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International nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350541/computational-hybrid-anthropometric-paediatric-phantom-library-for-internal-radiation-dosimetry
#1
Tianwu Xie, Niels Kuster, Habib Zaidi
Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT'IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341330/community-perspectives-on-the-use-of-regulation-and-law-for-obesity-prevention-in-children-a-citizens-jury
#2
Jackie M Street, Jana Sisnowski, Rebecca Tooher, Lucy C Farrell, Annette J Braunack-Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is a significant challenge for public health internationally. Regulatory and fiscal measures propagated by governments offer a potentially effective response to this issue. Fearing public criticism, governments are often reluctant to use such measures. In this study we asked a descriptively representative and informed group of Australians their views on the use of legislation and fiscal measures by governments to address childhood obesity. METHODS: A citizens' jury, held in South Australia in April 2015, was asked to consider the question: What laws, if any, should we have in Australia to address childhood obesity? RESULTS: The jury agreed that prevention of obesity was complex requiring multifaceted government intervention...
March 12, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#3
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338375/an-updated-review-of-the-applied-physiology-of-american-collegiate-football-the-physical-demands-strength-conditioning-nutritional-considerations-and-injury-characteristics-of-america-s-favourite-game
#4
Hugh H K Fullagar, Robert McCunn, Andrew Murray
Whilst there are various avenues for performance improvement within collegiate American football (AF), there is no comprehensive evaluation of the collective array of resources around performance, physical conditioning and injury and training/game characteristics to guide future research and inform practitioners. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to provide a current examination of these areas within collegiate AF. Recent studies show that there is a wide range of body compositions and strength characteristics between players, which appear to be influenced by playing position, level of play, training history/programming and time of season...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338358/a-mismatch-between-athlete-practice-and-current-sports-nutrition-guidelines-among-elite-female-and-male-middle-and-long-distance-athletes
#5
Ida Aliisa Heikura, Trent Stellingwerff, Antti A Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, Louise Mary Burke
Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n=27) and male (n=21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and post-training meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336110/patient-generated-subjective-global-assessment-as-a-prognosis-tool-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#6
Hae Su Kim, Ji Yun Lee, Sung Hee Lim, Jaewon Cho, Seok Jin Kim, Jun Ho Jang, Won Seog Kim, Chul Won Jung, Kihyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: Disease-related weight loss is relatively common in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), but limited data exist regarding the effects of nutritional status on survival. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between malnutrition (as measured by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment [PG-SGA]) and clinical characteristics of patients with MM, and to investigate the association between the PG-SGA score before chemotherapy and overall survival in MM patients...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333949/metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-among-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-comprehensive-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Jamal Hallajzadeh, Saeid Safiri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Maliheh Khoramdad, Neda Izadi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Reza Pakzad, Erfan Ayubi, Mark J M Sullman, Nahid Karamzad
BACKGROUND: Estimating the current global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its components, among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is necessary in order to formulate preventative strategies and to ensure there are adequate community resources available for these patients. Furthermore, the association between RA and MetS is controversial and has not previously been comprehensively assessed. Therefore, the present study aimed to: 1) determine the prevalence of MetS, and its components, among RA patients across the world 2) update the odds ratio of MetS in RA patients, compared to healthy controls, using a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333596/to-create-a-consensus-on-malnutrition-diagnostic-criteria
#8
Tommy Cederholm, Gordon L Jensen
During the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016), representatives of the 4 largest global parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) societies from Europe (ESPEN), the United States (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [ASPEN]), Asia (Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia [PENSA]), and Latin America (Latin American Federation of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [FELANPE]) and from national PEN societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, Texas (February 2016)...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333567/aboriginal-cultural-competency-in-dietetics-a-national-survey-of-canadian-registered-dietitians
#9
Paige Huycke, Jillian Ingribelli, Lee Rysdale
Little has been published on cultural competency curriculum and dietetics considering the impact of food-related beliefs and behaviours on health. A 14-item online survey was administered in January 2016 to 145 participants (125 members of Dietitians of Canada Aboriginal Nutrition Network and 20 dietitians with an interest in Aboriginal nutrition). Questions included multiple choice and ranking responses and were pretested by 4 preceptors with the Northern Ontario Dietetic Internship Program (NODIP). Quantitative data analysis included frequencies, pivot tables, and averaging/grouping of ranking scores...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332449/estimated-daily-intake-and-safety-of-fd-c-food-colour-additives-in-the-us-population
#10
Maria Bastaki, Thomas Farrell, Sachin Bhusari, Xiaoyu Bi, Carolyn Scrafford
A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327105/association-of-physical-activity-on-body-composition-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-korean-population-from-the-fifth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2011
#11
Gwang-Sil Kim, Eui Im, Ji-Hyuck Rhee
BACKGROUND: Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA) level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare. METHODS: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate PA levels and analyze the association of PA level with various body composition parameters and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011...
