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Linguistic relativity

Sonia Singh, Anne M Walk, Christopher M Conway
Previous research suggests that individuals with developmental dyslexia perform below typical readers on non-linguistic cognitive tasks involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a deficit have not been well examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of sequence processing in a sample of children diagnosed with dyslexia using a non-linguistic visual statistical learning paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Patrick E Timony, Alain P Gauthier, Boroma Sanou, Elizabeth F Wenghofer
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that French-speaking family physicians (FSPs) in Ontario are less numerous in areas with high proportions of francophones. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether the degree of concordance between physicians' language of competence and the linguistic profile of the community in which they practise is associated with workload and to explore variations in this relation in rural and northern regions of the province. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the 2013 College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario Annual Membership Renewal Survey...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
Beverly L Smith-Keiling, Lidia K Swanson, Joanne M Dehnbostel
In seeking to support diversity, one challenge lies in adequately supporting and assessing science cognitions in a writing-intensive Biochemistry laboratory course when highly engaged Asian English language learners (Asian ELLs) struggle to communicate and make novice errors in English. Because they may understand advanced science concepts, but are not being adequately assessed for their deeper scientific understanding, we sought and examined interventions. We hypothesized that inquiry strategies, scaffolded learning through peer evaluation, and individualized tools that build writing communication skills would increase confidence...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Faye Lander, Thembi Russell
This paper is a response to the growing reference to archaeological evidence by linguists and geneticists interested in the spread of early farmers and pastoralists in southern Africa. It presents two databases. The first contains the archaeological evidence for pastoralism and farming in southern Africa, for the period 550 BC to AD 1050. This is the first time that the seven different types of archaeological evidence that have traditionally been used to identify both spread events are presented together at this scale...
2018: PloS One
Annalena Venneri, Caroline Jahn-Carta, Matteo De Marco, Davide Quaranta, Camillo Marra
Relatively spared during most of the timeline of normal aging, semantic memory shows a subtle yet measurable decline even during the pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This decline is thought to reflect early neurofibrillary changes and impairment is detectable using tests of language relying on lexical-semantic abilities. A promising approach is the characterization of semantic parameters such as typicality and age of acquisition of words, and propositional density from verbal output. Seminal research like the Nun Study or the analysis of the linguistic decline of famous writers and politicians later diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease supports the early diagnostic value of semantic processing and semantic memory...
June 13, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Ernesto Guerra, Pia Knoeferle
Existing evidence has shown a processing advantage (or facilitation) when representations derived from a non-linguistic context (spatial proximity depicted by gambling cards moving together) match the semantic content of an ensuing sentence. A match, inspired by conceptual metaphors such as 'similarity is closeness' would, for instance, involve cards moving closer together and the sentence relates similarity between abstract concepts such as war and battle. However, other studies have reported a disadvantage (or interference) for congruence between the semantic content of a sentence and representations of spatial distance derived from this sort of non-linguistic context...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Joana M Barros, Jim Duggan, Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann
BACKGROUND: In recent years, Twitter has been applied to monitor diseases through its facility to monitor users' comments and concerns in real-time. The analysis of tweets for disease mentions should reflect not only user specific concerns but also disease outbreaks. This requires the use of standard terminological resources and can be focused on selected geographic locations. In our study, we differentiate between hospital and airport locations to better distinguish disease outbreaks from background mentions of disease concerns...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Lily A Brown, Carolyn D Davies, Alexander Gerlach, Ruth Cooper, Stephan Stevens, Michelle G Craske
While several empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been developed, these treatments are neither widely available nor universally efficacious. This pilot, proof of concept study evaluated a computerized imaginal exposure Script-Driven Imagery Training (SDI-T) for individuals with elevated trauma reactivity. The training was supplemented with two forms of linguistic processing, affect labeling (SDI-T + AL) and distraction (SDI-T + D), to determine whether linguistic inhibitory regulation augmented the effects of SDI-T...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jerzy P Szaflarski, Joseph Griffis, Jennifer Vannest, Jane B Allendorfer, Rodolphe Nenert, Amy W Amara, Victor Sung, Harrison C Walker, Amber N Martin, Victor W Mark, Xiaohua Zhou
PURPOSE: The purpose of this feasibility study was to assess whether combined intermittent theta burst suppression (iTBS) applied to the ipsilesional hemisphere and modified constraint-induced aphasia therapy (mCIAT) are safe and logistically feasible within the time interval associated with iTBS induced long-term potentiation in patients with post-stroke aphasia. We also wanted to determine whether combining priming with iTBS and CIAT improves language functions after treatment. METHODS: Twelve participants received fMRI (semantic decision/tone decision task) and neuropsychological testing of language skills at three time points - before starting the iTBS/mCIAT intervention (T1), immediately after completing 2-week long course of intervention (T2), and at 3-months follow-up (T3)...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Okko Räsänen, Sofoklis Kakouros, Melanie Soderstrom
The exaggerated intonation and special rhythmic properties of infant-directed speech (IDS) have been hypothesized to attract infants' attention to the speech stream. However, there has been little work actually connecting the properties of IDS to models of attentional processing or perceptual learning. A number of such attention models suggest that surprising or novel perceptual inputs attract attention, where novelty can be operationalized as the statistical (un)predictability of the stimulus in the given context...
