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Linguistic relativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208133/how-truncating-are-truncating-languages-evidence-from-russian-and-german
#1
Tamara V Rathcke
Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages...
February 23, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203335/is-the-bayley-scales-of-infant-and-toddler-developmental-screening-test-valid-and-reliable-for-persian-speaking-children
#2
Farin Soleimani, Nadia Azari, Roshanak Vameghi, Firoozeh Sajedi, Soheila Shahshahani, Hossein Karimi, Adis Kraskian, Amin Shahrokhi, Robab Teymouri, Masoud Gharib
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants' and toddlers' development...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202287/cultural-adaptation-to-spanish-spain-of-the-overactive-bladder-family-impact-measure-oab-fim-questionnaire
#3
S Arlandis Guzmán, E Martínez Cuenca, R Martínez García, M A Bonillo García, J Rejas, E Broseta-Rico
OBJECTIVE: The OAB-FIM was developed as a measure of the impact of an overactive bladder (OAB) on relatives who live with the patient. The objective of this study was conduct a cultural adaptation to Spanish (Spain) of the OAB-FIM questionnaire. METHODS: The adaptation included a conceptual and linguistic validation phase, as well as a phase for measuring the psychometric properties in 25 relatives [mean age, 63.0 years (SD, 14.3); 44% women] who regularly live with patients with OAB, who are of either sex and 18 years of age or older...
February 12, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#4
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196359/language-on-the-phenomenology-of-linguistic-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-4
#5
Elizabeth Pienkos, Louis Sass
Anomalies of language use and comprehension are common in schizophrenia. However, they are typically studied only from a diagnostic or behavioral perspective and viewed simply as deficits or disruptions of normal functioning. Such approaches ignore what it is like to experience language, and thus are at risk of missing aspects of these linguistic anomalies that may be crucial for understanding them. The Examination of Anomalous World Experience (EAWE) provides one way to inquire into the experiential changes related to and underlying these disturbances...
February 15, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194620/mathematical-modeling-of-learning-from-an-inconsistent-source-a-nonlinear-approach
#6
Timmy Ma, Natalia L Komarova
Continuing the discussion of how children can modify and regularize linguistic inputs from adults, we present a new interpretation of existing algorithms to model and investigate the process of a learner learning from an inconsistent source. On the basis of this approach is a (possibly nonlinear) function (the update function) that relates the current state of the learner with an increment that it receives upon processing the source's input, in a sequence of updates. The model can be considered a nonlinear generalization of the classic Bush-Mosteller algorithm...
February 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194122/social-salience-discriminates-learnability-of-contextual-cues-in-an-artificial-language
#7
Péter Rácz, Jennifer B Hay, Janet B Pierrehumbert
We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191001/acoustic-properties-predict-perception-of-unfamiliar-dutch-vowels-by-adult-australian-english-and-peruvian-spanish-listeners
#8
Samra Alispahic, Karen E Mulak, Paola Escudero
Research suggests that the size of the second language (L2) vowel inventory relative to the native (L1) inventory may affect the discrimination and acquisition of L2 vowels. Models of non-native and L2 vowel perception stipulate that naïve listeners' non-native and L2 perceptual patterns may be predicted by the relationship in vowel inventory size between the L1 and the L2. Specifically, having a smaller L1 vowel inventory than the L2 impedes L2 vowel perception, while having a larger one often facilitates it...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187367/ontology-based-automatic-identification-of-public-health-related-turkish-tweets
#9
Emine Ela Küçük, Kürşad Yapar, Dilek Küçük, Doğan Küçük
Social media analysis, such as the analysis of tweets, is a promising research topic for tracking public health concerns including epidemics. In this paper, we present an ontology-based approach to automatically identify public health-related Turkish tweets. The system is based on a public health ontology that we have constructed through a semi-automated procedure. The ontology concepts are expanded through a linguistically motivated relaxation scheme as the last stage of ontology development, before being integrated into our system to increase its coverage...
February 4, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187352/the-double-identity-of-doubling-evidence-for-the-phonology-morphology-split
#10
Iris Berent, Outi Bat-El, Vered Vaknin-Nusbaum
Duality of patterning, is, by hypothesis, a universal design feature of language. Every language constructs words from meaningful units (morphemes), which, in turn, are comprised of meaningless phonological elements (e.g., segments, syllables). But whether the language faculty does, in fact, include a separate morphological level, distinct from the phonology, is a matter of controversy. To elucidate the role of morphology, here we ask whether morphological forms are constrained by putatively universal combinatorial principles, distinct from those applying to phonological patterns...
February 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182997/assessing-language-skills-in-adult-key-word-signers-with-intellectual-disabilities-insights-from-sign-linguistics
#11
REVIEW
Nicola Grove, Bencie Woll
Manual signing is one of the most widely used approaches to support the communication and language skills of children and adults who have intellectual or developmental disabilities, and problems with communication in spoken language. A recent series of papers reporting findings from this population raises critical issues for professionals in the assessment of multimodal language skills of key word signers. Approaches to assessment will differ depending on whether key word signing (KWS) is viewed as discrete from, or related to, natural sign languages...
