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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166289/a-statistical-method-for-analysing-cospeciation-in-tritrophic-ecology-using-electrical-circuit-theory
#1
Colleen Nooney, Stuart Barber, Arief Gusnanto, Walter R Gilks
We introduce a new method to test efficiently for cospeciation in tritrophic systems. Our method utilises an analogy with electrical circuit theory to reduce higher order systems into bitrophic data sets that retain the information of the original system. We use a sophisticated permutation scheme that weights interactions between two trophic layers based on their connection to the third layer in the system. Our method has several advantages compared to the method of Mramba et al. [Mramba, L. K., S. Barber, K...
November 22, 2017: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166086/focused-conformational-sampling-in-proteins
#2
Marco Bacci, Cassiano Langini, Jiří Vymětal, Amedeo Caflisch, Andreas Vitalis
A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166037/adenosine-triphosphate-diffusion-through-poly-ethylene-glycol-diacrylate-hydrogels-can-be-tuned-by-cross-link-density-as-measured-by-pfg-nmr
#3
Günter Majer, Alexander Southan
The diffusion of small molecules through hydrogels is of great importance for many applications. Especially in biological contexts, the diffusion of nutrients through hydrogel networks defines whether cells can survive inside the hydrogel or not. In this contribution, hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate with mesh sizes ranging from ξ = 1.1 to 12.9 nm are prepared using polymers with number-average molecular weights between Mn = 700 and 8000 g/mol. Precise measurements of diffusion coefficients D of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an important energy carrier in biological systems, in these hydrogels are performed by pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164943/a-global-perspective-on-religious-participation-and-suicide
#4
Ning Hsieh
Although sociological research in the Durkheimian tradition has generally accepted that religious involvement protects against suicide, few studies have examined this theoretical proposition outside Western industrialized settings. Using multilevel models to analyze data from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and the World Values Survey (1981-2007) across 42 countries in seven geographical-cultural regions, this study explores whether religious participation is more protective against suicide in some regions than others and, if so, why...
September 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163638/network-analysis-reveals-putative-genes-affecting-meat-quality-in-angus-cattle
#5
Raluca G Mateescu, Dorian J Garrick, James M Reecy
Improvements in eating satisfaction will benefit consumers and should increase beef demand which is of interest to the beef industry. Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor are major determinants of the palatability of beef and are often used to reflect eating satisfaction. Carcass qualities are used as indicator traits for meat quality, with higher quality grade carcasses expected to relate to more tender and palatable meat. However, meat quality is a complex concept determined by many component traits making interpretation of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on any one component challenging to interpret...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163343/data-driven-sequence-of-changes-to-anatomical-brain-connectivity-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Neil P Oxtoby, Sara Garbarino, Nicholas C Firth, Jason D Warren, Jonathan M Schott, Daniel C Alexander
Model-based investigations of transneuronal spreading mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases relate the pattern of pathology severity to the brain's connectivity matrix, which reveals information about how pathology propagates through the connectivity network. Such network models typically use networks based on functional or structural connectivity in young and healthy individuals, and only end-stage patterns of pathology, thereby ignoring/excluding the effects of normal aging and disease progression. Here, we examine the sequence of changes in the elderly brain's anatomical connectivity over the course of a neurodegenerative disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163309/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-and-slow-wave-sleep-a-putative-mechanism-of-action
#7
Marco Pagani, Benedikt L Amann, Ramon Landin-Romero, Sara Carletto
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR's mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves recorded by electroencephalography during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) and those registered upon typical EMDR bilateral stimulation (eye movements or alternate tapping) during recurrent distressing memories of an emotionally traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163307/on-nomological-validity-and-auxiliary-assumptions-the-importance-of-simultaneously-testing-effects-in-social-cognitive-theories-applied-to-health-behavior-and-some-guidelines
#8
