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Protein AND Fat conversion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131158/ucp1-independent-signaling-involving-serca2b-mediated-calcium-cycling-regulates-beige-fat-thermogenesis-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#1
Kenji Ikeda, Qianqian Kang, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Joao Paulo Camporez, Hiroko Maki, Mayu Homma, Kosaku Shinoda, Yong Chen, Xiaodan Lu, Pema Maretich, Kazuki Tajima, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Tomoyoshi Soga, Shingo Kajimura
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) plays a central role in nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat; however, its role in beige fat remains unclear. Here we report a robust UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanism in beige fat that involves enhanced ATP-dependent Ca(2+) cycling by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2). Inhibition of SERCA2b impairs UCP1-independent beige fat thermogenesis in humans and mice as well as in pigs, a species that lacks a functional UCP1 protein...
November 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127443/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-orbital-inflammation-in-graves-orbitopathy-through-suppression-of-autophagy
#2
Hong Li, Yali Zhang, Jie Min, Long Gao, Ren Zhang, Yucheng Yang
INTRODUCTION: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting the orbit around the eye. Astragaloside IV (AS-VI) is the main active ingredient of the Chinese herbal medicine Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici). AS-IV exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and shows therapeutic potential in a number of ischemic and inflammatory diseases; however, its pharmaceutical activities in GO remain undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of AS-IV on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced orbital fibroblast inflammation in vitro and GO orbital inflammation and ocular histopathological changes in vivo, as well as the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects...
November 10, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123026/the-klf14-transcription-factor-regulates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#3
Lu Wang, Xin Tong, Fang Gu, Lei Zhang, Wei Chen, Xiaowen Cheng, Liwei Xie, Yongsheng Chang, Huabing Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is a member of the Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins. Despite strong evidence showing that a polymorphism in the Klf14 gene is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the physiological and metabolic functions of KLF14 still remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of KLF14 in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Adenoviruses expressing KLF14 (Ad-Klf14) or KLF14-specific shRNAs (Ad-shKlf14) were injected into normal C57BL/6J, db/db diabetic or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109438/vsig4-inhibits-proinflammatory-macrophage-activation-by-reprogramming-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#4
Jialin Li, Bo Diao, Sheng Guo, Xiaoyong Huang, Chengying Yang, Zeqing Feng, Weiming Yan, Qin Ning, Lixin Zheng, Yongwen Chen, Yuzhang Wu
Exacerbation of macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, but the immunometabolic programs underlying regulation of macrophage activation are unclear. Here we show that V-set immunoglobulin-domain-containing 4 (VSIG4), a B7 family-related protein that is expressed by resting macrophages, inhibits macrophage activation in response to lipopolysaccharide. Vsig4 (-/-) mice are susceptible to high-fat diet-caused obesity and murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3)-induced fulminant hepatitis due to excessive macrophage-dependent inflammation...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105186/dietary-fibre-alleviates-hepatic-fat-deposition-via-inhibiting-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-meat-ducks
#5
S Qin, H Han, K Zhang, X Ding, S Bai, J Wang, Q Zeng
This study investigated the effect of dietary fibre (DF) supplementation on hepatic fat deposition of Cherry Valley meat ducks. A total of 600 1-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to five dietary fibre diets (1.46 (basal diet), 3.09, 4.15, 6.18 and 7.52% (analysed)) for 14 days. Growth performance decreased with increasing DF concentrations, when the DF level more than 6.18% the average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (F/G) markedly decreased in meat ducks. Meat ducks supplemented over 4.15% DF had lower percentage of liver reported to live weight, liver lipid contents, hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations as well as decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations at 14 days...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077943/effects-of-dietary-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-cf-supplementation-on-growth-meat-quality-and-microenvironment-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#6
F Chen, S S Gao, L Q Zhu, S Y Qin, H L Qiu
The probiotic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CF (Chen Fu) on growth performance, meat quality, and microenvironment in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were investigated and compared with Enterococcus faecium. One-hundred-eighty 7-day-old SPF chickens were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 3 replicate pens of 20 chickens each. Group 1 served as a control that was fed a basal diet without probiotics supplementation. Groups 2 and 3 were fed the basal diet supplemented with L. rhamnosus CF and E...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058420/exploration-of-biological-markers-of-feed-efficiency-in-young-bulls
#7
Sarah J Meale, Diego P Morgavi, Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Donato Andueza, Isabelle Ortigues-Marty, Richard J Robins, Anne-Marie Schiphorst, Sophie Laverroux, Benoit Graulet, Hamid Boudra, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar
