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Linguistic relativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036331/early-reading-development-in-chinese-speaking-children-with-hearing-loss
#1
Yi-Chih Chan, You-Jhen Yang
This study aims to explore early reading comprehension in Chinese-speaking children with hearing loss (HL) by examining character recognition and linguistic comprehension. Twenty-five children with HL received three measures relevant to character reading: phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness (MA), and character recognition; two linguistic-comprehension measures: receptive vocabulary knowledge and listening comprehension; and one reading comprehension measure. Three demographic variables pertinent to children with HL were also taken into account...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024818/differential-cortical-contribution-of-syntax-and-semantics-an-fmri-study-on-two-word-phrasal-processing
#2
Marianne Schell, Emiliano Zaccarella, Angela D Friederici
Linguistic expressions consist of sequences of words combined together to form phrases and sentences. The neurocognitive process handling word combination is drawing increasing attention among the neuroscientific community, given that the underlying syntactic and semantic mechanisms of such basic combinations-although essential to the generation of more complex structures-still need to be consistently determined. The current experiment was conducted to disentangle the neural networks supporting syntactic and semantic processing at the level of two-word combinations...
September 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021889/linguistic-camouflage-in-girls-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Julia Parish-Morris, Mark Y Liberman, Christopher Cieri, John D Herrington, Benjamin E Yerys, Leila Bateman, Joseph Donaher, Emily Ferguson, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016168/voice-only-communication-enhances-empathic-accuracy
#4
Michael W Kraus
This research tests the prediction that voice-only communication increases empathic accuracy over communication across senses. We theorized that people often intentionally communicate their feelings and internal states through the voice, and as such, voice-only communication allows perceivers to focus their attention on the channel of communication most active and accurate in conveying emotions to others. We used 5 experiments to test this hypothesis (N = 1,772), finding that voice-only communication elicits higher rates of empathic accuracy relative to vision-only and multisense communication both while engaging in interactions and perceiving emotions in recorded interactions of strangers...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994698/priority-of-a-hesitant-fuzzy-linguistic-preference-relation-with-a-normal-distribution-in-meteorological-disaster-risk-assessment
#5
Lihong Wang, Zaiwu Gong
As meteorological disaster systems are large complex systems, disaster reduction programs must be based on risk analysis. Consequently, judgment by an expert based on his or her experience (also known as qualitative evaluation) is an important link in meteorological disaster risk assessment. In some complex and non-procedural meteorological disaster risk assessments, a hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation (HFLPR) is often used to deal with a situation in which experts may be hesitant while providing preference information of a pairwise comparison of alternatives, that is, the degree of preference of one alternative over another...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994473/preliminary-thoughts-on-the-neurobiology-of-innate-unconscious-structures-and-the-psychodynamics-of-language-acquisition
#6
Susan Mizen
This paper builds upon Britton's recent writing on 'models in the mind', in which he gives an account of preverbal metaphoric structures based on object relations (Britton 2015). These correspond with Jung's theory of innate unconscious structures. These innate models are considered alongside current linguistic theory following Chomsky and post-Chomskyan views about language acquisition. Neuroscience evidence linking language and abstract thinking with structures involved in tool use are presented. The implications of these findings, and our understanding of the relational context within which language, metaphor and abstract thought are acquired, will be discussed along with the failures of symbolization and verbal communication common amongst those with severe narcissistic disorders...
November 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992767/sensitivity-of-expressive-linguistic-domains-to-surgery-age-and-audibility-of-speech-in-preschoolers-with-cochlear-implants
#7
Johanna G Nicholas, Ann E Geers
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether relative delays among domains exist in the conversational use of vocabulary, syntax, and morphology by children with cochlear implants (CIs) and whether these were differentially affected by age of implantation (AOI) and the audibility of speech. METHODS: Participants in this short-term longitudinal study were 126 children with AOI of 6-38 months and a matched group of 30 children without hearing loss. Language samples of the same children at ages 3...
