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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432773/transition-of-the-functional-brain-network-related-to-increasing-cognitive-demands
#1
Karolina Finc, Kamil Bonna, Monika Lewandowska, Tomasz Wolak, Jan Nikadon, Joanna Dreszer, Włodzisław Duch, Simone Kühn
Network neuroscience provides tools that can easily be used to verify main assumptions of the global workspace theory (GWT), such as the existence of highly segregated information processing during effortless tasks performance, engagement of multiple distributed networks during effortful tasks and the critical role of long-range connections in workspace formation. A number of studies support the assumptions of GWT by showing the reorganization of the whole-brain functional network during cognitive task performance; however, the involvement of specific large scale networks in the formation of workspace is still not well-understood...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430779/a-coevolution-analysis-for-identifying-protein-protein-interactions-by-fourier-transform
#2
Changchuan Yin, Stephen S-T Yau
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429970/taking-data-seriously-the-value-of-actor-network-theory-in-rethinking-patient-experience-data
#3
Amit Desai, Giulia Zoccatelli, Mary Adams, Davina Allen, Sally Brearley, Anne Marie Rafferty, Glenn Robert, Sara Donetto
Hospitals are awash with patient experience data, much of it collected with the ostensible purpose of improving the quality of patient care. However, there has been comparatively little consideration of the nature and capacities of data itself. Using insights from actor-network theory, we propose that paying attention to patient experience data as having agency in particular hospital interactions allows us to better trace how and in what circumstances data lead (or fail to lead) to quality improvement.
April 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429940/density-functional-theory-and-car-parrinello-molecular-dynamics-study-of-the-hydrogen-producing-mechanism-of-the-co-dmgbf2-2-and-co-dmgh-2-cobaloxime-complexes-in-the-acetonitrile-water-solvent
#4
Jinfan Chen, Patrick H-L Sit
The catalytic hydrogen-producing processes of two prototypical cobaloxime catalysts Co(dmgBF2)2 (dmgBF2=difluoroboryl-dimethylglyoxime) and Co(dmgH)2 (dmgH=dimethylglyoxime), were studied by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations in the explicit acetonitrile-water solvent. Our study demonstrates the key role of water molecules as shuttles to deliver protons to the cobalt active centers of these catalysts. However, the transfer of protons to the cobalt centers also competes with the diffusion of the proton away from the complex via the hydrogen bond network of water...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424669/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut-of-the-hong-kong-whipping-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-and-a-validation-using-probiotics
#5
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Chieh-Yin Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
The concerted activity of intestinal microbes is crucial to the health and development of their host organisms. Investigation of microbial interactions in the gut should deepen our understanding of how these micro-ecosystems function. Due to advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, various bioinformatic strategies have been proposed to investigate these microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal microbial community and difficulties in monitoring their interactions, at present there is a gap between the theory and biological application...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424457/vertex-coloring-of-graphs-via-phase-dynamics-of-coupled-oscillatory-networks
#6
Abhinav Parihar, Nikhil Shukla, Matthew Jerry, Suman Datta, Arijit Raychowdhury
While Boolean logic has been the backbone of digital information processing, there exist classes of computationally hard problems wherein this paradigm is fundamentally inefficient. Vertex coloring of graphs, belonging to the class of combinatorial optimization, represents one such problem. It is well studied for its applications in data sciences, life sciences, social sciences and technology, and hence, motivates alternate, more efficient non-Boolean pathways towards its solution. Here we demonstrate a coupled relaxation oscillator based dynamical system that exploits insulator-metal transition in Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) to efficiently solve vertex coloring of graphs...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422957/towards-a-theory-of-cortical-columns-from-spiking-neurons-to-interacting-neural-populations-of-finite-size
#7
Tilo Schwalger, Moritz Deger, Wulfram Gerstner
Neural population equations such as neural mass or field models are widely used to study brain activity on a large scale. However, the relation of these models to the properties of single neurons is unclear. Here we derive an equation for several interacting populations at the mesoscopic scale starting from a microscopic model of randomly connected generalized integrate-and-fire neuron models. Each population consists of 50-2000 neurons of the same type but different populations account for different neuron types...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422694/synchronization-criteria-for-discontinuous-neural-networks-with-mixed-delays-via-functional-differential-inclusions
#8
Dongshu Wang, Lihong Huang, Longkun Tang