March 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325597/relationships-between-acrylamide-and-glycidamide-hemoglobin-adduct-levels-and-allergy-related-outcomes-in-general-us-population-nhanes-2005-2006
#12
Jing Guo, Dongdong Yu, Na Lv, Rongpan Bai, Chunjing Xu, Guangdi Chen, Weiming Cao
BACKGROUND: Acrylamide-induced immunotoxicity and allergic dermatitis have been reported in animal experiments and clinical reports, respectively. However, epidemiological evidence from the general population is limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to estimate the associations between acrylamide exposure and allergy-related outcomes in the general US population. METHODS: A total of 6982 subjects were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 (NHANES)...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323667/central-venous-access-in-children-indications-devices-and-risks
#13
Guillermo Ares, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheters (CVCs) have a prominent role in the diagnostic and therapy of neonates and children. Herein, we describe the multiple indications for CVC use and the different devices available for central venous access. Given the prevalent use of CVCs, healthcare systems are focused on reducing complications from their use, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The most up-to-date information available sheds light on best practices and future areas of investigation...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320789/-right-home-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-sustained-nurse-home-visiting-from-pregnancy-to-child-age-2%C3%A2-years-versus-usual-care-to-improve-parent-care-parent-responsivity-and-the-home-learning-environment-at-2%C3%A2-years
#14
Sharon Goldfeld, Anna Price, Hannah Bryson, Tracey Bruce, Fiona Mensah, Francesca Orsini, Lisa Gold, Harriet Hiscock, Charlene Smith, Lara Bishop, Dianne Jackson, Lynn Kemp
INTRODUCTION: By the time children start school, inequities in learning, development and health outcomes are already evident. Sustained nurse home visiting (SNHV) offers a potential platform for families experiencing adversity, who often have limited access to services. While SNHV programmes have been growing in popularity in Australia and internationally, it is not known whether they can improve children's learning and development when offered via the Australian service system. The right@home trial aims to investigate the effectiveness of an SNHV programme, offered to women from pregnancy to child age 2 years, in improving parent care of and responsivity to the child, and the home learning environment...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320080/interlaboratory-trial-for-the-measurement-of-total-cobalt-in-equine-urine-and-plasma-by-icp-ms
#15
Marie-Agnes Popot, Emmie N M Ho, Natali Stojiljkovic, Florian Bagilet, Pierre Remy, Pascal Maciejewski, Benoit Loup, George H M Chan, Sabine Hargrave, Rick M Arthur, Charlie Russo, James White, Pamela Hincks, Clive Pearce, George Ganio, Paul Zahra, David Batty, Mark Jarrett, Lydia Brooks, Lise-Anne Prescott, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Yves Bonnaire, Terence S M Wan
Cobalt is an essential mineral micronutrient and is regularly present in equine nutritional and feed supplements. Therefore, cobalt is naturally present at low concentrations in biological samples. The administration of cobalt chloride is considered to be blood doping and is thus prohibited. In order to control the misuse of cobalt, it was mandatory to establish an international threshold for cobalt in plasma and/or in urine. To achieve this goal an international collaboration, consisting of an interlaboratory comparison, between 5 laboratories for the urine study and 8 laboratories for the plasma study has been undertaken...
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317739/physicochemical-changes-of-phulae-pineapple-fruit-treated-with-short-term-anoxia-during-ambient-storage
#16
Chairat Techavuthiporn, Panida Boonyaritthongchai, Suriyan Supabvanich
The effects of short-term anoxia exposure for 16h on physicochemical changes of 'Phulae' pineapple fruit stored at ambient temperature (25±2°C) were investigated. The respiratory rate of the fruit was induced by the anoxia treatment. However, it retarded the increase in moisture loss and maintained both flesh and pulp colour by inhibiting polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the both tissues. The anoxia exposure delayed the increase in total sugar content and enhanced total ascorbic acid content during storage...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315893/ying-yang-bao-improving-complementary-feeding-for-chinese-infants-in-poor-regions
#17
Junsheng Huo
Ying Yang Bao (YYB), a complementary food supplement, has helped to rapidly improve the nutrition status of infants and young children in poor rural regions in China. The first YYB study was performed in 2001 by the International Life Sciences Institute, the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Nestlé. In 2008, the establishment of national standards for complementary food supplements stimulated implementation of about 15 nutrition intervention projects in poor rural counties in which YYB was applied to infants and young children as home fortification for complementary feeding...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#18
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314653/assessment-of-risk-factors-for-candidemia-in-non-neutropenic-patients-hospitalized-in-internal-medicine-wards-a-multicenter-study
#19
M Falcone, G Tiseo, C Tascini, A Russo, E Sozio, G Raponi, C Rosin, P Pignatelli, P Carfagna, A Farcomeni, R Luzzati, F Violi, F Menichetti, M Venditti
BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of candidemia has been reported in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs). The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for candidemia among non-neutropenic patients hospitalized in IMWs. METHODS: A multicenter case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Italy. Patients developing candidemia (cases) were compared to patients without candidemia (controls) matched by age, time of admission and duration of hospitalization...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306415/abstracts-from-the-december-2016-international-sports-and-exercise-nutrition-conference-in-newcastle-upon-tyne
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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