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Linguistic relativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449558/interventions-to-enhance-the-adoption-of-asthma-self-management-behaviour-in-the-south-asian-and-african-american-population-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Salina Ahmed, Liz Steed, Katherine Harris, Stephanie J C Taylor, Hilary Pinnock
South Asian and other minority communities suffer poorer asthma outcomes, have a higher rate of unscheduled care and benefit less from most existing self-management interventions when compared to the majority population. Possible reasons for these differences include failure to implement asthma self-management strategies, or that strategies implemented were inappropriate for their needs; alternatively, they may relate to the minority and/or lower socioeconomic status of these populations. We aimed to synthesise evidence from randomised controlled trials for asthma self-management in South Asian and Black populations from different sociocultural contexts, and identify barriers and facilitators to implementing self-management...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447820/how-does-a-bilingual-environment-affect-the-results-in-children-with-cochlear-implants-compared-to-monolingual-matched-children-an-italian-follow-up-study
#2
Francesca Forli, Giada Giuntini, Annalisa Ciabotti, Luca Bruschini, Ulrika Löfkvist, Stefano Berrettini
OBJECTIVES: To compare the results after cochlear implantation achieved by monolingual and bilingual deaf children implanted at our Institution, with the aim of understanding if there are any differences between the two groups and if there is a correlation between the outcomes and some patients' variables. METHODS: The study group was composed by 14 bilingual deaf children and the control group by the same number of monolingual children implanted at our Institution...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446191/speech-understanding-in-noise-in-elderly-adults-the-effect-of-inhibitory-control-and-syntactic-complexity
#3
Eline C van Knijff, Martine Coene, Paul J Govaerts
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that speech perception in elderly adults is influenced not only by age-related hearing loss or presbycusis but also by declines in cognitive abilities, by background noise and by the syntactic complexity of the message. AIMS: To gain further insight into the influence of these cognitive as well as acoustic and linguistic factors on speech perception in elderly adults by investigating inhibitory control as a listener characteristic and background noise type and syntactic complexity as input characteristics...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444607/psychometric-evaluation-of-persian-nomophobia-questionnaire-differential-item-functioning-and-measurement-invariance-across-gender
#4
Chung-Ying Lin, Mark D Griffiths, Amir H Pakpour
Background and aims Research examining problematic mobile phone use has increased markedly over the past 5 years and has been related to "no mobile phone phobia" (so-called nomophobia). The 20-item Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) is the only instrument that assesses nomophobia with an underlying theoretical structure and robust psychometric testing. This study aimed to confirm the construct validity of the Persian NMP-Q using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models. Methods After ensuring the linguistic validity, Rasch models were used to examine the unidimensionality of each Persian NMP-Q factor among 3,216 Iranian adolescents and CFAs were used to confirm its four-factor structure...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442613/beyond-the-30-million-word-gap-children-s-conversational-exposure-is-associated-with-language-related-brain-function
#5
Rachel R Romeo, Julia A Leonard, Sydney T Robinson, Martin R West, Allyson P Mackey, Meredith L Rowe, John D E Gabrieli
Children's early language exposure impacts their later linguistic skills, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement, and large disparities in language exposure are associated with family socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is little evidence about the neural mechanisms underlying the relation between language experience and linguistic and cognitive development. Here, language experience was measured from home audio recordings of 36 SES-diverse 4- to 6-year-old children. During a story-listening functional MRI task, children who had experienced more conversational turns with adults-independently of SES, IQ, and adult-child utterances alone-exhibited greater left inferior frontal (Broca's area) activation, which significantly explained the relation between children's language exposure and verbal skill...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439270/should-we-use-sentence-or-text-level-tasks-to-measure-oral-language-proficiency-in-year-one-students-following-whole-class-intervention
#6
Maria Lennox, Marleen F Westerveld, David Trembath
AIMS: To compare students' oral language proficiency on sentence- versus text-level tasks at school entry and following tier 1 intervention in their first year of formal schooling. METHODS: 104 students participated in this study. Participants were part of a broader longitudinal study and were enrolled at 3 low socioeconomic, linguistically diverse Australian primary schools. Tasks were administered to all students at the beginning and end of the school year. Performance on the sentence-level task, the Renfrew Action Picture Test (RAPT), was analysed for information and grammar as per the test manual...