The efficiency with which ruminants convert feed to desirable products is difficult to measure under normal commercial settings. We explored the use of potential biological markers from easily obtainable samples, that is, blood, hair, and feces, to characterize potential causes of divergent efficiency when considered as residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). A total of 54 Charolais bulls, 20 in period 1 and 34 in period 2, were examined for individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051826/apparent-and-standardized-ileal-nutrient-digestibility-of-broiler-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-raw-full-fat-soybean-and-microbial-protease
#8
Mammo M Erdaw, Rider A Perez-Maldonado, Paul A Iji
BACKGROUND: Although soybean meal (SBM) is excellent source of protein in diets for poultry, it is sometimes inaccessible, costly and fluctuates in supply. The SBM can partially be replaced by full-fat SBM, but the meals prepared from raw full-fat soybean contain antinutritional factors. To avoid the risk of antinutritional factors, heat treatment is always advisable, but either excessive or under heating the soybean could negatively affect the quality. However, the potential for further improvement of SBM by supplementing with microbial enzymes has been suggested by many researchers...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050301/mir-377-promotes-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-decreases-insulin-sensitivity-in-obesity-via-suppression-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#9
Jie Peng, Yinghui Wu, Zhao Deng, Yuanfei Zhou, Tongxing Song, Yang Yang, Xiaming Zhang, Tao Xu, Mao Xia, Anle Cai, Zuhong Liu, Jian Peng
Obesity is associated with a wide range of metabolic disorders including inflammation and insulin-resistance. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an important regulator of metabolic homeostasis and stress response pathways in white adipose tissue. However, involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating SIRT1 during obesity-induced inflammation and insulin-resistance remains unclear. Here, we found that miR-377 was upregulated in adipose tissue and showed a negative correlation with SIRT1 in chronic high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045821/mir-93-5p-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-progression-via-inactivation-of-the-hippo-signaling-pathway
#10
Li Li, Jun Deng, Shanshan Huang, Yi Wang, Lingling Zhu, Yuan Cao, Jianping Xiong
MiR-93-5p has been previously found to be associated with gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis; however, the current understanding of its function in this context remains largely incomplete. In the present study, we showed that miR-93-5p was upregulated in GC tissues. We also demonstrated that miR-93-5p overexpression promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of SGC-7901 cells in vitro, and conversely, that endogenously silencing miR-93-5p expression induced the opposite effects in HGC-27 cells...
October 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986099/downregulation-of-pin1-in-human-atherosclerosis-and-its-association-with-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-senescence
#11
Lei Lv, Meng Ye, Rundan Duan, Kai Yuan, Jiaquan Chen, Wei Liang, Zhaoxiong Zhou, Lan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Pin1 is prevalently overexpressed in human cancers and implicated to regulate cell growth and apoptosis. Thus far, however, no role for Pin1 has been described in modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to assess Pin1 protein level in human normal and atherosclerotic tissues. β-galactosidase staining, cumulative population doubling level, telomerase activity, and relative telomere length measurement were used to confirm VSMC senescence...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982944/brown-adipocytes-postnatally-arise-through-both-differentiation-from-progenitors-and-conversion-from-white-adipocytes-in-syrian-hamster
#12
Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuki Nagaya, Ayumi Tsubota, Kazuhiro Kimura
To investigate the postnatal development of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Syrian hamsters, we histologically examined interscapular fat tissue from 5 to 16-day-old pups, focusing on how brown adipocytes arise. Interscapular fat of 5-day-old hamsters mainly consisted of white adipocytes containing large unilocular lipid droplets, as observed in typical white adipose tissue (WAT). On day 7, clusters of small, proliferative nonadipocytes with a strong immunoreactivity for Ki67 appeared near the edge of the interscapular fat tissue...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974784/determinants-of-broiler-chicken-meat-quality-and-factors-affecting-them-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Nasir Akbar Mir, Aasima Rafiq, Faneshwar Kumar, Vijay Singh, Vivek Shukla
Broiler production at mass level has already been achieved and now emphasis is being laid on increasing meat quality by altering various characteristics of broiler meat. Appearance, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat features that influence the initial and final quality judgment by consumers before and after purchasing a meat product. The quantifiable properties of meat such as water holding capacity, shear force, drip loss, cook loss, pH, shelf life, collagen content, protein solubility, cohesiveness, and fat binding capacity are indispensable for processors involved in the manufacture of value added meat products...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971283/non-phytate-phosphorus-requirement-for-broilers-from-8-to-21%C3%A2-days-of-age-under-heat-stress-conditions
#14
Evandro Ferreira Cardoso, Juarez Lopes Donzele, Rita Flávia Miranda de Oliveira Donzele, Bruna Leite Sufiate, Amanda Dione Silva, Tarciso Tizziani
Two trials were conducted to determine the non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) requirement for broiler under heat stress. In both trials, birds were distributed in a completely randomized 4 × 2 factorial design with four nPP concentrations: 0.25, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.55%, and two Ca supply techniques: Ca fixed at 0.899% (CaF) or varying along with nPP aiming a 2:1 Ca to nPP ratio (CaV). Both trials had eight pens/treatment, with nine and five birds/pen for exp. 1 and exp. 2, respectively. nPP concentration had no effect on feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), nor fat deposition ratio (FDR)...