Martin S Hagger, Daniel F Gucciardi, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
Tests of social cognitive theories provide informative data on the factors that relate to health behavior, and the processes and mechanisms involved. In the present article, we contend that tests of social cognitive theories should adhere to the principles of nomological validity, defined as the degree to which predictions in a formal theoretical network are confirmed. We highlight the importance of nomological validity tests to ensure theory predictions can be disconfirmed through observation. We argue that researchers should be explicit on the conditions that lead to theory disconfirmation, and identify any auxiliary assumptions on which theory effects may be conditional...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163072/altered-functional-brain-connectomes-between-sporadic-and-familial-parkinson-s-patients
#9
Yan Tang, Xue Xiao, Hua Xie, Chang-Min Wan, Li Meng, Zhen-Hua Liu, Wei-Hua Liao, Bei-Sha Tang, Ji-Feng Guo
Familial Parkinson's disease (PD) is often caused by mutation of a certain gene, while sporadic PD is associated with variants of genes which can influence the susceptibility to PD. The goal of this study was to investigate the difference between the two forms of PD in terms of brain abnormalities using resting-state functional MRI and graph theory. Thirty-one familial PD patients and 36 sporadic PD patients underwent resting-state functional MRI scanning. Frequency-dependent functional connectivity was calculated for each subject using wavelet-based correlations of BOLD signal over 246 brain regions from Brainnetome Atlas...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163003/a-complex-interplay-of-vitamin-b1-and-b6-metabolism-with-cognition-brain-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#10
Kai Jannusch, Christiane Jockwitz, Hans-Jürgen Bidmon, Susanne Moebus, Katrin Amunts, Svenja Caspers
Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161039/x-ray-emission-spectrum-of-liquid-ethanol-origin-of-split-peaks
#11
Osamu Takahashi, Mathias P Ljungberg, Lars G M Pettersson
The X-ray emission spectrum of liquid ethanol was calculated using density functional theory and a semi-classical approximation to the Kramers-Heisenberg formula including core-hole-induced dynamics. Our spectrum agrees well with the experimental spectrum. We found that the intensity ratio between the two peaks at 526 and 527 eV assigned as 10a' and 3a" depends not only on the hydrogen bonding network around the target molecule, but also on the intramolecular conformation. This effect is absent in liquid methanol and demonstrates the high sensitivity of X-ray emission to molecular structure...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158659/the-value-of-social-network-analysis-for-evaluating-academic-community-partnerships-and-collaborations-for-social-determinants-of-health-research
#12
Candace Forbes Bright, Eboni Edmonson Haynes, Danny Patterson, Maria Pisu
Objective: Community-based participatory research processes build healthy communities, as well as promote trust and genuine collaborative partnerships between stakeholders. Fostering relationships is essential to promoting these partnerships, which are necessary for collaborative, coordinated, and integrated efforts toward improving health outcomes in the community. The objective of our research was to demonstrate social network analysis as an evaluative tool to assess movement toward positive health outcomes through promoting relationships...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158531/non-criticality-of-interaction-network-over-system-s-crises-a-percolation-analysis
#13
Amir Hossein Shirazi, Abbas Ali Saberi, Ali Hosseiny, Ehsan Amirzadeh, Pourya Toranj Simin
Extraction of interaction networks from multi-variate time-series is one of the topics of broad interest in complex systems. Although this method has a wide range of applications, most of the previous analyses have focused on the pairwise relations. Here we establish the potential of such a method to elicit aggregated behavior of the system by making a connection with the concepts from percolation theory. We study the dynamical interaction networks of a financial market extracted from the correlation network of indices, and build a weighted network...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157458/robust-breast-cancer-prediction-system-based-on-rough-set-theory-at-national-cancer-institute-of-egypt
#14
Saeed Khodary M Hamouda, Mohammed E Wahed, Reda H Abo Alez, Khaled Riad
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the major death causing diseases of the women in the world. Every year more than million women are diagnosed with breast cancer more than half of them will die because of inaccuracies and delays in diagnosis of the disease. High accuracy in cancer prediction is important to improve the treatment quality and the survivability rate of patients. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we are going to propose a new and robust breast cancer prediction and diagnosis system based on the Rough Set (RS)...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157233/integrating-acute-stroke-telemedicine-consultations-into-specialists-usual-practice-a-qualitative-analysis-comparing-the-experience-of-australia-and-the-united-kingdom