October 10, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983268/strong-generative-capacity-and-the-empirical-base-of-linguistic-theory
#8
Dennis Ott
This Perspective traces the evolution of certain central notions in the theory of Generative Grammar (GG). The founding documents of the field suggested a relation between the grammar, construed as recursively enumerating an infinite set of sentences, and the idealized native speaker that was essentially equivalent to the relation between a formal language (a set of well-formed formulas) and an automaton that recognizes strings as belonging to the language or not. But this early view was later abandoned, when the focus of the field shifted to the grammar's strong generative capacity as recursive generation of hierarchically structured objects as opposed to strings...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980405/improving-the-effectiveness-of-interpreted-consultations-australian-interpreter-general-practitioner-and-patient-perspectives
#9
Nancy Sturman, Rebecca Farley, Fernanda Claudio, Patricia Avila
Healthcare consultations with patients lacking English proficiency are challenging for all parties, even in Australian primary care where the engagement of interpreters is encouraged and fully subsidised. Our objective was to understand these challenges from the perspectives of interpreters, patients and general practitioners in order to improve the effectiveness of interpreted consultations. Our investigator team approached the interpreted consultation as an interprofessional collaboration. A convenience sample of seven general practitioners, eight health interpreters and six representatives from culturally and linguistically diverse communities (representing the patient perspective) participated in three separate focus group discussions, lasting 60-90 min each, exploring participant experiences with healthcare consultations in which interpreters were present...
October 4, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976996/beyond-funding-acknowledgement-patterns-in-biomedical-natural-and-social-sciences
#10
Adèle Paul-Hus, Adrián A Díaz-Faes, Maxime Sainte-Marie, Nadine Desrochers, Rodrigo Costas, Vincent Larivière
For the past 50 years, acknowledgments have been studied as important paratextual traces of research practices, collaboration, and infrastructure in science. Since 2008, funding acknowledgments have been indexed by Web of Science, supporting large-scale analyses of research funding. Applying advanced linguistic methods as well as Correspondence Analysis to more than one million acknowledgments from research articles and reviews published in 2015, this paper aims to go beyond funding disclosure and study the main types of contributions found in acknowledgments on a large scale and through disciplinary comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974172/-how-strange-is-the-patient-to-me
#11
André Karger, Heide Lindtner-Rudolph, Robert Mroczynski, Alexander Ziem, Ljiljana Joksimovic
'How strange is the patient to me?' Physicians' attitudes and expectations toward treating patients with a migration background Objectives: Undergraduate and postgraduate training in cultural competence remains a challenging issue. It might be useful to integrate culturally sensitive learning objectives in existing curricula. As part of a needs assessment, this qualitative study examined the prototypical experiences in clinical routines with patients with a migration background. METHODS: Twenty physicians took part in half-structured narrative interviews, which were then analyzed by linguistic-ethnographic conversation analysis...
September 2017: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972694/alexithymia-according-to-bucci-s-multiple-code-theory-a-preliminary-investigation-with-healthy-and-hypertensive-individuals
#12
Michela Di Trani, Rachele Mariani, Alessia Renzi, Paul Samuel Greenman, Luigi Solano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between alexithymia and Referential Activity (RA), a linguistic measure of the process by which non-verbal emotional experience is connected to language. METHODS: The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA) were administered to 20 postgraduate students and 15 outpatients with hypertension. The Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD) and other linguistic measures (Reflection, Disfluency, and Somatic Sense) were applied to texts derived from the TSIA using the Discourse Attributes Analysis Program (DAAP)...
October 3, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969504/olfactory-cues-are-more-effective-than-visual-cues-in-experimentally-triggering-autobiographical-memories
#13
Maaike J de Bruijn, Michael Bender
Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust's sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on cognition, conclusive evidence is still missing. We set out to examine the effectiveness of childhood and non-childhood odours as retrieval cues for autobiographical memories in a lab experiment. A total of 170 participants were presented with pilot-tested retrieval cues (either odours or images) to recall childhood memories and were then asked to rate the vividness, detail, and emotional intensity of these memories...
October 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966967/development-and-evaluation-of-multimedia-interventions-to-promote-breast-and-cervical-health-among-south-asian-women-in-hong-kong-a-project-protocol
#14
Winnie K W So, Dorothy N S Chan, Tika Rana, Bernard M H Law, Doris Y P Leung, Helen Y L Chan, C C Ng, Sek Ying Chair, Carmen W H Chan
Recent studies conducted in the local community indicate that the uptake rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among South Asian ethnic minorities are lower than those of the general population. The development of interventions to promote these minorities' awareness of breast and cervical health and the importance of cancer screening is therefore required. This study protocol aims to develop culturally sensitive multimedia interventions to promote awareness of breast and cervical cancer prevention among South Asian women in Hong Kong, and to evaluate the outcomes of such interventions using a Reach-Effectiveness-Adoption-Implementation-Maintenance framework...
