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Women with disabilities are at disproportionate risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, however, there is limited information on their pregnancy histories. This mixed-methods study focuses on signing Deaf women whose access to health care may be compromised by language barriers related to their disability. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the pregnancy outcomes and maternity service use of a sample of signing Deaf women of child-bearing age in Cape Town to the population of the Western Cape of South Africa...
April 6, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414821/constructing-a-biodiversity-terminological-inventory
#5
Nhung T H Nguyen, Axel J Soto, Georgios Kontonatsios, Riza Batista-Navarro, Sophia Ananiadou
The increasing growth of literature in biodiversity presents challenges to users who need to discover pertinent information in an efficient and timely manner. In response, text mining techniques offer solutions by facilitating the automated discovery of knowledge from large textual data. An important step in text mining is the recognition of concepts via their linguistic realisation, i.e., terms. However, a given concept may be referred to in text using various synonyms or term variants, making search systems likely to overlook documents mentioning less known variants, which are albeit relevant to a query term...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411527/development-of-sensitivity-versus-specificity-for-print-in-the-visual-word-form-area
#6
Tracy M Centanni, Livia W King, Marianna D Eddy, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D E Gabrieli
An area near the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus that responds preferentially to print has been designated as the visual word form area (VWFA). Research suggests that specialization in this brain region increases as reading expertise is achieved. Here we aimed to characterize that development in terms of sensitivity (response to printed words relative to non-linguistic faces) versus specificity (response to printed words versus line drawings of nameable objects) in typically reading children ages 7-14 versus young adults as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
April 12, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409284/development-prevention-and-treatment-of-feeding-tube-dependency
#7
REVIEW
Hilde Krom, J Peter de Winter, Angelika Kindermann
Enteral nutrition is effective in ensuring nutritional requirements and growth. However, when tube feeding lasts for a longer period, it can lead to tube dependency in the absence of medical reasons for continuation of tube feeding. Tube-dependent children are unable or refuse to start oral activities and they lack oral skills. Tube dependency has health-, psychosocial-, and economy-related consequences. Therefore, the transition to oral feeding is of great importance. However, this transition can be very difficult and needs a multidisciplinary approach...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407720/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-arabic-version-of-the-knee-outcome-survey-activities-for-daily-living-scale
#8
Fawzi F Bouzubar, Sameera H Aljadi, Naser M Alotaibi, James J Irrgang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to cross-culturally adapt the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale into Arabic and to assess its psychometric properties (internal consistency, reliability, validity, and responsiveness) in patients with knee disorders. METHODS: The cross-cultural adaptation process for the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale into Arabic was performed consistent with the published guidelines. The psychometric properties of this Arabic version were then evaluated...
April 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405906/cross-linguistic-transfer-in-bilinguals-reading-in-two-alphabetic-orthographies-the-grain-size-accommodation-hypothesis
#9
REVIEW
Marie Lallier, Manuel Carreiras
Reading acquisition is one of the most complex and demanding learning processes faced by children in their first years of schooling. If reading acquisition is challenging in one language, how is it when reading is acquired simultaneously in two languages? What is the impact of bilingualism on the development of literacy? We review behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from alphabetic writing systems suggesting that early bilingualism modulates reading development. Particularly, we show that cross-linguistic variations and cross-linguistic transfer affect bilingual reading strategies as well as their cognitive underpinnings...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400740/c-command-in-the-grammars-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#10
Neha Khetrapal, Rosalind Thornton
A recent study questioned the adherence of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to a linguistic constraint on the use of reflexive pronouns (Principle A) in sentences like Bart's dad is touching himself. This led researchers to question whether children with ASD are able to compute the hierarchical structural relationship of c-command, and raised the possibility that the children rely on a linear strategy for reference assignment. The current study investigates the status of c-command in children with ASD by testing their interpretation of sentences like (1) and (2) that tease apart use of c-command and a linear strategy for reference assignment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398916/attentional-avoidance-is-associated-with-increased-pain-sensitivity-in-patients-with-chronic-posttraumatic-pain-and-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress
#11
Mathea Harvold, Colin MacLeod, Henrik Bjarke Vaegter
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in chronic posttraumatic pain. Theoretical models suggest that attentional biases (AB) contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain and PTSD, however, the influence of AB on clinical and heat pain sensitivity in chronic posttraumatic pain patients is unknown. This study investigated AB for linguistic pain- and trauma-related stimuli, and clinical and thermal sensitivity in patients with chronic posttraumatic pain with and without PTSD...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398574/can-rdoc-help-find-order-in-thought-disorder
#12
Alex S Cohen, Thanh P Le, Taylor L Fedechko, Brita Elvevåg
Thought disorder is a pernicious and nonspecific aspect of numerous serious mental illnesses (SMIs) and related conditions. Despite decades of empirical research on thought disorder, our present understanding of it is poor, our clinical assessments focus on a limited set of extreme behaviors, and treatments are palliative at best. Applying a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework to thought disorder research offers advantages to explicate its phenotype; isolate its mechanisms; and develop more effective assessments, treatments, and potential cures...