February 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181087/fasting-diabetes-and-optimizing-health-outcomes-for-ramadan-observers-a-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Hadi A Almansour, Betty Chaar, Bandana Saini
INTRODUCTION: Globally, and in Australia, diabetes has become a common chronic health condition. Diabetes is also quite prevalent in culturally and linguistically diverse pockets of the Australian population, including Muslims. There are over 90 million Muslims with diabetes worldwide. Diabetes management and medication use can be affected by religious practices such as fasting during Ramadan. During Ramadan, Muslims refrain from oral or intravenous substances from sunrise to sunset...
February 8, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179749/danish-translation-and-linguistic-validation-of-the-body-q-a-description-of-the-process
#13
Lotte Poulsen, Michael Rose, Anne Klassen, Kirsten K Roessler, Jens Ahm Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are increasingly being included in research and clinical practice to assess the patient point of view. Bariatric and body contouring surgery has the potential to improve or restore a patient's body image and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). A new PRO instrument, called the BODY-Q, has recently been developed specifically for this patient group. The aim of the current study was to translate and perform a linguistic validation of the BODY-Q for use in Danish bariatric and body contouring patients...
2017: European Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169316/cross-modal-noise-compensation-in-audiovisual-words
#14
Martijn Baart, Blair C Armstrong, Clara D Martin, Ram Frost, Manuel Carreiras
Perceiving linguistic input is vital for human functioning, but the process is complicated by the fact that the incoming signal is often degraded. However, humans can compensate for unimodal noise by relying on simultaneous sensory input from another modality. Here, we investigated noise-compensation for spoken and printed words in two experiments. In the first behavioral experiment, we observed that accuracy was modulated by reaction time, bias and sensitivity, but noise compensation could nevertheless be explained via accuracy differences when controlling for RT, bias and sensitivity...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166652/language-learning-recasts-and-interaction-involving-aac-background-and-potential-for-intervention
#15
Michael T Clarke, Gloria Soto, Keith Nelson
For children with typical development, language is learned through everyday discursive interaction. Adults mediate child participation in such interactions through the deployment of a range of co-constructive strategies, including repeating, questioning, prompting, expanding, and reformulating the child's utterances. Adult reformulations of child utterances, also known as recasts, have also been shown to relate to the acquisition of linguistic structures in children with language and learning disabilities and children and adults learning a foreign language...
February 6, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161750/quality-assessment-of-structure-and-language-elements-of-written-responses-given-by-seven-scandinavian-drug-information-centres
#16
Linda Amundstuen Reppe, Olav Spigset, Jens Peter Kampmann, Per Damkier, Hanne Rolighed Christensen, Ylva Böttiger, Jan Schjøtt
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify structure and language elements affecting the quality of responses from Scandinavian drug information centres (DICs). METHODS: Six different fictitious drug-related queries were sent to each of seven Scandinavian DICs. The centres were blinded for which queries were part of the study. The responses were assessed qualitatively by six clinical pharmacologists (internal experts) and six general practitioners (GPs, external experts)...
February 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160453/word-learning-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Angela Xiaoxue He, Sudha Arunachalam
How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms...
February 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160440/representation-of-speech-variability
#18
REVIEW
Tessa Bent, Rachael F Holt
Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal...
February 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158947/ambiguous-bodies-uncertain-diseases-knowledge-of-cervical-cancer-in-papua-new-guinea
#19
A Kelly-Hanku, S Ase, V Fiya, P Toliman, H Aeno, G M Mola, J M Kaldor, L M Vallely, A J Vallely
OBJECTIVES: Within their local realities, people experience and interpret disease in diverse ways that do not necessarily correlate or converge with Western biomedical interventions. In the high cervical cancer burden setting of Papua New Guinea, understanding how people experience and interpret cervical cancer is necessary for effective intervention. Drawing on work by Street on the production of unstable biomedical knowledge, we explored how ambiguity and uncertainty, coupled with cultural taboos and linguistic limitations, affect what and how people 'know' about women's reproductive organs and their associated disease...
February 3, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149285/women-overestimate-temporal-duration-evidence-from-chinese-emotional-words
#20
Mingming Zhang, Lingcong Zhang, Yibing Yu, Tiantian Liu, Wenbo Luo
Numerous studies have proven the effect of emotion on temporal perception, using various emotional stimuli. However, research investigating this issue from the lexico-semantic perspective and gender difference remains scarce. In this study, participants were presented with different types of emotional words designed in classic temporal bisection tasks. In Experiment 1 where the arousal level of emotional words was controlled, no pure effect of valence on temporal perception was found; however, we observed the overestimation of women relative to men...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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