October 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966962/measuring-oral-mucositis-of-pediatric-patients-with-cancer-a-psychometric-evaluation-of-chinese-version-of-the-oral-mucositis-daily-questionnaire
#15
Karis Kin Fong Cheng, Wan Yim Ip, Vincent Lee, Chak Ho Li, Hui Leung Yuen, Joel B Epstein
OBJECTIVE: Oral mucositis is a frequent clinical condition that has been shown to affect pediatric cancer patients. Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire (OMDQ) is one of the few available patient-reported outcome measures to assess the extent and impact of oral mucositis. The objectives of the study were to translate the Mouth and Throat Soreness-Related Questions of the OMDQ into Chinese (OMDQ MTS-Ch) for children and adolescents aged 6-18 years receiving chemotherapy and to evaluate its psychometric properties...
October 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964316/speech-processor-data-logging-helps-in-predicting-early-linguistic-outcomes-in-implanted-children
#16
Letizia Guerzoni, Domenico Cuda
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the value of listening-data logged in the speech processor on the prediction of the early auditory and linguistic skills in children who received a cochlear implant in their first 2 years of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational non-randomized study. METHODS: Ten children with profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss were included in the study. The mean age at CI activation was 16.9 months (SD ± 7.2; range 10-24)...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958910/p3-event-related-brain-potential-reflects-allocation-and-use-of-central-processing-capacity-in-language-production
#17
Natalia Shitova, Ardi Roelofs, Caitlin Coughler, Herbert Schriefers
Allocation and use of central processing capacity have been associated with the P3 event-related brain potential amplitude in a large variety of non-linguistic tasks. However, little is known about the P3 in spoken language production. Moreover, the few studies that are available report opposing P3 effects when task complexity is manipulated. We investigated allocation and use of central processing capacity in a spoken phrase production task: Participants switched every second trial between describing pictures using noun phrases with one adjective (size only; simple condition, e...
September 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958627/assisted-and-unassisted-recession-of-functional-anomalies-associated-with-dysprosody-in-adults-who-stutter
#18
Katrin Neumann, Harald A Euler, Malte Kob, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg, Anne-Lise Giraud, Tobias Weissgerber, Christian A Kell
PURPOSE: Speech in persons who stutter (PWS) is associated with disturbed prosody (speech melody and intonation), which may impact communication. The neural correlates of PWS' altered prosody during speaking are not known, neither is how a speech-restructuring therapy affects prosody at both a behavioral and a cerebral level. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we explored group differences in brain activation associated with the production of different kinds of prosody in 13 male adults who stutter (AWS) before, directly after, and at least 1 year after an effective intensive fluency-shaping treatment, in 13 typically fluent-speaking control participants (CP), and in 13 males who had spontaneously recovered from stuttering during adulthood (RAWS), while sentences were read aloud with 'neutral', instructed emotional (happy), and linguistically driven (questioning) prosody...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955260/verbal-working-memory-is-related-to-the-acquisition-of-cross-linguistic-phonological-regularities
#19
Evelyn Bosma, Wilbert Heeringa, Eric Hoekstra, Arjen Versloot, Elma Blom
Closely related languages share cross-linguistic phonological regularities, such as Frisian -âld [ͻ:t] and Dutch -oud [ʱut], as in the cognate pairs kâld [kͻ:t] - koud [kʱut] 'cold' and wâld [wͻ:t] - woud [wʱut] 'forest'. Within Bybee's (1995, 2001, 2008, 2010) network model, these regularities are, just like grammatical rules within a language, generalizations that emerge from schemas of phonologically and semantically related words. Previous research has shown that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of grammar, but not vocabulary...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949778/prenatal-cocaine-exposure-impacts-language-and-reading-into-late-adolescence-behavioral-and-erp-evidence
#20
Nicole Landi, Trey Avery, Michael J Crowley, Jia Wu, Linda Mayes
Extant research documents impaired language among children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) relative to nondrug exposed (NDE) children, suggesting that cocaine alters development of neurobiological systems that support language. The current study examines behavioral and neural (electrophysiological) indices of language function in older adolescents. Specifically, we compare performance of PCE (N = 59) and NDE (N = 51) adolescents on a battery of cognitive and linguistic assessments that tap word reading, reading comprehension, semantic and grammatical processing, and IQ...
2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
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