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fibrosis imaging

Andrea I Guaricci, Delia De Santis, Mark G Rabbat, Gianluca Pontone
: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have proven to be the most effective preventive therapy of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on current guidelines, the indication for prophylactic ICD therapy is primarily based on a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%. However, patients with low LVEF may never have an arrhythmic event while patients with normal to moderately reduced LVEF, who are traditionally felt to be at lower risk, can experience SCD. Therefore, LVEF alone is not an ideal risk stratification parameter to determine ICD therapy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Yang Dong, Dan Yang, Yuchi Han, Wei Cheng, Jiayu Sun, Ke Wan, Hong Liu, Andreas Greiser, Xiaoyue Zhou, Yucheng Chen
Background: Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is a common pathological process in many cardiovascular diseases. In order to determine disease, we must have standard normal imaging values. We investigated myocardial interstitial fibrosis of the left ventricle (LV) in a healthy population of Chinese adults and explored the impact of gender, age, and other physiological factors using a T1 mapping technique of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Materials and Methods: We recruited 69 healthy adult Chinese subjects (35 males; age 18-76)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
K Schneider
The radiographic technique of pediatric chest X‑rays is substantially different from that in adults. In nearly all cases ap/pa X‑rays are sufficient and lateral radiographs are rarely needed. In the first years of life the thymus may overshadow the heart, the great vessels and the lung hila. The most important anatomical structures essential for diagnosing pathological findings of the lungs and mediastinum are the trachea with the bifurcation and the main bronchi with the adjacent great vessels. For the assessment of distended lungs and intrathoracic consolidations, fundamental knowledge of the anatomy in childhood and malformations which can involve the airways, the lungs, the heart, as well as systemic and pulmonary vessels are indispensable...
March 19, 2018: Der Radiologe
Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt, Mario Pieper, Charlotte Stehmar, Martin Ahrens, Christian Idel, Barbara Wollenberg, Peter König, Gereon Hüttmann
Intravital microscopy (IVM) offers the opportunity to visualize static and dynamic changes of tissue on a cellular level. It is a valuable tool in research and may considerably improve clinical diagnosis. In contrast to confocal and non-linear microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) with microscopic resolution (mOCT) provides intrinsically cross-sectional imaging. Changing focus position is not needed, which simplifies especially endoscopic imaging. For in-vivo imaging, here we are presenting endo-microscopic OCT (emOCT)...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Yen-Yu Lin, Wen-Hu Hsu, Mei-Han Wu, Teh-Ying Chou
A 47-year-old woman presented with spontaneous right side pneumothorax. Image studies showed consolidations and reticular opacities involving the pleural and subpleural regions of bilateral lungs. Wedge biopsy specimens of right upper, middle and lower lobes showed fibrosis of the visceral pleura and subpleural area in all three lobes, more significant in the upper lobe. Elastic Van Gieson stain showed a pattern of alveolar septal elastosis with intra-alveolar fibrosis. The clinical presentation and pathological findings are compatible with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, a rare and distinct type of interstitial lung disease...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Naoki Komine, Shigeru Satoh, Mitsuru Saito, Kazuyuki Numakura, Takamitsu Inoue, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Shintaro Narita, Atsushi Komatsuda, Hiroshi Nanjo, Hideaki Kagaya, Takenori Niioka, Masatomo Miura, Yoko Mitobe, Tomonori Habuchi
The impact of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on clinical outcomes is controversial. The present study investigated the impact of CYP3A5 genetic differences on the development of interstitial fibrosis (IF) from 0 h to 1 year post-transplantation in biopsy sections from 96 living kidney recipients under the same target trough regimen of tacrolimus. The relationships between CYP3A5 polymorphisms and long-term graft function and death-censored graft survival were also examined. A quantitative analysis of IF was performed using computer-assisted imaging on virtual slides...
