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Network theory

C S Dias, J M Tavares, N A M Araújo, M M Telo da Gama
Low-density networks of molecules or colloids are formed at low temperatures when the interparticle interactions are valence limited. Prototypical examples are networks of patchy particles, where the limited valence results from highly directional pairwise interactions. We combine extensive Langevin simulations and Wertheim's theory of association to study these networks. We find a scale-free (relaxation) dynamics within the liquid-gas coexistence region, which differs from that usually observed for isotropic particles...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Jun Chen, Xin Xu, Shu Liu, Dong H Zhang
We report here a new global and full dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the F + CH4 reaction. This PES was constructed by using neural networks (NN) fitting to about 99 000 ab initio energies computed at the UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory, and the correction terms considering the influence of a larger basis set as well as spin-orbit couplings were further implemented with a hierarchial scheme. This PES, covering both the abstraction and substitution channels, has an overall fitting error of 8...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Behdad Parhizi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Mehdi Behroozi
The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Jessica J Williams, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Jennifer E Caselle, Darcy Bradley, David M P Jacoby
Animal movements can facilitate important ecological processes, and wide-ranging marine predators, such as sharks, potentially contribute significantly towards nutrient transfer between habitats. We applied network theory to 4 years of acoustic telemetry data for grey reef sharks ( Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos ) at Palmyra, an unfished atoll, to assess their potential role in nutrient dynamics throughout this remote ecosystem. We evaluated the dynamics of habitat connectivity and used network metrics to quantify shark-mediated nutrient distribution...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Harald Hampel, Nicola Toschi, Claudio Babiloni, Filippo Baldacci, Keith L Black, Arun L W Bokde, René S Bun, Francesco Cacciola, Enrica Cavedo, Patrizia A Chiesa, Olivier Colliot, Cristina-Maria Coman, Bruno Dubois, Andrea Duggento, Stanley Durrleman, Maria-Teresa Ferretti, Nathalie George, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Karl Herholz, Yosef Koronyo, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui, Foudil Lamari, Todd Langevin, Stéphane Lehéricy, Jean Lorenceau, Christian Neri, Robert Nisticò, Francis Nyasse-Messene, Craig Ritchie, Simone Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Olaf Sporns, Steven R Verdooner, Andrea Vergallo, Nicolas Villain, Erfan Younesi, Francesco Garaci, Simone Lista
The Precision Neurology development process implements systems theory with system biology and neurophysiology in a parallel, bidirectional research path: a combined hypothesis-driven investigation of systems dysfunction within distinct molecular, cellular, and large-scale neural network systems in both animal models as well as through tests for the usefulness of these candidate dynamic systems biomarkers in different diseases and subgroups at different stages of pathophysiological progression. This translational research path is paralleled by an "omics"-based, hypothesis-free, exploratory research pathway, which will collect multimodal data from progressing asymptomatic, preclinical, and clinical neurodegenerative disease (ND) populations, within the wide continuous biological and clinical spectrum of ND, applying high-throughput and high-content technologies combined with powerful computational and statistical modeling tools, aimed at identifying novel dysfunctional systems and predictive marker signatures associated with ND...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kohinoor M Darda, Emily E Butler, Richard Ramsey
Although humans show an involuntary tendency to copy other people's actions, which builds rapport between individuals, we do not copy actions indiscriminately. Instead, copying behaviors are guided by a selection mechanism, which inhibits some actions and prioritizes others. To date, the neural underpinnings of the inhibition of automatic imitation and differences between the sexes in imitation control are not well understood. Previous studies involved small sample sizes and low statistical power, which produced mixed findings regarding the involvement of domain-general and domain-specific neural architectures...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Robert Bagchi, Leone M Brown, Chris S Elphick, David L Wagner, Michael S Singer
Reduced ecological specialization is an emerging, general pattern of ecological networks in fragmented landscapes. In plant-herbivore interactions, reductions in dietary specialization of herbivore communities are consistently associated with fragmented landscapes, but the causes remain poorly understood. We propose several hypothetical bottom-up and top-down mechanisms that may reduce the specificity of plant-herbivore interactions. These include empirically plausible applications and extensions of theory based on reduced habitat patch size and isolation (considered jointly), and habitat edge effects...
