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Linguistic relativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#1
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903727/predicting-when-in-discourse-engages-the-human-dorsal-auditory-stream-an-fmri-study-using-naturalistic-stories
#2
Katerina Danae Kandylaki, Arne Nagels, Sarah Tune, Tilo Kircher, Richard Wiese, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
: The hierarchical organization of human cortical circuits integrates information across different timescales via temporal receptive windows, which increase in length from lower to higher levels of the cortical hierarchy (Hasson et al., 2015). A recent neurobiological model of higher-order language processing (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al., 2015) posits that temporal receptive windows in the dorsal auditory stream provide the basis for a hierarchically organized predictive coding architecture (Friston and Kiebel, 2009)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903720/oscillatory-dynamics-underlying-perceptual-narrowing-of-native-phoneme-mapping-from-6-to-12-months-of-age
#3
Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, April A Benasich
: During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899711/figurative-language-comprehension-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#4
REVIEW
Tamar Kalandadze, Courtenay Norbury, Terje Nærland, Kari-Anne B Næss
We present a meta-analysis of studies that compare figurative language comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and in typically developing controls who were matched based on chronological age or/and language ability. A total of 41 studies and 45 independent effect sizes were included based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Group matching strategy, age, types of figurative language, and cross-linguistic differences were examined as predictors that might explain heterogeneity in effect sizes...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899688/source-of-sex-information-and-condom-use-intention-among-latino-adolescents
#5
Jillian S Eversole, Nancy F Berglas, Julianna Deardorff, Norman A Constantine
Adolescence is a common time for sexual initiation and information seeking about sexual health, yet little is known about how adolescents' sources of information about sex influence their sexual beliefs and behaviors. This is particularly true for Latino adolescents, whose sources of sex information and sexual behaviors are vastly understudied. A survey of ninth-grade Latino adolescents (N = 1,186) was employed to examine the relationship between adolescents' primary source of sex information and their intention to use condoms...
November 29, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896710/how-social-network-heterogeneity-facilitates-lexical-access-and-lexical-prediction
#6
Shiri Lev-Ari, Zeshu Shao
People learn language from their social environment. As individuals differ in their social networks, they might be exposed to input with different lexical distributions, and these might influence their linguistic representations and lexical choices. In this article we test the relation between linguistic performance and 3 social network properties that should influence input variability, namely, network size, network heterogeneity, and network density. In particular, we examine how these social network properties influence lexical prediction, lexical access, and lexical use...
November 28, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895101/interaction-and-common-ground-in-dementia-communication-across-linguistic-and-cultural-diversity-in-a-residential-dementia-care-setting
#7
Lisa Strandroos, Eleonor Antelius
Previous research concerning bilingual people with a dementia disease has mainly focused on the importance of sharing a spoken language with caregivers. While acknowledging this, this article addresses the multidimensional character of communication and interaction. As using spoken language is made difficult as a consequence of the dementia disease, this multidimensionality becomes particularly important. The article is based on a qualitative analysis of ethnographic fieldwork at a dementia care facility. It presents ethnographic examples of different communicative forms, with particular focus on bilingual interactions...
November 28, 2016: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894378/an-experimental-approach-to-linguistic-representation
#8
Holly P Branigan, Martin J Pickering
Within the cognitive sciences, most researchers assume that it is the job of linguists to investigate how language is represented, and that they do so largely by building theories based on explicit judgments about patterns of acceptability - whereas it is the task of psychologists to determine how language is processed, and that in doing so, they do not typically question the linguists' representational assumptions. We challenge this division of labor, by arguing that structural priming provides an implicit method of investigating linguistic representations that should end the current reliance on acceptability judgments...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893807/erp-response-unveils-effect-of-second-language-manipulation-on-first-language-processing
#9
Elvira Khachatryan, Flavio Camarrone, Wim Fias, Marc M Van Hulle
Lexical access in bilinguals has been considered either selective or non-selective and evidence exists in favor of both hypotheses. We conducted a linguistic experiment to assess whether a bilingual's language mode influences the processing of first language information. We recorded event related potentials during a semantic priming paradigm with a covert manipulation of the second language (L2) using two types of stimulus presentations (short and long). We observed a significant facilitation of word pairs related in L2 in the short version reflected by a decrease in N400 amplitude in response to target words related to the English meaning of an inter-lingual homograph (homograph-unrelated group)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893232/narrative-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-similarities-and-differences
#10
Sanne J M Kuijper, Catharina A Hartman, Suzanne T M Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Petra Hendriks
The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893224/the-influence-of-a-word-s-number-of-letters-spatial-extent-and-initial-bigram-characteristics-on-eye-movement-control-during-reading-evidence-from-arabic
#11
Ehab W Hermena, Simon P Liversedge, Denis Drieghe
