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Linguistic relativity

Dahye Choi, Edward G Conture, Victoria Tumanova, Chagit E Clark, Tedra A Walden, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering differ in articulation, language and attentional abilities and family histories of articulation, language and attention related disorders. METHOD: Participants were 25 young CWS and 50 young CWNS. All 75 participants' caregivers consistently reported a positive or negative family history of stuttering across three consecutive time points that were about 8 months apart for a total of approximately 16 months...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
Sarah Villard, Swathi Kiran
Persons with aphasia (PWA) have been found in many previous studies to exhibit impaired performance on attention processing tasks, even when these tasks do not contain linguistic stimuli. There is also some evidence that as individuals, PWA may show more intra-individual variability (i.e. time-based fluctuations) in attention than healthy controls. The current study systematically examines two types of intra-individual variability in attention in aphasia, between-session intra-individual variability (BS-IIV) and within-session intra-individual variability (WS-IIV), looking in particular at how task demands impact these dimensions of performance...
December 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Tonia Crawford, Sally Candlin, Peter Roger
Effective communication is essential in developing rapport with patients, and many nursing roles such as patient assessment, education, and counselling consist only of dialogue. With increasing cultural diversity among nurses and patients in Australia, there are growing concerns relating to the potential for miscommunication, as differences in language and culture can cause misunderstandings which can have serious impacts on health outcomes and patient safety (Hamilton & Woodward-Kron, 2010). According to Grant and Luxford (2011)) there is little research into the way health professionals approach working with cultural difference or how this impacts on their everyday practice...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
V Černý, I Kulichová, E S Poloni, J M Nunes, L Pereira, A Mayor, A Sanchez-Mazas
From a biogeographic perspective Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara Desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the savannah bordering it in the south, is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today...
December 7, 2017: HLA
Peggy F Jacobson, Suzanne Thompson Miller
PURPOSE: To improve screening procedures for children in a linguistically diverse context, we combined tasks known to reveal grammatical deficits in children with language impairment (LI) with training to facilitate performance on a verb elicitation task. METHOD: Sixty-four first grade children participated. The objective grammatical measures included elicitation of 12 past tense regular verbs preceded by a teaching phase (teach-test), the sentence recall (SR) subtest of the Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals (CELF-4), and a tally of all conjugated verbs from a narrative retell task...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Valentina Niccolai, Anne Klepp, Peter Indefrey, Alfons Schnitzler, Katja Biermann-Ruben
Motor cortex activation observed during body-related verb processing hints at simulation accompanying linguistic understanding. By exploiting the up- and down-regulation that anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exert on motor cortical excitability, we aimed at further characterizing the functional contribution of the motor system to linguistic processing. In a double-blind sham-controlled within-subjects design, online stimulation was applied to the left hemispheric hand-related motor cortex of 20 healthy subjects...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sheena Mehta, Yi Ding, Molly Ness, Eric C Chen
The study assessed the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determined whether invented spelling with linguistic manipulation at segmental and supra-segmental levels can be used to better identify reading difficulties. We conducted linguistic manipulation by using real and nonreal words, incorporating word stress, alternating the order of consonants and vowels, and alternating the number of syllables. We recruited 60 third-grade students, of which half were typical readers and half were poor readers...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Pilar Casado, Manuel Martín-Loeches, Inmaculada León, David Hernández-Gutiérrez, Javier Espuny, Francisco Muñoz, Laura Jiménez-Ortega, Sabela Fondevila, Manuel de Vega
This study aims to extend the embodied cognition approach to syntactic processing. The hypothesis is that the brain resources to plan and perform motor sequences are also involved in syntactic processing. To test this hypothesis, Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with embedded relative clauses, judging for their acceptability (half of the sentences contained a subject-verb morphosyntactic disagreement). The sentences, previously divided into three segments, were self-administered segment-by-segment in two different sequential manners: linear or non-linear...
November 15, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Elizabeth A Walker, Sophie E Ambrose, Jacob Oleson, Mary Pat Moeller
Purpose: This study investigates false belief (FB) understanding in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) compared with children with normal hearing (CNH) at ages 5 and 6 years and at 2nd grade. Research with this population has theoretical significance, given that the early auditory-linguistic experiences of CHH are less restricted compared with children who are deaf but not as complete as those of CNH. Method: Participants included CHH and CNH who had completed FB tasks as part of a larger multicenter, longitudinal study on outcomes of children with mild-to-severe hearing loss...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Alessandra Cecilia Rampinini, Giacomo Handjaras, Andrea Leo, Luca Cecchetti, Emiliano Ricciardi, Giovanna Marotta, Pietro Pietrini
Classical models of language localize speech perception in the left superior temporal and production in the inferior frontal cortex. Nonetheless, neuropsychological, structural and functional studies have questioned such subdivision, suggesting an interwoven organization of the speech function within these cortices. We tested whether sub-regions within frontal and temporal speech-related areas retain specific phonological representations during both perception and production. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivoxel pattern analysis, we showed functional and spatial segregation across the left fronto-temporal cortex during listening, imagery and production of vowels...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Priscilla M Lopez, Jennifer Zanowiak, Keith Goldfeld, Katarzyna Wyka, Ahmad Masoud, Susan Beane, Rashi Kumar, Phoebe Laughlin, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Lorna Thorpe, Nadia Islam
BACKGROUND: The Million Hearts® initiative aims to prevent heart disease and stroke in the United States by mobilizing public and private sectors around a core set of objectives, with particular attention on improving blood pressure control. South Asians in particular have disproportionately high rates of hypertension and face numerous cultural, linguistic, and social barriers to accessing healthcare. Interventions utilizing Health information technology (HIT) and community health worker (CHW)-led patient coaching have each been demonstrated to be effective at advancing Million Hearts® goals, yet few studies have investigated the potential impact of integrating these strategies into a clinical-community linkage initiative...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
J C Field, A Kavadella, S Szep, J R Davies, E DeLap, M C Manzanares Cespedes
This position paper outlines the areas of competence and learning outcomes of "The Graduating European Dentist" that specifically relate to patient-centred care. This approach is becoming increasingly prominent within the literature and within policy documents. Whilst working to an evidence base is critical, dentists must also be aware of the scientific basis that underpins the treatment they provide. The evaluation process, which supports treatment planning, also requires dentists to be able to listen, collate, and record pertinent information effectively...
