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Linguistic relativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641078/signal-dimensionality-and-the-emergence-of-combinatorial-structure
#1
Hannah Little, Kerem Eryılmaz, Bart de Boer
In language, a small number of meaningless building blocks can be combined into an unlimited set of meaningful utterances. This is known as combinatorial structure. One hypothesis for the initial emergence of combinatorial structure in language is that recombining elements of signals solves the problem of overcrowding in a signal space. Another hypothesis is that iconicity may impede the emergence of combinatorial structure. However, how these two hypotheses relate to each other is not often discussed. In this paper, we explore how signal space dimensionality relates to both overcrowding in the signal space and iconicity...
June 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638424/application-of-fuzzy-delphi-in-the-selection-of-copd-risk-factors-among-steel-industry-workers
#2
Rahmat Dapari, Halim Ismail, Rosnah Ismail, Noor Hassim Ismail
BACKGROUND: The Delphi method has been widely applied in many study areas to systematically gather experts' input on particular topic. Recently, it has become increasingly well known in health related research. This paper applied the Fuzzy Delphi method to enhance the validation of a questionnaire pertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk factors among metal industry workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed, predefined list of possible risk factors for COPD among metal industry workers was created through a comprehensive and exhaustive review of literature from 1995 to 2015...
2017: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637528/maternal-verbal-responsiveness-and-directiveness-consistency-stability-and-relations-to-child-early-linguistic-development
#3
Leila Paavola-Ruotsalainen, Jaana Lehtosaari, Josefina Palomäki, Immi Tervo
Maternal responsive and directive speech to children at ages 0;10 and 2;0 was investigated by applying a procedure first introduced by Flynn and Masur (2007) to a new language community (Finnish). The issues examined were consistency and stability over time, and also the role of responsiveness and directiveness in child linguistic development at 1;0 and 2;6. The measures of maternal speech from each age were used to predict the results of the subsequent linguistic assessment. Negative correlations between responsive and directive utterances were found at both ages...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635107/new-space-time-metaphors-foster-new-nonlinguistic-representations
#4
Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like "breakfast is above dinner" or "breakfast is below dinner" (depending on condition). In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left-right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634873/evaluating-two-evidence-based-intervention-strategies-to-promote-crc-screening-among-latino-adults-in-a-primary-care-setting
#5
Sheila F Castañeda, Balambal Bharti, Rebeca Aurora Espinoza-Giacinto, Valerie Sanchez, Shawne O'Connell, Fatima Muñoz, Sylvia Mercado, Marie Elena Meza, Wendy Rojas, Gregory A Talavera, Samir Gupta
Regular use of colorectal cancer screening can reduce incidence and mortality, but participation rates remain low among low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino adults. We conducted two distinct pilot studies testing the implementation of evidence-based interventions to promote fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening among Latinos aged 50-75 years who were not up-to-date with CRC screening (n = 200) at a large Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in San Diego, CA. One pilot focused on an opportunistic clinic visit "in-reach" intervention including a 30-min session with a patient navigator, review of an educational "flip-chart," and a take-home FIT kit with instructions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629295/reliability-and-validity-of-somali-version-of-the-phq-9-in-primary-care-practice
#6
Vasumathi Nallusamy, Mohamud Afgarshe, Heather Shlosser
Objectives Depression is one of the common mental health problems noticed in immigrants because of the experiences related to their resettlement which is the case for Somali population. Depression increases mortality, morbidity, disability, and costs of health care which can be controlled by screening depression in the primary care setting using a culturally and linguistically congruent screening tool. The aim of the current study is to translate the English PHQ-9 into Somali language using evidence-based translational methodology and establish psychometric properties of the Somali PHQ-9...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628946/structural-plasticity-of-the-ventral-stream-and-aphasia-recovery
#7
Emilie T McKinnon, Julius Fridriksson, G Russell Glenn, Jens H Jensen, Joseph A Helpern, Alexandra Basilakos, Christopher Rorden, Andy Y Shih, M Vittoria Spampinato, Leonardo Bonilha
Re-strengthening of the residual language network is likely crucial for speech recovery in post-stroke aphasia. Eight participants with chronic aphasia received intensive speech therapy for three weeks, with standardized naming tests and brain MRIs before and after therapy. Kurtosis-based diffusion tensor tractography was used to measure mean kurtosis (MK) along a segment of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Therapy related reduction in the number of semantic but not phonemic errors was associated with strengthening (renormalization) of ILF MK (r=-0...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626432/visible-social-interactions-do-not-support-the-development-of-false-belief-understanding-in-the-absence-of-linguistic-input-evidence-from-deaf-adult-homesigners
#8
Deanna L Gagne, Marie Coppola