This paper investigates the issue of global exponential synchronization for a class of general neural networks that contains discontinuous activation functions and mixed time delays. Functional differential inclusions and nonsmooth analysis theories are used as bases to design discontinuous controllers, such that the discontinuous neural networks can be exponential complete synchronized. This novel approach and its applicability to neural networks with continuous activations are also easily verified. Several numerical examples demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the design method...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422691/event-sampled-direct-adaptive-nn-output-and-state-feedback-control-of-uncertain-strict-feedback-system
#9
Nathan Szanto, Vignesh Narayanan, Sarangapani Jagannathan
In this paper, a novel event-triggered implementation of a tracking controller for an uncertain strict-feedback system is presented. Neural networks (NNs) are utilized in the backstepping approach to design a control input by approximating unknown dynamics of the strict-feedback nonlinear system with event-sampled inputs. The system state vector is assumed to be unknown and an NN observer is used to estimate the state vector. By using the estimated state vector and backstepping design approach, an event-sampled controller is introduced...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422062/cross-layer-design-for-optimizing-transmission-reliability-energy-efficiency-and-lifetime-in-body-sensor-networks
#10
Xi Chen, Yixuan Xu, Anfeng Liu
High transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and long lifetime are pivotal issues for wireless body area networks (WBANs. However, these performance metrics are not independent of each other, making it hard to obtain overall improvements through optimizing one single aspect. Therefore, a Cross Layer Design Optimal (CLDO) scheme is proposed to simultaneously optimize transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and lifetime of WBANs from several layers. Firstly, due to the fact that the transmission power of nodes directly influences the reliability of links, the optimized transmission power of different nodes is deduced, which is able to maximize energy efficiency in theory under the premise that requirements on delay and jitter are fulfilled...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421359/the-theory-of-planned-behaviour-explains-intentions-to-use-antiresorptive-medication-after-a-fragility-fracture
#11
Joanna E M Sale, Cathy Cameron, Stephen Thielke, Lynn Meadows, Kevin Senior
Our objective was to ascertain whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) explains patient intentions to use antiresorptive medication after a fracture. A qualitative study was conducted with English-speaking members of the Canadian Osteoporosis Patient Network (COPN) who had sustained a fragility fracture at 50+ years of age and were not taking antiresorptive medication at the time of that fracture. Questions during a 1-h telephone interview were guided by the domains of the TPB: they addressed the antecedent constructs regarding antiresorptive medication (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control) as well as intentions regarding antiresorptive medication use...
April 18, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420275/beta-hebbian-learning-as-a-new-method-for-exploratory-projection-pursuit
#12
Héctor Quintián, Emilio Corchado
In this research, a novel family of learning rules called Beta Hebbian Learning (BHL) is thoroughly investigated to extract information from high-dimensional datasets by projecting the data onto low-dimensional (typically two dimensional) subspaces, improving the existing exploratory methods by providing a clear representation of data's internal structure. BHL applies a family of learning rules derived from the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the residual based on the beta distribution. This family of rules may be called Hebbian in that all use a simple multiplication of the output of the neural network with some function of the residuals after feedback...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419682/game-theoretical-mapping-of-causal-interactions-underlying-visuo-spatial-attention-in-the-human-brain-based-on-stroke-lesions
#13
Monica N Toba, Melissa Zavaglia, Federica Rastelli, Romain Valabrégue, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Claus C Hilgetag
Anatomical studies conducted in neurological conditions have developed our understanding of the causal relationships between brain lesions and their clinical consequences. The analysis of lesion patterns extended across brain networks has been particularly useful in offering new insights on brain-behavior relationships. Here we applied multiperturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), a multivariate method based on coalitional game theory inferring causal regional contributions to specific behavioral outcomes from the characteristic functional deficits after stroke lesions...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418442/network-analysis-and-percolation-transition-in-hydrogen-bonded-clusters-nitric-acid-and-water-extracted-by-tributyl-phosphate
#14
Michael J Servis, David T Wu, Jenifer C Braley
Extraction of polar molecules by amphiphilic species results in a complex variety of clusters whose topologies and energetics control phase behavior and efficiency of liquid-liquid separations. A computational approach including quantum mechanical vibrational frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulation with intermolecular network theory is used to provide a robust assessment of extractant and polar solute association through hydrogen bonding in the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/HNO3/H2O/dodecane system for the first time...