December 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Marre W Kaandorp, Cas Smits, Paul Merkus, Joost M Festen, S Theo Goverts
Not all of the variance in speech-recognition performance of cochlear implant (CI) users can be explained by biographic and auditory factors. In normal-hearing listeners, linguistic and cognitive factors determine most of speech-in-noise performance. The current study explored specifically the influence of visually measured lexical-access ability compared with other cognitive factors on speech recognition of 24 postlingually deafened CI users. Speech-recognition performance was measured with monosyllables in quiet (consonant-vowel-consonant [CVC]), sentences-in-noise (SIN), and digit-triplets in noise (DIN)...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
Hajo Greif
Two aspects of cognitive coupling, as brought forward in the Extended Mind Hypothesis, are discussed in this paper: (1) how shall the functional coupling between the organism and some entity in his environment be spelled out in detail? (2) What are the paradigmatic external entities to enter into that coupling? These two related questions are best answered in the light of an aetiological variety of functionalist argument that adds historical depth to the "active externalism" promoted by Clark and Chalmers and helps to counter some of the core criticisms levelled against this view...
2017: Synthese
Lauren V Hadley, Patrick Sturt, Nikki Moran, Martin J Pickering
Successful duetting requires that musicians coordinate their performance with their partners. In the case of turn-taking in improvised performance they need to be able to predict their partner's turn-end in order to accurately time their own entries. Here we investigate the cues used for accurate turn-end prediction in musical improvisations, focusing on the role of tonal structure. In a response-time task, participants more accurately determined the endings of (tonal) jazz than (non-tonal) free improvisation turns...
November 29, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Laura E de Ruiter, Anna L Theakston, Silke Brandt, Elena V M Lieven
Complex sentences involving adverbial clauses appear in children's speech at about three years of age yet children have difficulty comprehending these sentences well into the school years. To date, the reasons for these difficulties are unclear, largely because previous studies have tended to focus on only sub-types of adverbial clauses, or have tested only limited theoretical models. In this paper, we provide the most comprehensive experimental study to date. We tested four-year-olds, five-year-olds and adults on four different adverbial clauses (before, after, because, if) to evaluate four different theoretical models (semantic, syntactic, frequency-based and capacity-constrained)...
November 29, 2017: Cognition
Parveen Azam Ali, Roger Watson
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perspectives of language barriers and their impact on the provision of care to patients with limited English proficiency from diverse linguistic background. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Using individual interviews and focus group discussions, data were collected from 59 nurses working in tertiary care hospitals in England. A thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. FINDINGS: Three themes: 'multi-ethnicities and language barriers'; 'the impact of language barriers'; and 'communicating via interpreters', were identified...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Maren Schmidt-Kassow, Katharina Thöne, Jochen Kaiser
Recent studies have shown that moving in synchrony with auditory stimuli boosts attention allocation and verbal learning. Furthermore rhythmic tones are processed more efficiently than temporally random tones ('timing effect'), and this effect is increased when participants actively synchronize their motor performance with the rhythm of the tones, resulting in auditory-motor synchronization. Here, we investigated whether this applies also to sequences of linguistic stimuli (syllables). We compared temporally irregular syllable sequences with two temporally regular conditions where either the interval between syllable onsets (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) or the interval between the syllables' vowel onsets was kept constant...
November 27, 2017: Brain Research
Matthew D Rocklage, Russell H Fazio
Despite the centrality of both attitude accessibility and attitude basis to the last 30 years of theoretical and empirical work concerning attitudes, little work has systematically investigated their relation. The research that does exist provides conflicting results and is not at all conclusive given the methodology that has been used. The current research uses recent advances in statistical modeling and attitude measurement to provide the most systematic examination of the relation between attitude accessibility and basis to date...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Gilad Feldman, Huiwen Lian, Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell
There are two conflicting perspectives regarding the relationship between profanity and dishonesty. These two forms of norm-violating behavior share common causes and are often considered to be positively related. On the other hand, however, profanity is often used to express one's genuine feelings and could therefore be negatively related to dishonesty. In three studies, we explored the relationship between profanity and honesty. We examined profanity and honesty first with profanity behavior and lying on a scale in the lab (Study 1; N = 276), then with a linguistic analysis of real-life social interactions on Facebook (Study 2; N = 73,789), and finally with profanity and integrity indexes for the aggregate level of U...
September 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
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