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Protein AND Fat conversion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341885/deletion-of-the-duffy-antigen-receptor-for-chemokines-darc-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-during-high-fat-feeding
#1
Tyler W Benson, Daniel S Weintraub, Matthew Crowe, Nicole K H Yiew, Orishebawo Popoola, Ajay Pillai, Joel Joseph, Krystal Archer, Charlotte Greenway, Tapan K Chatterjee, James Mintz, David W Stepp, Brian K Stansfield, Weiqin Chen, Julia Brittain, Vladimir Y Bogdanov, Yan Gao, James G Wilson, Yaoliang Tang, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation in adipose tissues in obesity promotes insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is a promiscuous non-signaling receptor expressed on erythrocytes and other cell types that modulates tissue inflammation by binding chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and by acting as a chemokine reservoir. DARC allelic variants are common in humans, but the role of DARC in modulating obesity-related metabolic disease is unknown...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331538/differential-lipid-metabolism-outcomes-associated-with-adrb2-gene-polymorphisms-in-response-to-two-dietary-interventions-in-overweight-obese-subjects
#2
O Ramos-Lopez, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, L Goni, M Cuervo, J A Martinez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A precise nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia involves the understanding of the interactions between the individual's genotype and dietary intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the response to two dietary energy-restricted interventions on cholesterol changes in carriers of two ADRB2 polymorphisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 4-month nutritional intervention was conducted involving two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns...
December 5, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316991/is-dietary-macronutrient-composition-during-pregnancy-associated-with-offspring-birth-weight-an-observational-study
#3
Sukshma S Sharma, Darren C Greenwood, Nigel A B Simpson, Janet E Cade
There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306348/effect-of-different-dietary-energy-and-protein-sources-on-antioxidant-status-fresh-yolk-fatty-acid-profile-and-microstructure-of-salted-yolks-in-laying-ducks
#4
D Ruan, Y J Hu, A M Fouad, C X Lin, Z P Xu, W Chen, Q L Fan, W G Xia, S Wang, Y Wang, L Yang, C T Zheng
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262331/the-lxcxe-retinoblastoma-protein-binding-motif-of-fog-2-regulates-adipogenesis
#5
Olivier Goupille, Tipparat Penglong, Zahra Kadri, Marine Granger-Locatelli, Raphaël Denis, Serge Luquet, Cécile Badoual, Suthat Fucharoen, Leila Maouche-Chrétien, Philippe Leboulch, Stany Chrétien
GATA transcription factors and their FOG cofactors play a key role in tissue-specific development and differentiation, from worms to humans. Mammals have six GATA and two FOG factors. We recently demonstrated that interactions between retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and GATA-1 are crucial for erythroid proliferation and differentiation. We show here that the LXCXE pRb-binding site of FOG-2 is involved in adipogenesis. Unlike GATA-1, which inhibits cell division, FOG-2 promotes proliferation. Mice with a knockin of a Fog2 gene bearing a mutated LXCXE pRb-binding site are resistant to obesity and display higher rates of white-to-brown fat conversion...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233919/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE-deficiency-alters-inflammation-markers-in-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-high-fat-diet
#6
Emmani B M Nascimento, Louise Mannerås Holm, Alexander V Chibalin, Marie Björnholm, Juleen R Zierath
Conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid is mediated by diacylglycerol kinases (DGK), with DGKα specifically linked to adaptive immune responses. We determined the role of DGKα in obesity and inflammatory responses to a high fat diet (HFD). DGKα knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates were either a) chow-fed, b) HFD-fed for 12 weeks (Long-Term HFD), or c) HFD-fed for 3 days (Acute HFD). Body weight/composition, oxygen consumption, food intake and glucose tolerance (IPGT) was unaltered between chow-fed DGKα KO and WT mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197561/phase-angle-is-related-with-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-older-women
#7
Crisieli Maria Tomeleri, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri, Mariana Ferreira de Souza, Edilaine Fungari Cavalcante, Melissa Antunes, Hellen Clair Garcez Nabbuco, Danielle Venturini, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Analiza Mônica Silva, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the relation between phase angle (PhA) and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in older women. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-five physically independent older women participated in this study (67.7±5.7years, 27.0±4.4kg/m2). Inflammatory markers included interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and acute phase reactive protein (CRP). Oxidative stress biomarkers comprised superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP)...