March 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Olivier Villemain, Mafalda Correia, Elie Mousseaux, Jérome Baranger, Samuel Zarka, Ilya Podetti, Gilles Soulat, Thibaud Damy, Albert Hagège, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot, Emmanuel Messas
OBJECTIVES: The goal of our study was to investigate the potential of myocardial shear wave imaging (SWI) to quantify the diastolic myocardial stiffness (MS) (kPa) noninvasively in adult healthy volunteers (HVs) and its physiological variation with age, and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) populations with heart failure and preserved ejection function (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: MS is an important prognostic and diagnostic parameter of the diastolic function. MS is affected by physiological changes but also by pathological alterations of extracellular and cellular tissues...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Sheung-Fat Ko, Hon-Kan Yip, Chen-Chang Lee, Chia-Chang Lee, Chia-Hao Su, Chung-Cheng Huang, Shu-Hang Ng, Yi-Ling Chen, Min-Chi Chen
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the potential of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for monitoring adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) therapy of renal ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). PROCEDURES: After baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 36 Sprague-Dawley rats with bilateral renal IRI were divided equally as groups 1, 2, and 3 (non-treated rats) and groups 4, 5, and 6 (ADMSC-treated rats, with 2 million ADMSCs injected via the tail vein at 6 h after IRI)...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Shanon Seger, Manuel Stritt, Enrico Vezzali, Oliver Nayler, Patrick Hess, Peter M A Groenen, Anna K Stalder
Intratracheal administration of bleomycin induces fibrosis in the lung, which is mainly assessed by histopathological grading that is subjective. Current literature highlights the need of reproducible and quantitative pulmonary fibrosis analysis. If some quantitative studies looked at fibrosis parameters separately, none of them quantitatively assessed both aspects: lung tissue remodeling and collagenization. To ensure reliable quantification, support vector machine learning was used on digitalized images to design a fully automated method that analyzes two important aspects of lung fibrosis: (i) areas having substantial tissue remodeling with appearance of dense fibrotic masses and (ii) collagen deposition...
2018: PloS One
Goran Abdula, Jannike Nickander, Peder Sörensson, Magnus Lundin, Peter Kellman, Andreas Sigfridsson, Martin Ugander
OBJECTIVES: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is the in vivo reference standard for assessing focal myocardial fibrosis. Post-contrast T1-mapping by Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) can be used to generate synthetic late gadolinium enhancement (SynLGE) images with an image contrast similar to conventional LGE images. We hypothesized that SynLGE has an accuracy that approaches conventional LGE for diagnosing focal myocardial fibrosis. METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 109, mean ± SD age 50 ± 16 years, 63% male) referred for clinical cardiac magnetic resonance imaging underwent LGE and post-contrast MOLLI starting 10-15 and 20-25 minutes post contrast, respectively...
March 16, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Sungbea Ban, Eunjung Min, Songyee Baek, Hyug Moo Kwon, Gabriel Popescu, Woonggyu Jung
The diagnosis of acute kidney disease (AKI) has been examined mainly by histology, immunohistochemistry and western blot. Though these approaches are widely accepted in the field, it has an inherent limitation due to the lack of high-throughput and quantitative information. For a better understanding of prognosis in AKI, we present a new approach using quantitative phase imaging combined with a wide-field scanning platform. Through the phase-delay information from the tissue, we were able to predict a stage of AKI based on various optical properties such as light scattering coefficient and anisotropy...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Ali J Marian, Yanli Tan, Lili Li, Jeffrey T Chang, Petros Syrris, Manouchehr Hessabi, Mohammad H Rahbar, James T Willerson, Benjamin Y Cheong, Chia-Ying Liu, Neal S Kleiman, David A Bluemke, Sherif F Nagueh
<u>Rationale:</u> Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic paradigm of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis are important risk factors for sudden death and morbidity in HCM. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Treatment with anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reverses cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in animal models of HCM. <u>Objective:</u> To determine effect sizes of NAC on indices of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with established HCM...
