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Linguistic relativity

Eleonora J Beier, Fernanda Ferreira
While rhythmic expectancies are thought to be at the base of beat perception in music, the extent to which stress patterns in speech are similarly represented and predicted during on-line language comprehension is debated. The temporal prediction of stress may be advantageous to speech processing, as stress patterns aid segmentation and mark new information in utterances. However, while linguistic stress patterns may be organized into hierarchical metrical structures similarly to musical meter, they do not typically present the same degree of periodicity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rohan Patel, Brian J McKinnon
Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss (ARHL), is the result of physiologic and pathologic changes associated with advancing age. ARHL presents typically with a high-frequency hearing loss, which contributes to greater trouble hearing consonants within words. Consonants convey the bulk of meaning within a word, and this loss of linguistic information results in complaints associated with ARHL. Hearing aids and cochlear implants significantly improve the lives of older adults with hearing loss, in particular, those with depression and dementia...
May 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Myonghwa Park, Sun Kyung Kim, Miri Jeong, Song Ja Lee, Seon Hwa Kim, Jinha Kim, Dong Young Lee
PURPOSE: The prevalence of dementia has increased rapidly with an aging Korean population. Compared to those without dementia, individuals with dementia have more and complex needs. In this study, the Korean version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE-K) was evaluated to determine its suitability for individuals with dementia in Korea. METHODS: The CANE-K was developed following linguistic validation. The reliability of the measurement was examined with Cronbach's alpha coefficient...
April 10, 2018: Asian Nursing Research
Ming Tang, Huchang Liao, Zongmin Li, Zeshui Xu
Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts' knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts' preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Caoimhe M Harrington Stack, Ariel N James, Duane G Watson
Language comprehension requires successfully navigating linguistic variability. One hypothesis for how listeners manage variability is that they rapidly update their expectations of likely linguistic events in new contexts. This process, called adaptation, allows listeners to better predict the upcoming linguistic input. In previous work, Fine, Jaeger, Farmer, and Qian (PLoS ONE, 8, e77661, 2013) found evidence for syntactic adaptation. Subjects repeatedly encountered sentences in which a verb was temporarily ambiguous between main verb (MV) and reduced relative clause (RC) interpretations...
April 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Jennifer C Leng, Lei Lei, Shu Fang Lei, Zhiying Zhu, Nancy Mo, Brian Sou, Imran Mujawar, Francesca Gany
We aimed to assess a key risk factor for lung cancer, smoking, in a vulnerable group, Chinese livery drivers in New York City (NYC). This is a nested cohort study conducted in the summer/fall of 2014 within a larger NIMHD-funded R24 program, the Taxi Network. The Taxi Network Needs Assessment (TNNA) survey was administered to a broad demographic of drivers. This study reports on the TNNA survey smoking-related results among NYC Chinese livery drivers. 97 drivers participated. Mean age was 44.7 years, 2.1% were English proficient, and 23...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Julia Krebs, Evie Malaia, Ronnie B Wilbur, Dietmar Roehm
Research on spoken languages has identified a "subject preference" processing strategy for tackling input that is syntactically ambiguous as to whether a sentence-initial NP is a subject or object. The present study documents that the "subject preference" strategy is also seen in the processing of a sign language, supporting the hypothesis that the "subject"-first is universal and not dependent on the language modality (spoken vs. signed). Deaf signers of Austrian Sign Language (ÖGS) were shown videos of locally ambiguous signed sentences in SOV and OSV word orders...
April 5, 2018: Brain Research
Antònia Font-Jordà, Antoni Gamundí, María Cristina Nicolau Llobera, Eva Aguilar-Mediavilla
INTRODUCTION: The finding of biological markers of specific language impairment would facilitate their detection and early intervention. In this sense, the 2D:4D finger ratio is considered an indirect indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone. Previous studies have related it to linguistic competence and aggressive behaviour, and could be a candidate for a biological marker of language impairment. The aim was to compare the value of the 2D:4D ratio in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) with those of children with typical language development, as well as to establish to what extent this biological index correlates with the behaviour (linguistic, cognitive, social,...
April 3, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Yi Ting Huang
Skilled reading requires coordinating real-time visual fixations, orthographic analyses, and phonological encoding across multiple words in sentences. These procedures are well studied in experienced readers, but less is known about their status during development. To investigate how visual properties influence the origins of coordinated processing, the current study combined rapid automatized naming (RAN) with an eye-tracking paradigm and compared the timing of fixations and vocalizations in typically developing adults and 6-year-old children...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Lucía I Méndez, Elizabeth R Crais, Kirsten Kainz
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: First, we replicated in a new sample our previous findings that a culturally and linguistically responsive (CLR) bilingual approach for English vocabulary instruction for preschool Latino dual language learners was effective. Subsequently, we investigated whether the positive effect of CLR instruction varies as a function of individual child characteristics, including baseline vocabulary levels and gender. Method: Using a randomized pretest-posttest follow-up group design, we first replicated our previous study (N = 42) with a new sample by randomly assigning 35 Spanish-speaking Latino preschoolers to a CLR bilingual group or an English-only group...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Celine De Looze, Finnian Kelly, Lisa Crosby, Aisling Vourdanou, Robert F Coen, Cathal Walsh, Brian A Lawlor, Richard B Reilly
BACKGROUND: Speech and language impairments, generally attributed to lexico-semantic deficits, have been documented in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigates the temporal organisation of speech (reflective of speech production planning) in reading aloud in relation to cognitive impairment, particularly working memory and attention deficits in MCI and AD. The discriminative ability of temporal features extracted from a newly designed read speech task is also evaluated for the detection of MCI and AD...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Hyo-Jung Oh, Hyeon-Mi Choi, Chonghyuck Kim, Jae-Gyu Jeon
Water fluoridation has been cited as one of the top 10 public health achievements of the 20th century. Herein, we analyzed water fluoridation articles related to dental caries published in PubMed between 1950 and 2016 using informetrics and linguistic methods to investigate trends in the studies. To this aim, queries such as "dental caries and (water fluoridation or fluoridated water)," "dental caries and (fluoride or fluoridation)," and "dental caries" were submitted to PubMed to retrieve information about articles on water fluoridation within the area of dental caries and fluoride - their titles, abstracts, publication dates, author affiliations, and publication journals...
