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Hidden hunger

Hans De Steur, Joshua Wesana, Dieter Blancquaert, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Xavier Gellynck
Building upon the growing interest and research on genetically modified (GM) biofortification, its socioeconomic potential has been increasingly examined. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses to provide comprehensive evidence of consumers' willingness to pay (11 economic valuation studies, 64 estimates) and cost-effectiveness/benefits (five economic evaluation studies, 30 estimates). Worldwide, consumers were willing to pay 23.9% more for GM biofortified food crops. Aside from crop and design-related differences, information provision was deemed crucial...
October 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jitendra Kumar, Debjyoti Sen Gupta, Shiv Kumar, Sanjeev Gupta, Narendra Pratap Singh
Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Folarin A Oguntoyinbo, Vincenzina Fusco, Gyu-Sung Cho, Jan Kabisch, Horst Neve, Wilhelm Bockelmann, Melanie Huch, Lara Frommherz, Bernhard Trierweiler, Biserka Becker, Nabil Benomar, Antonio Gálvez, Hikmate Abriouel, Wilhelm H Holzapfel, Charles M A P Franz
A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa's populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa's resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lene Irene Olsen, Thomas H Hansen, Camille Larue, Jeppe Thulin Østerberg, Robert D Hoffmann, Johannes Liesche, Ute Krämer, Suzy Surblé, Stéphanie Cadarsi, Vallerie Ann Samson, Daniel Grolimund, Søren Husted, Michael Palmgren
Insufficient intake of zinc and iron from a cereal-based diet is one of the causes of 'hidden hunger' (micronutrient deficiency), which affects some two billion people(1,2). Identifying a limiting factor in the molecular mechanism of zinc loading into seeds is an important step towards determining the genetic basis for variation of grain micronutrient content and developing breeding strategies to improve this trait(3). Nutrients are translocated to developing seeds at a rate that is regulated by transport processes in source leaves, in the phloem vascular pathway, and at seed sinks...
2016: Nature Plants
Leslie Amoroso
The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) was jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and was held at the FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 19 to 21 November 2014. The ICN2 was a high-level intergovernmental meeting that focused global attention on addressing malnutrition in all its forms: undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity. The ICN2 was held to specifically address the persistent and unacceptably high levels of malnutrition...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Hanns-Christoph Eiden, Simone Welte
For years now, providing people with food and balanced diets has been a problem unsolved by the world community. Despite numerous initiatives, the great breakthrough has still not happened, not least because the issue is so complex. Hunger and undernourishment must be fought as much as hidden hunger, overweight and obesity. Increasingly, several forms of malnutrition have been occurring simultaneously. The so-called double burden of malnutrition has become the new normal. The follow-up process of the Second International Conference on Nutrition assumes a vital role in that context...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Bishwajit Ghose, Shangfeng Tang, Sanni Yaya, Zhanchun Feng
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiency) affect about two billion people globally. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been shown to be associated with one or multiple micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies among women and children. Chronic food insecurity leads to various deficiency disorders, among which anemia stands out as the most prevalent one. As a high malnutrition prevalent country, Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of anemia among all Asian countries...
2016: PeerJ
Madhavan K Nair, Little Flower Augustine, Archana Konapur
Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy...
2015: Frontiers in Public Health
Julie C Ruel-Bergeron, Gretchen A Stevens, Jonathan D Sugimoto, Franz F Roos, Majid Ezzati, Robert E Black, Klaus Kraemer
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. METHODS: This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency)...
2015: PloS One
Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu, Firoz Hossain, Jayant S Bhat, Shailendra K Jha, Abhishek Rathore, Pawan Kumar Agrawal, Arunava Pattanayak, Sokka S Reddy, Satish Kumar Gularia, Anju Mahendru Singh, Kanchikeri Math Manjaiah, Hari Shanker Gupta
Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India...
2015: PloS One
Carmen Cabrera-Vique, Mercedes Briones, José Joaquín Muros, Isabel Seiquer, José Antonio Sánchez, Guillermo Rodríguez, Rafael Giménez
Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4-14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion...