May 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397801/english-phonology-and-an-acoustic-language-universal
#13
Yoshitaka Nakajima, Kazuo Ueda, Shota Fujimaru, Hirotoshi Motomura, Yuki Ohsaka
Acoustic analyses of eight different languages/dialects had revealed a language universal: Three spectral factors consistently appeared in analyses of power fluctuations of spoken sentences divided by critical-band filters into narrow frequency bands. Examining linguistic implications of these factors seems important to understand how speech sounds carry linguistic information. Here we show the three general categories of the English phonemes, i.e., vowels, sonorant consonants, and obstruents, to be discriminable in the Cartesian space constructed by these factors: A factor related to frequency components above 3,300 Hz was associated only with obstruents (e...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397185/validation-of-the-italian-quality-of-life-in-short-stature-youth-qolissy-questionnaire
#14
J Quitmann, A Giammarco, M Maghnie, F Napoli, I Di Giovanni, C Carducci, A Mohn, M Bullinger, R Sommer
PURPOSE: The Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire is a disease-specific instrument developed to assess health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in children with short stature. While the original instrument was simultaneously developed in five European countries, this study describes the results of the Italian QoLISSY translation, cultural adaptation, and validation. METHODS: Focus group discussions and a cognitive debriefing process with children (N = 12) diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature and one parent each, as well as parents of younger children (N = 20) were conducted to examine the linguistic and content validity of the Italian version...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396096/what-does-semantic-tiling-of-the-cortex-tell-us-about-semantics
#15
Lawrence W Barsalou
Recent use of voxel-wise modeling in cognitive neuroscience suggests that semantic maps tile the cortex. Although this impressive research establishes distributed cortical areas active during the conceptual processing that underlies semantics, it tells us little about the nature of this processing. While mapping concepts between Marr's computational and implementation levels to support neural encoding and decoding, this approach ignores Marr's algorithmic level, central for understanding the mechanisms that implement cognition, in general, and conceptual processing, in particular...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391032/readers-select-a-comprehension-mode-independent-of-pronoun-evidence-from-fmri-during-narrative-comprehension
#16
Franziska Hartung, Peter Hagoort, Roel M Willems
Perspective is a crucial feature for communicating about events. Yet it is unclear how linguistically encoded perspective relates to cognitive perspective taking. Here, we tested the effect of perspective taking with short literary stories. Participants listened to stories with 1st or 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist, while undergoing fMRI. When comparing action events with 1st and 3rd person pronouns, we found no evidence for a neural dissociation depending on the pronoun. A split sample approach based on the self-reported experience of perspective taking revealed 3 comprehension preferences...
April 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391031/evaluation-of-the-language-profile-in-children-with-rolandic-epilepsy-and-developmental-dysphasia-evidence-for-distinct-strengths-and-weaknesses
#17
M Verly, R Gerrits, L Lagae, S Sunaert, N Rommel, I Zink
Although benign, rolandic epilepsy (RE) or benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes is often associated with language impairment. Recently, fronto-rolandic EEG abnormalities have been described in children with developmental dysphasia (DD), suggesting an interaction between language impairment and interictal epileptiform discharges. To investigate if a behavioral-linguistic continuum between RE and DD exists, a clinical prospective study was carried out to evaluate the language profile of 15 children with RE and 22 children with DD...
April 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388928/snpphena-a-corpus-for-extracting-ranked-associations-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-phenotypes-from-literature
#18
Behrouz Bokharaeian, Alberto Diaz, Nasrin Taghizadeh, Hamidreza Chitsaz, Ramyar Chavoshinejad
BACKGROUND: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are among the most important types of genetic variations influencing common diseases and phenotypes. Recently, some corpora and methods have been developed with the purpose of extracting mutations and diseases from texts. However, there is no available corpus, for extracting associations from texts, that is annotated with linguistic-based negation, modality markers, neutral candidates, and confidence level of associations. METHOD: In this research, different steps were presented so as to produce the SNPPhenA corpus...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388219/inter-individual-variability-in-discourse-informativeness-in-elderly-populations
#19
Aurélie Pistono, Jérémie Pariente, Catherine Bézy, Josette Pastor, Thi Mai Tran, Antoine Renard, Marion Fossard, Jean-Luc Nespoulous, Mélanie Jucla
An increasing number of studies focus on discourse production in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and underline its clinical usefulness. However, if this is to be used as a clinical tool, one needs to consider how normal discourse varies within cognitively unimpaired elderly populations. In the current study, the aim has been to investigate discourse macrolinguistic variability. For this, 123 participants aged between 55 and 84 were recruited. A cluster analysis of their discourse macrolinguistic features was conducted...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384805/speech-recognition-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants-the-effects-of-working-memory-phonological-sensitivity-and-aging
#20
Aaron C Moberly, Michael S Harris, Lauren Boyce, Susan Nittrouer
Purpose: Models of speech recognition suggest that "top-down" linguistic and cognitive functions, such as use of phonotactic constraints and working memory, facilitate recognition under conditions of degradation, such as in noise. The question addressed in this study was what happens to these functions when a listener who has experienced years of hearing loss obtains a cochlear implant. Method: Thirty adults with cochlear implants and 30 age-matched controls with age-normal hearing underwent testing of verbal working memory using digit span and serial recall of words...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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