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Linguistic relativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#1
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818676/the-importance-of-parental-verbal-and-embodied-mentalizing-in-shaping-parental-experiences-of-stress-and-coparenting
#2
Dana Shai, Daphna Dollberg, Ohad Szepsenwol
Parental mentalizing-recognizing that children are separate psychological entities, who have their own thoughts, wishes, and intentions that motivate their behaviors-is traditionally considered a verbal, linguistic capacity. This paper aimed to examine the relation between parental verbal mentalizing (parental reflective function; PRF) and its nonverbal form-parental embodied mentalizing (PEM)-and how both constructs contribute to parents' subjective experience of parenting, namely parental stress and coparental alliance...
August 14, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818249/health-literacy-cancer-prevention-strategies-for-early-adults
#3
Robert A Simmons, Susan C Cosgrove, Martha C Romney, James D Plumb, Rickie O Brawer, Evelyn T Gonzalez, Linda G Fleisher, Bradley S Moore
Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815262/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-in-adults-who-stutter-silent-responses-to-pictorial-stimuli
#4
Irena Vincent
Purpose: Research on language planning in adult stuttering is relatively sparse and offers diverging arguments about a potential causative relationship between semantic and phonological encoding and fluency breakdowns. This study further investigated semantic and phonological encoding efficiency in adults who stutter (AWS) by means of silent category and phoneme identification, respectively. Method: Fifteen AWS and 15 age- and sex-matched adults who do not stutter (ANS) participated...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812368/how-psychiatrists-recommend-treatment-and-its-relationship-with-patient-uptake
#5
Laura Thompson, Rose McCabe
Consultations for patients with chronic mental health conditions are conceived as meetings of experts: medical and experiential, respectively. Treatment decisions, in these terms, become a joint responsibility rather than handed down ex-cathedra. One resource for constituting decisions as 'shared' is the treatment recommendation - decisional authority can be invoked through its design. There is concern that people diagnosed with schizophrenia are infrequently involved in treatment decisions. However, the methods psychiatrists actually employ remain undefined...
August 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799292/profits-and-prophets-derrida-on-linguistic-bereavement-and-im-possibility-in-nursing
#6
Barbara Pesut
The work of Jacques Derrida has received relatively little attention within nursing philosophy. Perhaps this is because Derrida is known best for deconstructing philosophy itself, a task he performed by making language unintelligible to make a point. This in itself makes his work daunting for nurses who do applied philosophy. Despite these difficulties, Derrida's focus on holding open a space for ideas, particularly those ideas that are invisible or unpopular, holds potential for enhancing the diversity of ideas within nursing...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798706/age-dependent-positivity-bias-in-children-s-processing-of-emotion-terms
#7
Daniela Bahn, Michael Vesker, José C García Alanis, Gudrun Schwarzer, Christina Kauschke
Emotions play an important role in human communication, and the daily-life interactions of young children often include situations that require the verbalization of emotional states with verbal means, e.g., with emotion terms. Through them, one can express own emotional states and those of others. Thus, the acquisition of emotion terms allows children to participate more intensively in social contexts - a basic requirement for learning new words and for elaborating socio-emotional skills. However, little is known about how children acquire and process this specific word category, which is positioned between concrete and abstract words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797152/-validation-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-uterine-fibroid-symptom-and-health-related-quality-of-life
#8
X Q Wang, L Zhu, T Xu, L Zhang, T Lyu, R Chen
Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the uterine fibroid symptom and health-related quality of life (UFS-QOL) in patients with uterine fibroid. Methods: The original English UFS-QOL was translated into Chinese and linguistically validated following the cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures. Patients recruited randomly from Peking Union Medical College Hospital from June 2013 to December 2016 were scheduled for two visits with 2 weeks apart, and they were surveyed through the Chinese version of UFS-QOL and short-form 12-item health survey (SF-12)...
July 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793151/normative-study-of-the-functional-assessment-of-verbal-reasoning-and-executive-strategies-favres-test-in-the-french-canadian-population
#9
Karine Marcotte, Marie-Pier McSween, Monica Pouliot, Sarah Martineau, Anne-Marie Pauzé, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes, Sheila MacDonald
Purpose: The Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES; MacDonald, 2005) test was designed for use by speech-language pathologists to assess verbal reasoning, complex comprehension, discourse, and executive skills during performance on a set of challenging and ecologically valid functional tasks. A recent French version of this test was translated from English; however, it had not undergone standardization. The development of normative data that are linguistically and culturally sensitive to the target population is of importance...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791143/moral-judgement-by-the-disconnected-left-and-right-cerebral-hemispheres-a-split-brain-investigation
#10
Conor M Steckler, J Kiley Hamlin, Michael B Miller, Danielle King, Alan Kingstone
Owing to the hemispheric isolation resulting from a severed corpus callosum, research on split-brain patients can help elucidate the brain regions necessary and sufficient for moral judgement. Notably, typically developing adults heavily weight the intentions underlying others' moral actions, placing greater importance on valenced intentions versus outcomes when assigning praise and blame. Prioritization of intent in moral judgements may depend on neural activity in the right hemisphere's temporoparietal junction, an area implicated in reasoning about mental states...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790953/functionally-equivalent-variants-in-a-non-standard-variety-and-their-implications-for-universal-grammar-a-spontaneous-speech-corpus
#11
Evelina Leivada, Elena Papadopoulou, Natalia Pavlou
Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization may result to grammatical hybridity, often manifested in the form of functionally equivalent variants in the repertoire of a single speaker...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776480/italian-adaptation-of-the-functional-outcome-questionnaire-aphasia-initial-psychometric-evaluation
#12
Simona Spaccavento, Elisabetta Cafforio, Fara Cellamare, Antonia Colucci, Angela Di Palma, Rosanna Falcone, Angela Craca, Anna Loverre, Roberto Nardulli, Robert L Glueckauf
PURPOSE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of Functional Outcome Questionnaire - Aphasia. METHODS: Two hundred and five persons with stroke-related aphasia and right hemiparesis who received ongoing assistance from a family caregiver were assessed using the Functional Outcome Questionnaire - Aphasia, Aachener Aphasie Test, Token Test, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Functional Assessment Measure (FAM), and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Aphasics (QLQA)...