February 13, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436887/machine-learning-in-autistic-spectrum-disorder-behavioral-research-a-review-and-ways-forward
#7
Fadi Thabtah
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that retards acquisition of linguistic, communication, cognitive, and social skills and abilities. Despite being diagnosed with ASD, some individuals exhibit outstanding scholastic, non-academic, and artistic capabilities, in such cases posing a challenging task for scientists to provide answers. In the last few years, ASD has been investigated by social and computational intelligence scientists utilizing advanced technologies such as machine learning to improve diagnostic timing, precision, and quality...
February 13, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435823/testing-the-emotional-vulnerability-pathway-to-problem-gambling-in-culturally-diverse-university-students
#8
Sandra Hum, Sherilene M Carr
Loneliness and adapting to an unfamiliar environment can increase emotional vulnerability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) university students. According to Blaszczynski and Nower's pathways model of problem and pathological gambling, this emotional vulnerability could increase the risk of problem gambling. The current study examined whether loneliness was associated with problem gambling risk in CALD students relative to their Australian peers. Additionally, differences in coping strategies were examined to determine their buffering effect on the relationship...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433666/similarities-and-differences-in-child-development-from-birth-to-age-3-years-by-sex-and-across-four-countries-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#9
Ilgi Ozturk Ertem, Vibha Krishnamurthy, Mphelekedzeni C Mulaudzi, Yanina Sguassero, Hakan Balta, Ozlem Gulumser, Burcu Bilik, Roopa Srinivasan, Benjamin Johnson, Geliang Gan, Lisa Calvocoressi, Veronika Shabanova, Brian W C Forsyth
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about typical development is of fundamental importance for understanding and promoting child health and development. We aimed to ascertain when healthy children in four culturally and linguistically different countries attain developmental milestones and to identify similarities and differences across sexes and countries. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, observational study, we recruited children aged 0-42 months and their caregivers between March 3, 2011, and May 18, 2015, at 22 health clinics in Argentina, India, South Africa, and Turkey...
March 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433058/defining-mtdna-origins-and-population-stratification-in-rio-de-janeiro
#10
Filipa Simão, Ana Paula Ferreira, Elizeu Fagundes de Carvalho, Walther Parson, Leonor Gusmão
The genetic composition of the Brazilian population was shaped by interethnic admixture between autochthonous Native Americans, Europeans settlers and African slaves. This structure, characteristic of most American populations, implies the need for large population forensic databases to capture the high diversity that is usually associated with admixed populations. In the present work, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 205 non-related individuals living in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan region...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422143/using-cognitive-interviews-to-improve-a-psychological-social-spiritual-healing-instrument-voices-of-aging-african-americans-with-serious-illness
#11
Heather Coats, Anne G Rosenfeld, Janice D Crist, Esther Sternberg, Ann Berger
AIM: The purpose of this study was to contribute to content validity, by providing input into the linguistic and pragmatic validities, of a 53 item Psychological-Social-Spiritual Healing instrument. BACKGROUND: Discovery of cultural values and beliefs from African American elders' experiences of illness provides insight for development of more culturally sensitive instruments. METHODS: Through an exploratory descriptive design, this study used cognitive interviewing methods to examine linguistic and pragmatic validity of the Psychological-Social-Spiritual Healing instrument, from the perspectives of aging seriously ill AAs...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421271/event-related-desynchronization-of-mu-and-beta-oscillations-during-the-processing-of-novel-tool-names
#12
Laura Bechtold, Marta Ghio, Joachim Lange, Christian Bellebaum
According to the embodied cognition framework, the formation of conceptual representations integrates the type of experience during learning. In this electroencephalographic study, we applied a linguistic variant of a training paradigm, in which participants learned to associate novel names to novel tools while either manipulating or visually exploring them. The analysis focused on event-related desynchronization (ERD) of oscillations in the mu and beta frequency range, which reflects activation of sensorimotor brain areas...
February 5, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411944/the-unforeseen-consequences-of-interacting-with-non-native-speakers
#13
Shiri Lev-Ari, Emily Ho, Boaz Keysar
Sociolinguistic research shows that listeners' expectations of speakers influence their interpretation of the speech, yet this is often ignored in cognitive models of language comprehension. Here, we focus on the case of interactions between native and non-native speakers. Previous literature shows that listeners process the language of non-native speakers in less detail, because they expect them to have lower linguistic competence. We show that processing the language of non-native speakers increases lexical competition and access in general, not only of the non-native speaker's speech, and that this leads to poorer memory of one's own speech during the interaction...