June 6, 2018: Cognition
Maja Rodic, Jiaxin Cui, Sergey Malykh, Xinlin Zhou, Elena I Gynku, Elena L Bogdanova, Dina Y Zueva, Olga Y Bogdanova, Yulia Kovas
The study investigated cross-cultural differences in variability and average performance in arithmetic, mathematical reasoning, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing, intelligence, spatial ability, and mathematical anxiety in 890 6- to 9-year-old children from the United Kingdom, Russia, and China. Cross-cultural differences explained 28% of the variance in arithmetic and 17.3% of the variance in mathematical reasoning, with Chinese children outperforming the other two groups. No cross-cultural differences were observed for spatial ability and mathematical anxiety...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Pilar Ortega
Patient-physician language discordance within the growing Spanish-speaking patient population in the United States presents a significant challenge for health systems. The Civil Rights Act, an Executive Order, and federal standards establish legal requirements regarding patients' legal right to access medical care in their language of origin and to culturally and linguistically appropriate services, and national competency standards for undergraduate and graduate medical education and licensing examinations support the importance of patient-physician communication...
June 5, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Norbert Marschner, Jochen Wilke, Daniel Reschke, Florian Kaiser, Claudia Schmoor, Renate Grugel, Emil Boller
AIMS: This prospective, epidemiologic study was designed to translate the original Spanish Bone Metastases Quality-of-Life-10 (BOMET-QoL-10) questionnaire and undertake a validation of the translated German version of BOMET-QoL-10 in Germany to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with bone metastases (BM). METHODS: The translation process included forward and backward translations, and a linguistic validation. Patients aged ≥18 years with histological confirmation of cancer, diagnosed with BM, life expectancy ≥6 months, and fluency in German were eligible for this study (enrolled consecutively in 33 outpatient centers in Germany)...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Maria Montefinese, Ettore Ambrosini, Eka Roivainen
In this study, we tested the linguistic relativity hypothesis by studying the effect of grammatical gender (feminine vs. masculine) on affective judgments of conceptual representation in Italian and German. In particular, we examined the within- and cross-language grammatical gender effect and its interaction with participants' demographic characteristics (such as, the raters' age and sex) on semantic differential scales (affective ratings of valence, arousal and dominance) in Italian and German speakers. We selected the stimuli and the relative affective measures from Italian and German adaptations of the ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words)...
June 6, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Gavin M Bidelman, Mary Katherine Davis, Megan H Pridgen
Everyday speech perception is challenged by external acoustic interferences that hinder verbal communication. Here, we directly compared how different levels of the auditory system (brainstem vs. cortex) code speech and how their neural representations are affected by two acoustic stressors: noise and reverberation. We recorded multichannel (64 ch) brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) and cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) simultaneously in normal hearing individuals to speech sounds presented in mild and moderate levels of noise and reverb...
May 26, 2018: Hearing Research
Hanna Reich, Winfried Rief, Elmar Brähler, Ricarda Mewes
BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire's depression module (PHQ-9) is a widely used screening tool to assess depressive disorders. However, cross-linguistic and cross-cultural validation of the PHQ-9 is mostly lacking. This study investigates whether scores on the German and Turkish versions of the PHQ-9 are comparable. METHODS: Data from Germans without a migration background (German version, n = 1670) and Turkish immigrants in Germany (either German or Turkish version, n = 307) were used...
June 5, 2018: BMC Psychology
Mary Rudner
Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Judit Simon, Agata Łaszewska, Eva Leutner, Georg Spiel, David Churchman, Susanne Mayer
BACKGROUND: Mental health conditions affect aspects of people's lives that are often not captured in common health-related outcome measures. The OxCAP-MH self-reported, quality of life questionnaire based on Sen's capability approach was developed in the UK to overcome these limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a linguistically and culturally valid German version of the questionnaire. METHODS: Following forward and back translations, the wording underwent cultural and linguistic validation with input from a sample of 12 native German speaking mental health patients in Austria in 2015...
June 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Robert D Ashford, Austin M Brown, Brenda Curtis
Previous research has found initial evidence that word choice impacts the perception and treatment of those with behavioral health disorders through explicit bias (i.e., stigma). A more robust picture of behavioral health disorder stigma should incorporate both explicit and implicit bias, rather than relying on only one form. The current study uses the Go/No-Go Association Task to calculate a d' (sensitivity) indexed score of automatic attitudes (i.e., implicit associations) to two terms, "addict" and "person with substance use disorder...
June 4, 2018: Health Communication
Gesthimani Mintziori, Torquil Watt, Stavroula Veneti, Athanasios Panagiotou, Dimitri J Pournaras, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Laszlo Hegedüs, Steen Joop Bonnema, Jakob Bue Bjorner, Marina Kita, Dimitrios G Goulis
The thyroid-related patient-reported outcome measure ThyPRO is currently the most reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of thyroid-related quality of life. The objective of the current study was to translate the original (85 items) and short (39 items) versions of ThyPRO into the Greek language as well as to validate and culturally adapt ThyPRO among the Greek population. Translation of patient-reported outcomes was done according to standard methodology. Following the translation process, the Greek version of ThyPRO (ThyPROgr) was validated in consecutive patients with thyroid diseases who visited the outpatient clinics of the Department of Endocrinology, "Hippokration" General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece, between September and December 2016...
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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