August 4, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769856/when-meaning-is-not-enough-distributional-and-semantic-cues-to-word-categorization-in-child-directed-speech
#13
Sara Feijoo, Carmen Muñoz, Anna Amadó, Elisabet Serrat
One of the most important tasks in first language development is assigning words to their grammatical category. The Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis postulates that, in order to accomplish this task, children are guided by a neat correspondence between semantic and grammatical categories, since nouns typically refer to objects and verbs to actions. It is this correspondence that guides children's initial word categorization. Other approaches, on the other hand, suggest that children might make use of distributional cues and word contexts to accomplish the word categorization task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766998/linguistic-analysis-as-a-method-for-assessing-symptoms-after-sexual-trauma-among-female-adolescent-psychiatric-inpatients
#14
Kaisa Marshall, Amanda Venta, Craig Henderson, Maria Barker, Carla Sharp
Using a sample of female psychiatric inpatient adolescents, the current study aimed to extend this literature to an adolescent sample for the first time by examining if linguistic markers and their subcategories (cognitive process words, pronoun use, and somatosensory detail) in a trauma account are related to trauma symptomology and recovery during inpatient care. Results indicated that greater use of body words and fewer insight words were related to increased trauma symptoms at admission. In addition, use of fewer cognitive process words at admission predicted greater symptom change at discharge, extending previous research findings to an adolescent sample...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764852/parkinson-s-disease-compromises-the-appraisal-of-action-meanings-evoked-by-naturalistic-texts
#15
Adolfo M García, Yamile Bocanegra, Elena Herrera, Leonardo Moreno, Jairo Carmona, Ana Baena, Francisco Lopera, David Pineda, Margherita Melloni, Agustina Legaz, Edinson Muñoz, Lucas Sedeño, Sandra Baez, Agustín Ibáñez
The linguistic profile of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by difficulties in processing units which denote bodily movements. However, the available evidence has low ecological validity, as it stems from atomistic tasks which are never encountered in real life. Here, we assessed whether such deficits also occur for meanings evoked by context-rich narratives, considering patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively) and matched controls for each group. Participants read two naturalistic stories (an action text and a neutral text) and responded to questions tapping the appraisal of verb-related and circumstantial information...
July 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764479/analyzing-dialect-variation-in-historical-speech-corpora
#16
Margaret E L Renwick, Rachel M Olsen
The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762618/exploring-disparities-in-receipt-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-cald-groups-an-australian-centre-s-experience
#17
Alesha A Thai, Mark Tacey, Amanda Byrne, Shane White, Jaclyn Yoong
BACKGROUND: Globally, racial and ethnic disparities exist in treatments and outcomes for cancer patients. In Australia, there is little published data relating to cancer patients from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. AIM: To explore disparities in adjuvant chemotherapy utilisation in cancer patients from CALD groups. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients who were recommended adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer (eBC) or early-stage colorectal cancer (eCRC) between July 2011 and October 2014...
August 1, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760344/-adapting-and-validating-the-generic-instrument-collaborate%C3%A2-to-measure-women-s-participation-in-health-related-decision-making-during-the-reproductive-process
#18
Paulina Bravo, Aixa Contreras, Angelina Dois, Luis Villarroel
INTRODUCTION: There is a worldwide interest in involving patients in health related decisions, so patients can actively search for therapeutic options and choose course of action that allows them to have better quality of life and wellbeing. The majority of the instruments available to capture the degree of participation in medical decision-making are in English and have been developed in high income countries. OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate for the Chilean context the instrument CollaboRATE™, to measure women's participation in medical decisions during the reproductive process...
July 28, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756351/linguistic-generalization-on-the-basis-of-function-and-constraints-on-the-basis-of-statistical-preemption
#19
Florent Perek, Adele E Goldberg
How do people learn to use language in creative but constrained ways? Experiment 1 investigates linguistic creativity by exposing adult participants to two novel word order constructions that differ in terms of their semantics: One construction exclusively describes actions that have a strong effect; the other construction describes actions with a weaker but otherwise similar effect. One group of participants witnessed novel verbs only appearing in one construction or the other, while another group witnessed a minority of verbs alternating between constructions...
July 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751875/evoking-and-measuring-identification-with-narrative-characters-a-linguistic-cues-framework
#20
Kobie van Krieken, Hans Hoeken, José Sanders
Current research on identification with narrative characters poses two problems. First, although identification is seen as a dynamic process of which the intensity varies during reading, it is usually measured by means of post-reading questionnaires containing self-report items. Second, it is not clear which linguistic characteristics evoke identification. The present paper proposes that an interdisciplinary framework allows for more precise manipulations and measurements of identification, which will ultimately advance our understanding of the antecedents and nature of this process...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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