November 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
F B Zotor, B Ellahi, P Amuna
Despite a rich and diverse ecosystem, and biodiversity, worldwide, more than 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger. Of major concern are a degradation of our ecosystems and agricultural systems which are thought to be unsustainable thereby posing a challenge for the future food and nutrition security. Despite these challenges, nutrition security and ensuring well balanced diets depend on sound knowledge and appropriate food choices in a complex world of plenty and want. We have previously reported on how the food multimix (FMM) concept, a food-based and dietary diversification approach can be applied to meet energy and micronutrient needs of vulnerable groups through an empirical process...
November 2015: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
J M Thomas, C T Dourish, S Higgs
To date, there have been no studies that have explicitly examined the effect of awareness on the consumption of food from a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM - hidden balance interfaced to a computer which covertly records eating behaviour). We tested whether awareness of a UEM affected consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack. 39 female participants were randomly assigned to either an aware or unaware condition. After being informed of the presence of the UEM (aware) or not being told about its presence (unaware), participants consumed ad-libitum a pasta lunch from the UEM followed by a cookie snack...
September 2015: Appetite
Bemnet Amare, Beyene Moges, Andargachew Mulu, Sisay Yifru, Afework Kassu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and helminthic infections are among the commonest public health problems in the sub-Saharan African countries like Ethiopia. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies also known as the "hidden hunger" are common in people living in these countries either playing a role in their pathogenesis or as consequences. This results in a vicious cycle of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and infection/disease progression. As infection is profoundly associated with nutritional status resulting from decreased nutrient intake, decreased nutrient absorption, and nutrient losses, micronutrient deficiencies affect immune system and impact infection and diseases progression...
2015: BioMed Research International
Shikha Yashveer, Vikram Singh, Vineet Kaswan, Amit Kaushik, Jayanti Tokas
Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Abhishek Bohra, Kanwar L Sahrawat, Shiv Kumar, Rohit Joshi, Ashok K Parihar, Ummed Singh, Deepak Singh, Narendra P Singh
Meeting the food demands and ensuring nutritional security of the ever increasing global population in the face of degrading natural resource base and impending climate change is the biggest challenge of the twenty first century. The consequences of mineral/micronutrient deficiencies or the hidden hunger in the developing world are indeed alarming and need urgent attention. In addressing the problems associated with mineral/micronutrient deficiency, grain legumes as an integral component of the farming systems in the developing world have to play a crucial role...
May 2015: Journal of Applied Genetics
Igor Bendik, Angelika Friedel, Franz F Roos, Peter Weber, Manfred Eggersdorfer
Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g., in wintertime) is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to a multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well-known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers, and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Aliya Hisam, Mahmood Ur Rahman, Syed Fawad Mashhadi
OBJECTIVES: To find the Knowledge Attitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA. METHODS: A Descriptive cross sectional study (Knowledge Practice and Attitude) was conducted at Military Hospital and Combined Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2012 to February 2013. About 400 married females of age group 21-42 years were included by convenient sampling technique...
May 2014: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Irakli Loladze
Mineral malnutrition stemming from undiversified plant-based diets is a top global challenge. In C3 plants (e.g., rice, wheat), elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) reduce protein and nitrogen concentrations, and can increase the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; mainly starch, sugars). However, contradictory findings have obscured the effect of eCO2 on the ionome-the mineral and trace-element composition-of plants. Consequently, CO2-induced shifts in plant quality have been ignored in the estimation of the impact of global change on humans...
2014: ELife
Vallari T Kukreti, Anju T Bisht
BACKGROUND: Uttarakhand, Northern India is facing challenges in the issues concerning public health. Hence, researches identifying the stressors and nutri-tional factors influencing health are encouraged. This study attempts to assess the stress levels and nutritional status. Gender differences are also measured in the same. METHODS: Stress and nutritional status related information was gathered (Nov, 2012-June, 2013) from 118 individuals residing in Uttarakhand state...
2013: Health Promotion Perspectives
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