April 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418379/exercise-contagion-in-a-global-social-network
#15
Sinan Aral, Christos Nicolaides
We leveraged exogenous variation in weather patterns across geographies to identify social contagion in exercise behaviours across a global social network. We estimated these contagion effects by combining daily global weather data, which creates exogenous variation in running among friends, with data on the network ties and daily exercise patterns of ∼1.1M individuals who ran over 350M km in a global social network over 5 years. Here we show that exercise is socially contagious and that its contagiousness varies with the relative activity of and gender relationships between friends...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418246/water-ice-analogues-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-water-nanoclusters-on-cu-111
#16
Melissa L Liriano, Chiara Gattinoni, Emily A Lewis, Colin J Murphy, E Charles H Sykes, Angelos Michaelides
Water has an incredible ability to form a rich variety of structures, with e.g. 16 bulk ice phases identified as well as numerous distinct structures for water at interfaces or under confinement. Many of these structures are built from hexagonal motifs of water molecules and, indeed, for water on metal surfaces individual hexamers of just six water molecules have been observed. Here we report the results of low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and density functional theory calculations which reveal a host of new structures for water-ice nanoclusters when adsorbed on an atomically flat Cu surface...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417973/excitability-in-the-p53-network-mediates-robust-signaling-with-tunable-activation-thresholds-in-single-cells
#17
Gregor Mönke, Elena Cristiano, Ana Finzel, Dhana Friedrich, Hanspeter Herzel, Martin Falcke, Alexander Loewer
Cellular signaling systems precisely transmit information in the presence of molecular noise while retaining flexibility to accommodate the needs of individual cells. To understand design principles underlying such versatile signaling, we analyzed the response of the tumor suppressor p53 to varying levels of DNA damage in hundreds of individual cells and observed a switch between distinct signaling modes characterized by isolated pulses and sustained oscillations of p53 accumulation. Guided by dynamic systems theory we show that this requires an excitable network structure comprising positive feedback and provide experimental evidence for its molecular identity...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417927/wireless-fractal-ultra-dense-cellular-networks
#18
Yixue Hao, Min Chen, Long Hu, Jeungeun Song, Mojca Volk, Iztok Humar
With the ever-growing number of mobile devices, there is an explosive expansion in mobile data services. This represents a challenge for the traditional cellular network architecture to cope with the massive wireless traffic generated by mobile media applications. To meet this challenge, research is currently focused on the introduction of a small cell base station (BS) due to its low transmit power consumption and flexibility of deployment. However, due to a complex deployment environment and low transmit power of small cell BSs, the coverage boundary of small cell BSs will not have a traditional regular shape...
April 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416779/neuronal-network-models-of-epileptogenesis
#19
Aminu T Abdullahi, Lawan H Adamu
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition, following some trigger, transforming a normal brain to one that produces recurrent unprovoked seizures. In the search for the mechanisms that best explain the epileptogenic process, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the epilepsies are network level disorders. In this review, we briefly describe the concept of neuronal networks and highlight 2 methods used to analyse such networks. The first method, graph theory, is used to describe general characteristics of a network to facilitate comparison between normal and abnormal networks...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416182/dynamical-tuning-for-mpc-using-population-games-a-water-supply-network-application
#20
Julian Barreiro-Gomez, Carlos Ocampo-Martinez, Nicanor Quijano
Model predictive control (MPC) is a suitable strategy for the control of large-scale systems that have multiple design requirements, e.g., multiple physical and operational constraints. Besides, an MPC controller is able to deal with multiple control objectives considering them within the cost function, which implies to determine a proper prioritization for each of the objectives. Furthermore, when the system has time-varying parameters and/or disturbances, the appropriate prioritization might vary along the time as well...
April 15, 2017: ISA Transactions
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