March 21, 2018: Oecologia
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Fatemeh Kiani, Negar Ashari Astani, Reza Rahighi, Ahmad Tayyebi, Meysam Tayebi, Jafar Khezri, Ehsan Hashemi, Ursula Rothlisberger, Abdolreza Simchi
In the present work, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on the antibacterial activity of CuO nanowire arrays under visible light irradiation is shown. A combined thermal oxidation/electrophoretic deposition technique was employed to prepare three-dimensional networks of graphene oxide nanosheets hybridized with vertically aligned CuO nanowires. With the help of standard antibacterial assays and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it is shown that the light-activated antibacterial response of the hybrid material against gram-negative Escherichia coli is significantly improved as the oxide functional groups of the GO nanosheets are reduced...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Kyungeun Jang, Young Min Baek
Public health officials (PHOs) are responsible for providing trustworthy information during a public health crisis; however, there is little research on how the public behaves when their expectations for such information are violated. Drawing on media dependency theory and source credibility research as our primary theoretical framework, we tested how credibility of information from PHOs is associated with people's reliance on a particular communication channel in the context of the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Dobromir A Kalchevski, Vesselin Petrov, Alia Tadjer, Artur Nenov
A combined theoretical/experimental study of the photoreactivity of two flavylium-derived chalcones, 2,4,4'-trihydroxychalcone and 2,4'-dihydroxychalcone, at the multiconfigurational wavefunction level of theory (CASSCF//CASPT2) in vacuo and in an implicit solvent (water, treated as a polarisable continuum) and by means of linear absorption spectroscopy is presented. The photosensitivity of flavium salts is expressed in the ability of their chalcone form to undergo a cis-trans isomerisation which has found application in logical networks...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Feng Tian, Junjie Wang, Cheng Xu, Hong Li, Xin Ma
In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studies that explored the personality-brain association. Researches on personality neuroscience have the potential to provide personality psychology with explanatory models-that is, why people differ from each other rather than how they differ from each other (DeYoung and Gray, 2009). As one of the most important dimensions of personality traits, extraversion is the most stable core and a universal component in personality theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lisanne M Jenkins, Kristy A Skerrett, Sophie R DelDonno, Víctor G Patrón, Kortni K Meyers, Scott Peltier, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker, Monica N Starkman
We investigated the ability of preferred classical music to activate the nucleus accumbens in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). Twelve males with MDD and 10 never mentally ill male healthy controls (HC) completed measures of anhedonia and depression severity, and listened to 90-second segments of preferred classical music during fMRI. Compared to HCs, individuals with MDD showed less activation of the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Individuals with MDD showed attenuation of the left NAcc response in later compared to earlier parts of the experiment, supporting theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Grant M Walker, Gregory Hickok, Julius Fridriksson
Picture naming impairments are a typical feature of stroke-induced aphasia. Overall accuracy and rates of different error types are used to make inferences about the severity and nature of damage to the brain's language network. Currently available assessment tools for picture naming accuracy treat it as a unidimensional measure, while assessment tools for error types treat items homogenously, contrary to findings from psycholinguistic investigations of word production. We created and tested a new cognitive psychometric model for assessment of picture naming responses, using cognitive theory to specify latent processing decisions during the production of a naming attempt, and using item response theory to separate the effects of item difficulty and participant ability on these internal processing decisions...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Yibin Hao, Jianhua Zhang, Guoyong Shan, Ning Zhang, Wenwen Jin, Kejun Nan
Objective: to establish regulatory network of colorectal cancer involving p42.3 protein and to provide theoretical evidence for deep functional exploration of p42.3 protein in the onset and development of colorectal cancer. Methods: with protein similarity algorithm, reference protein set of p42.3 cell apoptosis was built according to structural features of p42.3. GO and KEGG databases were used to establish regulatory network of tumor cell apoptosis involving p42.3; meanwhile, the largest possible working pathway that involves p42...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Bao-Ran An, Guo-Ping Liu, Chong Tan
This paper investigates group consensus problems in networked multi-agent systems (NMAS) with communication delays. Based on the proposed state prediction scheme, the group consensus control protocol is designed to compensate the communication delay actively. In light of algebraic graph theories and matrix theories, necessary and(or) sufficient conditions of group consensus with respect to a given admissible control set are obtained for the NMAS with communication delays under mild assumptions. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results...
March 15, 2018: ISA Transactions
Jamie L Manson, Jamie Brambleby, Paul A Goddard, Peter M Spurgeon, Jacqueline A Villa, Junjie Liu, Saman Ghannadzadeh, Francesca Foronda, John Singleton, Tom Lancaster, Stewart J Clark, Iorwerth O Thomas, Fan Xiao, Robert C Williams, Francis L Pratt, Stephen J Blundell, Craig V Topping, Christopher Baines, Charles Campana, Bruce Noll
Strong hydrogen bonds such as F···H···F offer new strategies to fabricate molecular architectures exhibiting novel structures and properties. Along these lines and, to potentially realize hydrogen-bond mediated superexchange interactions in a frustrated material, we synthesized [H2 F]2 [Ni3 F6 (Fpy)12 ][SbF6 ]2 (Fpy = 3-fluoropyridine). It was found that positionally-disordered H2 F+ ions link neutral NiF2 (Fpy)4 moieties into a kagome lattice with perfect 3-fold rotational symmetry. Detailed magnetic investigations combined with density-functional theory (DFT) revealed weak antiferromagnetic interactions (J ~ 0...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Filippo Radicchi
According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Heiko Hoffmann
The general mechanisms behind self-organized criticality (SOC) are still unknown. Several microscopic and mean-field theory approaches have been suggested, but they do not explain the dependence of the exponents on the underlying network topology of the SOC system. Here, we first report the phenomena that in the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model, sites inside an avalanche area largely return to their original state after the passing of an avalanche, forming, effectively, critically arranged clusters of sites...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Yoshihiko Hasegawa
Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
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