#15
Kathleen L Bagot, Dominique A Cadilhac, Christopher F Bladin, Caroline L Watkins, Michelle Vu, Geoffrey A Donnan, Helen M Dewey, Hedley C A Emsley, D Paul Davies, Elaine Day, Gary A Ford, Christopher I Price, Carl R May, Alison S R McLoughlin, Josephine M E Gibson, Catherine E Lightbody
BACKGROUND: Stroke telemedicine can reduce healthcare inequities by increasing access to specialists. Successful telemedicine networks require specialists adapting clinical practice to provide remote consultations. Variation in experiences of specialists between different countries is unknown. To support future implementation, we compared perceptions of Australian and United Kingdom specialists providing remote acute stroke consultations. METHODS: Specialist participants were identified using purposive sampling from two new services: Australia's Victorian Stroke Telemedicine Program (n = 6; 2010-13) and the United Kingdom's Cumbria and Lancashire telestroke network (n = 5; 2010-2012)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155814/optimal-synaptic-signaling-connectome-for-locomotory-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-design-minimizing-energy-cost
#16
Franciszek Rakowski, Jan Karbowski
The detailed knowledge of C. elegans connectome for 3 decades has not contributed dramatically to our understanding of worm's behavior. One of main reasons for this situation has been the lack of data on the type of synaptic signaling between particular neurons in the worm's connectome. The aim of this study was to determine synaptic polarities for each connection in a small pre-motor circuit controlling locomotion. Even in this compact network of just 7 neurons the space of all possible patterns of connection types (excitation vs...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155609/using-neural-networks-to-predict-hfacs-unsafe-acts-from-the-pre-conditions-of-unsafe-acts
#17
Don Harris, Wen-Chin Li
HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System) is based upon Reason's (1990; 1997) organizational model of human error which suggests that there is a 'one to many' mapping of condition tokens (HFACS level 2 psychological precursors) to unsafe act tokens (HFACS level 1 error and violations). Using accident data derived from 523 military aircraft accidents, the relationship between HFACS level 2 pre-conditions and level 1 unsafe acts was modelled using an artificial Neural Network (NN). This allowed an empirical model to be developed congruent with the underlying theory of HFACS...
November 18, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155589/the-reaction-mechanism-of-isopentenyl-phosphate-kinase-a-qm-mm-study
#18
James McClory, David J Timson, Warispreet Singh, Jian Zhang, Meilan Huang
Isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) catalyzes the Mg2+-ATP dependent phosphorylation reactions to produce isopentenyl diphosphate, an important precursor in the synthesis of isopentenols. However, the position of the divalent metal ion in the crystal structures of IPK in complex with ATP and its native substrate IP has not been definitively resolved, and as a result ambiguity surrounds the catalytic mechanism of IP, limiting its exploitation as a biofuel and in drug design. Here we report the conformational change caused by substrate binding and the catalytically competent structure in complex with the metal ion Mg2+ using molecular dynamic simulations and density functional theory-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations (B97d/AMBER99)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152819/the-application-of-systems-thinking-concepts-methods-and-tools-to-global-health-practices-an-analysis-of-case-studies
#19
Jessica Wilkinson, Morgan Goff, Evan Rusoja, Carl Hanson, Robert Chad Swanson
OBJECTIVES: This review of systems thinking (ST) case studies seeks to compile and analyse cases from ST literature and provide practitioners with a reference for ST in health practice. Particular attention was given to (1) reviewing the frequency and use of key ST terms, methods, and tools in the context of health, and (2) extracting and analysing longitudinal themes across cases. METHODS: A systematic search of databases was conducted, and a total of 36 case studies were identified...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151825/a-network-of-helping-generalized-reciprocity-and-cooperative-behavior-in-response-to-peer-and-staff-affirmations-and-corrections-among-therapeutic-community-residents
#20
Nathan J Doogan, Keith Warren
Background: Clinical theory in therapeutic communities (TCs) for substance abuse treatment emphasizes the importance of peer interactions in bringing about change. This implies that residents will respond in a more prosocial manner to peer versus staff intervention and that residents will interact in such a way as to maintain cooperation. Method: The data consist of electronic records of peer and staff affirmations and corrections at four corrections-based therapeutic community units...
2017: Addiction Research & Theory
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