Congenitally deaf individuals exhibit enhanced visuospatial abilities relative to normally hearing individuals. An early example is the increased sensitivity of deaf signers to stimuli in the visual periphery (Neville and Lawson, 1987a). While these enhancements are robust and extend across a number of visual and spatial skills, they seem not to extend to other domains which could potentially build on these enhancements. For example, congenitally deaf children, in the absence of adequate language exposure and acquisition, do not develop typical social cognition skills as measured by traditional Theory of Mind tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626013/sleep-disrupts-high-level-speech-parsing-despite-significant-basic-auditory-processing
#9
Shiri Makov, Omer Sharon, Nai Ding, Michal Ben-Shachar, Yuval Nir, Elana Zion Golumbic
The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli, such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed, using non-invasive brain recordings. Those were so far tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels, using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that can online monitor the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624322/assessing-pragmatic-communication-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#10
Elizabeth Smith, Kari-Anne B Næss, Christopher Jarrold
PURPOSE: Successful communication depends on language content, language form, and language use (pragmatics). Children with Down syndrome (DS) experience communication difficulties, however little is known about their pragmatic profile, particularly during early school years. The purpose of the present study was to explore the nature of pragmatic communication in children with DS. METHOD: Twenty-nine six-year-old children with DS were assessed, in the areas of 1) initiation, 2) scripted language, 3) understanding context and 4) nonverbal communication, as reported by children's parents via the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (Bishop, 2003)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622615/domain-general-neural-correlates-of-dependency-formation-using-complex-tones-to-simulate-language
#11
Ingmar Brilmayer, Jona Sassenhagen, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Matthias Schlesewsky
There is an ongoing debate whether the P600 event-related potential component following syntactic anomalies reflects syntactic processes per se, or if it is an instance of the P300, a domain-general ERP component associated with attention and cognitive reorientation. A direct comparison of both components is challenging because of the huge discrepancy in experimental designs and stimulus choice between language and 'classic' P300 experiments. In the present study, we develop a new approach to mimic the interplay of sequential position as well as categorical and relational information in natural language syntax (word category and agreement) in a non-linguistic target detection paradigm using musical instruments...
May 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619530/neural-networks-underlying-language-and-social-cognition-during-self-other-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Rajesh K Kana, Emma B Sartin, Carl Stevens, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Christopher Klein, Mark R Klinger, Laura Grofer Klinger
The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606870/a-deep-learning-approach-for-predicting-the-quality-of-online-health-expert-question-answering-services
#13
Ze Hu, Zhan Zhang, Haiqin Yang, Qing Chen, Decheng Zuo
Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: 1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; 2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which shield the wisdom of crowd...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606194/four-year-old-cantonese-speaking-children-s-online-processing-of-relative-clauses-a-permutation-analysis
#14
Angel Chan, Wenchun Yang, Franklin Chang, Evan Kidd
We report on an eye-tracking study that investigated four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of subject and object relative clauses (RCs). Children's eye-movements were recorded as they listened to RC structures identifying a unique referent (e.g. "Can you pick up the horse that pushed the pig?"). Two RC types, classifier (CL) and ge3 RCs, were tested in a between-participants design. The two RC types differ in their syntactic analyses and frequency of occurrence, providing an important point of comparison for theories of RC acquisition and processing...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603492/magnetoencephalographic-imaging-of-auditory-and-somatosensory-cortical-responses-in-children-with-autism-and-sensory-processing-dysfunction
#15
Carly Demopoulos, Nina Yu, Jennifer Tripp, Nayara Mota, Anne N Brandes-Aitken, Shivani S Desai, Susanna S Hill, Ashley D Antovich, Julia Harris, Susanne Honma, Danielle Mizuiri, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Elysa J Marco
This study compared magnetoencephalographic (MEG) imaging-derived indices of auditory and somatosensory cortical processing in children aged 8-12 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 18), those with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD; N = 13) who do not meet ASD criteria, and typically developing control (TDC; N = 19) participants. The magnitude of responses to both auditory and tactile stimulation was comparable across all three groups; however, the M200 latency response from the left auditory cortex was significantly delayed in the ASD group relative to both the TDC and SPD groups, whereas the somatosensory response of the ASD group was only delayed relative to TDC participants...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602921/the-shared-neural-basis-of-music-and-language
#16
Mengxia Yu, Miao Xu, Xueting Li, Zhencai Chen, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
Human musical ability is proposed to play a key phylogenetical role in the evolution of language, and the similarity of hierarchical structure in music and language has led to considerable speculation about their shared mechanisms. While behavioral and electrophysioglocial studies have revealed associations between music and linguistic abilities, results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on their relations are contradictory, possibly because these studies usually treat music or language as single entities without breaking down to their components...