February 7, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411012/utterance-duration-as-it-relates-to-communicative-variables-in-infant-vocal-development
#14
Heather L Ramsdell-Hudock, Andrew Stuart, Douglas F Parham
Purpose: We aimed to provide novel information on utterance duration as it relates to vocal type, facial affect, gaze direction, and age in the prelinguistic/early linguistic infant. Method: Infant utterances were analyzed from longitudinal recordings of 15 infants at 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 months of age. Utterance durations were measured and coded for vocal type (i.e., squeal, growl, raspberry, vowel, cry, laugh), facial affect (i.e., positive, negative, neutral), and gaze direction (i...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410857/using-text-analysis-to-quantify-the-similarity-and-evolution-of-scientific-disciplines
#15
Laércio Dias, Martin Gerlach, Joachim Scharloth, Eduardo G Altmann
We use an information-theoretic measure of linguistic similarity to investigate the organization and evolution of scientific fields. An analysis of almost 20 M papers from the past three decades reveals that the linguistic similarity is related but different from experts and citation-based classifications, leading to an improved view on the organization of science. A temporal analysis of the similarity of fields shows that some fields (e.g. computer science) are becoming increasingly central, but that on average the similarity between pairs of disciplines has not changed in the last decades...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407637/planning-to-speak-in-l1-and-l2
#16
Agnieszka E Konopka, Antje Meyer, Tess A Forest
The leading theories of sentence planning - Hierarchical Incrementality and Linear Incrementality - differ in their assumptions about the coordination of processes that map preverbal information onto language. Previous studies showed that, in native (L1) speakers, this coordination can vary with the ease of executing the message-level and sentence-level processes necessary to plan and produce an utterance. We report the first series of experiments to systematically examine how linguistic experience influences sentence planning in native (L1) speakers (i...
January 25, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407255/using-research-evidence-to-inform-staff-learning-needs-in-cross-cultural-communication-in-aged-care-homes
#17
David Gillham, Anita De Bellis, Lily Xiao, Eileen Willis, Ann Harrington, Wendy Morey, Lesley Jeffers
BACKGROUND: Developed countries worldwide are facing an unprecedented demand for aged care services, with recent migrants of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds increasingly recruited as care workers while at the same time there is growing cultural diversity among aged care residents. This situation is compounded by rapidly changing technology and varied educational levels of care workers from diverse backgrounds. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were threefold: to identify staff learning needs to enable them to provide high-quality cross-cultural care; to improve team cohesion; and identify preferred learning approaches...
February 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406150/neurolinguistic-processing-when-the-brain-matures-without-language
#18
Rachel I Mayberry, Tristan Davenport, Austin Roth, Eric Halgren
The extent to which development of the brain language system is modulated by the temporal onset of linguistic experience relative to post-natal brain maturation is unknown. This crucial question cannot be investigated with the hearing population because spoken language is ubiquitous in the environment of newborns. Deafness blocks infants' language experience in a spoken form, and in a signed form when it is absent from the environment. Using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography, aMEG, we neuroimaged lexico-semantic processing in a deaf adult whose linguistic experience began in young adulthood...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406085/analysing-the-opinions-of-uk-veterinarians-on-practice-based-research-using-corpus-linguistic-and-mathematical-methods
#19
Selene J Huntley, Michaela Mahlberg, Viola Wiegand, Yves van Gennip, Hui Yang, Rachel S Dean, Marnie L Brennan
The use of corpus linguistic techniques and other related mathematical analyses have rarely, if ever, been applied to qualitative data collected from the veterinary field. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a combination of corpus linguistic analyses and mathematical methods to investigate a free-text questionnaire dataset collected from 3796 UK veterinarians on evidence-based veterinary medicine, specifically, attitudes towards practice-based research (PBR) and improving the veterinary knowledge base...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399705/coreferential-relations-in-basque-the-annotation-process
#20
Klara Ceberio, Itziar Aduriz, Arantza Díaz de Ilarraza, Ines Garcia-Azkoaga
In this paper we present the coreferential tagging of part of the EPEC Corpus of Basque. Although coreference is a pragmatic linguistic phenomenon highly dependent on the situational context, it shows some language-specific patterns that vary according to the features of each language. Due to the fact that Basque is not an Indo-European language, it differs considerably in grammar from the languages spoken in surrounding areas. We will explain these features and the decisions made in each case. After describing the criteria defined for coreferential tagging in Basque, the annotation process will be explained...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
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