The authors conducted 2 eye movement experiments in which they used the typographical and linguistic properties of Arabic to disentangle the influences of words' number of letters and spatial extent on measures of fixation duration and saccade targeting (Experiment 1), and to investigate the influence of initial bigram characteristics on saccade targeting during reading (Experiment 2). In the first experiment, through the use of a proportional font, which is more natural-looking in Arabic compared to monospaced fonts, the authors manipulated the number of letters (5 vs...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891726/everyday-conversation-in-dementia-a-review-of-the-literature-to-inform-research-and-practice
#12
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kindell, John Keady, Karen Sage, Ray Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in dementia care in recent years, including how practitioners, service providers and society in general can help individuals to live well with the condition. An important aspect to this is provision of advice to ensure conversation partners effectively support the person with dementia in conversation. AIMS: To provide a descriptive review of the literature examining everyday conversation in dementia in order to inform practice and research...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891100/a-review-about-functional-illiteracy-definition-cognitive-linguistic-and-numerical-aspects
#13
REVIEW
Réka Vágvölgyi, Andra Coldea, Thomas Dresler, Josef Schrader, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
Formally, availability of education for children has increased around the world over the last decades. However, despite having a successful formal education career, adults can become functional illiterates. Functional illiteracy means that a person cannot use reading, writing, and calculation skills for his/her own and the community's development. Functional illiteracy has considerable negative effects not only on personal development, but also in economic and social terms. Although functional illiteracy has been highly publicized in mass media in the recent years, there is limited scientific knowledge about the people termed functional illiterates; definition, assessment, and differential diagnoses with respect to related numerical and linguistic impairments are rarely studied and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889691/development-of-a-culturally-competent-service-to-improve-academic-functioning-for-latino-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-methodological-considerations
#14
Laura Bava, Alexis Johns, David R Freyer, Kathleen Ruccione
Many survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) develop neurocognitive deficits that compromise academic functioning, especially in the presence of sociodemographic risk factors. The extent to which these risk factors coexist for Latino ALL survivors is not well described, but with shifts in U.S. demographics and improved survival in ALL, culturally competent interventions are needed. The Achieving Best Cognitive Successes after Cancer service was designed and implemented by a team representing nursing, medicine, psychology, and social work...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881960/testing-the-limits-of-skill-transfer-for-scrabble-experts-in-behavior-and-brain
#15
Sophia van Hees, Penny M Pexman, Ian S Hargreaves, Lenka Zdrazilova, Jessie M Hart, Kaia Myers-Stewart, Filomeno Cortese, Andrea B Protzner
We investigated transfer of the skills developed by competitive Scrabble players. Previous studies reported superior performance for Scrabble experts on the lexical decision task (LDT), suggesting near transfer of Scrabble skills. Here we investigated the potential for far transfer to a symbol decision task (SDT); in particular, transfer of enhanced long-term working memory for vertically presented stimuli. Our behavioral results showed no evidence for far transfer. Despite years of intensive practice, Scrabble experts were no faster and no more accurate than controls in the SDT...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881275/the-living-with-medicines-questionnaire-translation-and-cultural-adaptation-into-the-arabic-context
#16
Amani Zidan, Ahmed Awaisu, Sanah Hasan, Nadir Kheir
BACKGROUND: The Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) was developed in English language to assess, from a patient's perspective, issues related to the burden resulting from the use of medicines. OBJECTIVES: To translate and culturally adapt the LMQ into the Arabic language and context. METHODS: Permission to translate the LMQ was obtained from the original developers, and a protocol for its translation and cultural adaptation was developed using the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research guidelines for the translation and cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcome measures...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877120/fronto-parietal-contributions-to-phonological-processes-in-successful-artificial-grammar-learning
#17
Dariya Goranskaya, Jens Kreitewolf, Jutta L Mueller, Angela D Friederici, Gesa Hartwigsen
Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876508/a-behavioural-and-electrophysiological-investigation-of-the-effect-of-bilingualism-on-aging-and-cognitive-control
#18
Shanna Kousaie, Natalie A Phillips
Given previous, but inconsistent, findings of language group differences on cognitive control tasks the current investigation examined whether such differences could be demonstrated in a sample of older bilingual adults. Monolingual and bilingual older adults performed three cognitive control tasks that have previously been used in the literature (i.e., Stroop, Simon and flanker tasks) while brain electrophysiological recordings took place. Both behavioural (response time and accuracy) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs; N2 and P3 amplitude and latency) were compared across the two language groups...
November 20, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#19
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866995/an-integrated-decision-making-approach-for-assessing-healthcare-waste-treatment-technologies-from-a-multiple-stakeholder
#20
Hua Shi, Hu-Chen Liu, Ping Li, Xue-Guo Xu
With increased worldwide awareness of environmental issues, healthcare waste (HCW) management has received much attention from both researchers and practitioners over the past decade. The task of selecting the optimum treatment technology for HCWs is a challenging decision making problem involving conflicting evaluation criteria and multiple stakeholders. In this paper, we develop an integrated decision making framework based on cloud model and MABAC method for evaluating and selecting the best HCW treatment technology from a multiple stakeholder perspective...
November 17, 2016: Waste Management
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