June 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599999/-tell-me-exactly-what-s-happened-when-linguistic-choices-affect-the-efficiency-of-emergency-calls-for-cardiac-arrest
#17
Marine Riou, Stephen Ball, Teresa A Williams, Austin Whiteside, Kay L O'Halloran, Janet Bray, Gavin D Perkins, Karen Smith, Peter Cameron, Daniel M Fatovich, Madoka Inoue, Paul Bailey, Deon Brink, Judith Finn
BACKGROUND: Clear and efficient communication between emergency caller and call-taker is crucial to timely ambulance dispatch. We aimed to explore the impact of linguistic variation in the delivery of the prompt "okay, tell me exactly what happened" on the way callers describe the emergency in the Medical Priority Dispatch System(®). METHODS: We analysed 188 emergency calls for cases of paramedic-confirmed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated the linguistic features of the prompt "okay, tell me exactly what happened" in relation to the format (report vs...
June 12, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593887/type-2-diabetes-in-people-from-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-backgrounds-perspectives-for-training-and-practice-from-nutritional-therapy-and-dietician-professions
#18
Lily Stojanovska, Bhensri Naemiratch, Vasso Apostolopoulos
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perspectives of nutritional therapy and dietician practitioners, undergraduate students and academics working with people with type 2 diabetes and who are from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. METHODS: A qualitative study design of in-depth semi-structured one-on-one interviews with a total of 24 participants (8 practitioners, 8 students and 8 academics) in the fields of nutritional therapy and dietetics. Open-ended questions focused on the perspectives and experiences (learning, practice and teaching) of working with people of CALD backgrounds who have type 2 diabetes...
March 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592574/dyspnoea-12-a-translation-and-linguistic-validation-study-in-a-swedish-setting
#19
Josefin Sundh, Magnus Ekström
BACKGROUND: Dyspnoea consists of multiple dimensions including the intensity, unpleasantness, sensory qualities and emotional responses which may differ between patient groups, settings and in relation to treatment. The Dyspnoea-12 is a validated and convenient instrument for multidimensional measurement in English. We aimed to take forward a Swedish version of the Dyspnoea-12. METHODS: The linguistic validation of the Dyspnoea-12 was performed (Mapi Language Services, Lyon, France)...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592440/rome-foundation-asian-working-team-report-asian-functional-gastrointestinal-disorder-symptom-clusters
#20
Kewin Tien Ho Siah, Xiaorong Gong, Xi Jessie Yang, William E Whitehead, Minhu Chen, Xiaohua Hou, Nitesh Pratap, Uday C Ghoshal, Ari F Syam, Murdani Abdullah, Myung-Gyu Choi, Young-Tae Bak, Ching-Liang Lu, Sutep Gonlachanvit, Chua Seng Boon, Fan Fang, Pui Kuan Cheong, Justin C Y Wu, Kok-Ann Gwee
OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed by the presence of a characteristic set of symptoms. However, the current criteria-based diagnostic approach is to some extent subjective and largely derived from observations in English-speaking Western patients. We aimed to identify latent symptom clusters in Asian patients with FGID. DESIGN: 1805 consecutive unselected patients with FGID who presented for primary or secondary care to 11 centres across Asia completed a cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire that was translated to the local languages...
June 7, 2017: Gut
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