October 3, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963592/effect-of-dietary-betaine-on-growth-performance-antioxidant-capacity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-blunt-snout-bream-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
Jean-Jacques Yao Adjoumani, Kaizhou Wang, Man Zhou, Wenbin Liu, Dingdong Zhang
An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine levels on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with initial body weight 4.3 ± 0.1 g [mean ± SEM]. Five practical diets were formulated to contain normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet with betaine addition (HFB) at difference levels (0.6, 1.2, 1.8%), respectively. The results showed that the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain ratio (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), and feed intake (FI) (P < 0...
December 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#16
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#17
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903385/dpp-4-enzyme-deficiency-protects-kidney-from-acute-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-role-for-remote-intermittent-bowel-ischemia-reperfusion-preconditioning
#18
Yen-Ta Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chih-Chao Yang, Chih-Hung Chen, Kuan-Hung Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Yung-Lung Chen, Han-Tan Chai, Sheng-Ying Chung, Sarah Chua, Fan-Yen Lee, Sheung-Fat Ko, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
We analyzed the effects of acute ischemia-reperfusion (KIR) injury on the status of kidney function and architecture in dipeptidyl peptidase4-difficient (DPP4(D)) rats and the effect of remote small bowel ischemia-reperfusion (BIR) preconditioning. DPP4-deficient (DPP4(D)) and normal Fischer344 (F344) rats were divided into 6 groups: (1) sham-F344, (2) sham-DPP4(D), (3) KIR-F344 (4) KIR-DPP4(D), (5) DPP4(D)-KIR-extendin-9-39 and (6) BIR-KIR-F344. Blood creatinine and urea nitrogen levels and the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio was higher in KIR-F344 rats than BIR-KIR-F344 or KIR-DPP4(D) rats 72 h after acute KIR...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891024/resveratrol-supplementation-improves-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-blunt-snout-bream
#19
Dingdong Zhang, Yanan Yan, Hongyan Tian, Guangzhen Jiang, Xiangfei Li, Wenbin Liu
Here, we aimed to investigate whether resveratrol (RSV) can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorder in fish. Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with average weight 27.99 ± 0.56 g were fed a normal fat diet (NFD, 5% fat, w/w), a HFD (11% fat), or a HFD supplemented with 0.04, 0.36, or 1.08% RSV for 10 weeks. As expected, fish fed a HFD developed hepatic steatosis, as shown by elevated hepatic and plasma triglycerides, raised whole body fat, intraperitoneal fat ratio and hepatosomatic index, and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
September 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888077/microrna-214-3p-a-link-between-autophagy-and-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-in-atherosclerosis
#20
J Wang, W-N Wang, S-B Xu, H Wu, B Dai, D-D Jian, M Yang, Y-T Wu, Q Feng, J-H Zhu, L Zhang, L Zhang
AIM: Endothelial cell injury assumes a fundamental part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and endothelial cell autophagy has protective effects on the development of atherosclerosis, although the underlying molecular regulation mechanism is indistinct. This study aimed to investigate whether microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) is involved in the endothelial cell autophagy regulation of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We utilized ApoE(-/-) mice provided with a high-fat diet (HFD) as atherosclerosis model...
September 9, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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