April 4, 2018: Caries Research
Núria Esteve-Gibert, Bahia Guellaï
The development of body movements such as hand or head gestures, or facial expressions, seems to go hand-in-hand with the development of speech abilities. We know that very young infants rely on the movements of their caregivers' mouth to segment the speech stream, that infants' canonical babbling is temporally related to rhythmic hand movements, that narrative abilities emerge at a similar time in speech and gestures, and that children make use of both modalities to access complex pragmatic intentions. Prosody has emerged as a key linguistic component in this speech-gesture relationship, yet its exact role in the development of multimodal communication is still not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Liquan Liu, Jia Hoong Ong, Alba Tuninetti, Paola Escudero
Research investigating listeners' neural sensitivity to speech sounds has largely focused on segmental features. We examined Australian English listeners' perception and learning of a supra-segmental feature, pitch direction in a non-native tonal contrast, using a passive oddball paradigm and electroencephalography. The stimuli were two contours generated from naturally produced high-level and high-falling tones in Mandarin Chinese, differing only in pitch direction (Liu and Kager, 2014). While both contours had similar pitch onsets, the pitch offset of the falling contour was lower than that of the level one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Christine Cohidon, Pascal Wild, Nicolas Senn
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays we typically use patient experience as a quality of care indicator, although this has some limitations. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent patient, physician and practice characteristics were associated with patient-reported experience of care in the major dimensions in family medicine in a fee-for-service system. METHODS: The data came from the Swiss part of the Quality and Costs of Primary Care (QUALICOPC) study, an international cross-sectional survey...
April 3, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
X X Gao, L Zhu, S J Yu, J R Ma, T Xu
Objective: To develop the Chinese version of the fecal incontinence quality of life (FIQL) questionnaire, and to validate them in Chinese population. Methods: Our study included 52 cases recruiting from outpatients diagnosed with fecal incontinence in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, fecal incontinence in Beijing City nursing homes for the elderly, and patients received perineal repair surgeries who suffered from perineal laceration and laceration in in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2013 to 2016 December...
March 20, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Laurie A Stowe, Edith Kaan, Laura Sabourin, Ryan C Taylor
Current sentence processing research has focused on early effects of the on-line incremental processes that are performed at each word or constituent during processing. However, less attention has been devoted to what happens at the end of the clause or sentence. More specifically, over the last decade and a half, a lot of effort has been put into avoiding measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) at the final word of a sentence, because of the possible effects of sentence wrap-up. This article reviews the evidence on how and when sentence wrap-up impacts behavioral and ERP results...
March 30, 2018: Cognition
Daniel Shriner, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi
The Hadza and Sandawe populations in present-day Tanzania speak languages containing click sounds and therefore thought to be distantly related to southern African Khoisan languages. We analyzed genome-wide genotype data for individuals sampled from the Hadza and Sandawe populations in the context of a global data set of 3,528 individuals from 163 ethno-linguistic groups. We found that Hadza and Sandawe individuals share ancestry distinct from and most closely related to Omotic ancestry; share Khoisan ancestry with populations such as ≠Khomani, Karretjie, and Ju/'hoansi in southern Africa; share Niger-Congo ancestry with populations such as Yoruba from Nigeria and Luhya from Kenya, consistent with migration associated with the Bantu Expansion; and share Cushitic ancestry with Somali, multiple Ethiopian populations, the Maasai population in Kenya, and the Nama population in Namibia...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Jennie Ponsford, Marina Downing, Helen Pechlivanidis
Most traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome studies have been conducted in developed countries involving individuals from the dominant culture. The present study compared outcomes following TBI in individuals from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) backgrounds with those from non-CALD backgrounds. 103 CALD and 103 non-CALD participants with predominantly moderate to severe TBI completed a series of questionnaires an average of 22 months post-injury. Groups were comparable in most demographic and injury-related variables, but CALD participants had lower pre-injury employment rates...
April 2, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Gülçin Büyüközkan, Yağmur Karabulut
Current global economic activities are increasingly being perceived as unsustainable. Despite the high number of publications, sustainability science remains highly dispersed over diverse approaches and topics. This article aims to provide a structured overview of sustainability performance evaluation related publications and to document the current state of literature, categorize publications, analyze and link trends, as well as highlight gaps and provide research recommendations. 128 articles between 2007 and 2018 are identified...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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