March 14, 2018: Circulation Research
Michelangelo Nigro, Davide Viggiano, Vincenzo Ragone, Tiziana Trabace, Annamaria di Palma, Michele Rossini, Giovambattista Capasso, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Gigliotti
BACKGROUND: The classical approach to the analysis of kidney biopsies is based on semi-quantitative scores of the amount of sclerosis, inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and vascular damage. However, advanced renal lesions may be accompanied by a paucity of clinical features and, conversely, important clinical abnormalities may be accompanied by minimal histopathological changes. The objective of this study is to correlate new, semiautomatic, quantitative features of kidney biopsies (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Gabriela Miana de Mattos Paixão, Horácio Eduardo Veronesi, Halsted Alarcão Gomes Pereira da Silva, José Nunes de Alencar Neto, Carolina de Paulo Maldi, Luciano de Figueiredo Aguiar Filho, Ibrahim Masciarelli Francisco Pinto, Francisco Faustino de Albuquerque Carneiro de França, Edileide de Barros Correia
BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram is the initial test in the investigation of heart disease. Electrocardiographic changes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have no set pattern, and correlates poorly with echocardiographic findings. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been gaining momentum for better assessment of hypertrophy, as well as the detection of myocardial fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To correlate the electrocardiographic changes with the location of hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by cardiac magnetic resonance...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Konstantin V Borisov
BACKGROUND: In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy myocardial fibrosis is an independent predictor of adverse outcome. A new technique of HOCM surgical correction in patients with severe hypertrophy and septal myocardial fibrosis has been proposed. METHODS: The excision of the asymmetrical hypertrophied area of the interventricular septum causing obstruction was performed from the conal part of the right ventricle corresponding to the zone of obstruction of the left ventricle (LV)...
March 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Rafet Ozay, Torel Ogur, Hasan Ali Durmaz, Erhan Turkoglu, Yusuf Sukru Caglar, Zeki Sekerci, Mehmet Sorar, Sahin Hanalioglu
OBJECTIVE: Preserving the ligamentum flavum (LF) during lumbar spine surgery may help limit the extent of postoperative epidural fibrosis (EF), a potential cause of persistent leg pain. We present a retrospective analysis of microdiscectomy with preservation of the LF in order to evaluate the effects of the two LF mobilizing techniques (reflecting inferiorly or medially vs. removing completely) on EF and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Microdiscectomy was performed through a unilateral laminotomy in 93 patients (52 male, 41 female; mean age 46; range 25-65 years) with L3-L4 (n=3), L4-L5 (n=40), and L5-S1 (n=50) lumbar disc herniation...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kasper Kyhl, Per Lav Madsen
Patients with heart valve disease are evaluated with non-invasive imaging techniques notably echocardiography. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR) is increasingly applied, not only in case of a poor echocardiographic window, but also as a consequence of CMR's possibilities of precise determination of regurgitation volumes in insufficiency and precise determination of the impact of valve disease on corres-ponding heart chambers including chamber volumes, myocardial masse and fibrosis. In this paper, the emerging role of CMR in evaluation of patients with heart valve disease is reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Joanna L Kaplan, Catherine T Gunther-Harrington, Jessie S Sutton, Joshua A Stern
BACKGROUND: The teratogenic effects of immunomodulatory and certain antimicrobial therapies are described in small rodents and humans. While the described teratogenic effects in small rodents have been extrapolated to make conclusions about its use in the pregnant dam, teratogenic effects of prednisone and doxycycline have not yet been reported in the dog. Here we report and describe midline defects observed in a litter of golden retriever puppies exposed to mid-gestational immunosuppressive and antimicrobial therapy...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Kate M Richmond, Katharine G Warburton, Simon J Finney, Sachin Shah, Benjamin A J Reddi
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive clinical examination can be compromised in patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Adjunctive diagnostic imaging strategies range from bedside imaging only to routine computed tomography (CT). The risk-benefit of either approach remains to be evaluated. Patients retrieved to the Royal Brompton Hospital (RBH) on VV-ECMO routinely undergo admission CT imaging of head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. This study aimed to identify how frequently changes in therapy or adverse events could be attributed to routine CT scanning...
March 1, 2018: Perfusion
Petr Kuchynka, Tomas Palecek, Lukas Lambert, Martin Masek, Vaclav Ptacnik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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