November 29, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188818/no-evidence-of-white-adipocyte-browning-after-endurance-exercise-training-in-obese-men
#8
T Tsiloulis, A L Carey, J Bayliss, B Canny, R C R Meex, M J Watt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187824/the-implication-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-on-fatty-acid-transport-across-plasma-and-mitochondrial-membranes-in-the-insulin-sensitive-tissues
#9
REVIEW
Elżbieta Supruniuk, Agnieszka Mikłosz, Adrian Chabowski
PGC-1α coactivator plays a decisive role in the maintenance of lipid balance via engagement in numerous metabolic processes (i.e., Krebs cycle, β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain). It constitutes a link between fatty acids import and their complete oxidation or conversion into bioactive fractions through the coordination of both the expression and subcellular relocation of the proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane movement. Studies on cell lines and/or animal models highlighted the existence of an upregulation of the total and mitochondrial FAT/CD36, FABPpm and FATPs content in skeletal muscle in response to PGC-1α stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170465/egr1-deficiency-induces-browning-of-inguinal-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#10
Cécile Milet, Marianne Bléher, Kassandra Allbright, Mickael Orgeur, Fanny Coulpier, Delphine Duprez, Emmanuelle Havis
Beige adipocyte differentiation within white adipose tissue, referred to as browning, is seen as a possible mechanism for increasing energy expenditure. The molecular regulation underlying the thermogenic browning process has not been entirely elucidated. Here, we identify the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 as a negative regulator of the beige fat program. Loss of Egr1 in mice promotes browning in the absence of external stimulation and leads to an increase of Ucp1 expression, which encodes the key thermogenic mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161081/diet-obesity-and-asthma
#11
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131158/ucp1-independent-signaling-involving-serca2b-mediated-calcium-cycling-regulates-beige-fat-thermogenesis-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#12
Kenji Ikeda, Qianqian Kang, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Joao Paulo Camporez, Hiroko Maki, Mayu Homma, Kosaku Shinoda, Yong Chen, Xiaodan Lu, Pema Maretich, Kazuki Tajima, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Tomoyoshi Soga, Shingo Kajimura
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) plays a central role in nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat; however, its role in beige fat remains unclear. Here we report a robust UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanism in beige fat that involves enhanced ATP-dependent Ca(2+) cycling by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2). Inhibition of SERCA2b impairs UCP1-independent beige fat thermogenesis in humans and mice as well as in pigs, a species that lacks a functional UCP1 protein...
November 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127443/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-orbital-inflammation-in-graves-orbitopathy-through-suppression-of-autophagy
#13
Hong Li, Yali Zhang, Jie Min, Long Gao, Ren Zhang, Yucheng Yang
INTRODUCTION: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting the orbit around the eye. Astragaloside IV (AS-VI) is the main active ingredient of the Chinese herbal medicine Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici). AS-IV exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and shows therapeutic potential in a number of ischemic and inflammatory diseases; however, its pharmaceutical activities in GO remain undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of AS-IV on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced orbital fibroblast inflammation in vitro and GO orbital inflammation and ocular histopathological changes in vivo, as well as the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects...
November 10, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123026/the-klf14-transcription-factor-regulates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#14
Lu Wang, Xin Tong, Fang Gu, Lei Zhang, Wei Chen, Xiaowen Cheng, Liwei Xie, Yongsheng Chang, Huabing Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is a member of the Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins. Despite strong evidence showing that a polymorphism in the Klf14 gene is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the physiological and metabolic functions of KLF14 still remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of KLF14 in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Adenoviruses expressing KLF14 (Ad-Klf14) or KLF14-specific shRNAs (Ad-shKlf14) were injected into normal C57BL/6J, db/db diabetic or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109438/vsig4-inhibits-proinflammatory-macrophage-activation-by-reprogramming-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#15
Jialin Li, Bo Diao, Sheng Guo, Xiaoyong Huang, Chengying Yang, Zeqing Feng, Weiming Yan, Qin Ning, Lixin Zheng, Yongwen Chen, Yuzhang Wu
Exacerbation of macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, but the immunometabolic programs underlying regulation of macrophage activation are unclear. Here we show that V-set immunoglobulin-domain-containing 4 (VSIG4), a B7 family-related protein that is expressed by resting macrophages, inhibits macrophage activation in response to lipopolysaccharide. Vsig4 (-/-) mice are susceptible to high-fat diet-caused obesity and murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3)-induced fulminant hepatitis due to excessive macrophage-dependent inflammation...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105186/dietary-fibre-alleviates-hepatic-fat-deposition-via-inhibiting-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-meat-ducks
#16
S Qin, H Han, K Zhang, X Ding, S Bai, J Wang, Q Zeng
This study investigated the effect of dietary fibre (DF) supplementation on hepatic fat deposition of Cherry Valley meat ducks. A total of 600 1-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to five dietary fibre diets (1.46 (basal diet), 3.09, 4.15, 6.18 and 7.52% (analysed)) for 14 days. Growth performance decreased with increasing DF concentrations, when the DF level more than 6.18% the average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (F/G) markedly decreased in meat ducks. Meat ducks supplemented over 4.15% DF had lower percentage of liver reported to live weight, liver lipid contents, hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations as well as decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations at 14 days...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077943/effects-of-dietary-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-cf-supplementation-on-growth-meat-quality-and-microenvironment-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#17
F Chen, S S Gao, L Q Zhu, S Y Qin, H L Qiu
The probiotic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CF (Chen Fu) on growth performance, meat quality, and microenvironment in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were investigated and compared with Enterococcus faecium. One-hundred-eighty 7-day-old SPF chickens were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 3 replicate pens of 20 chickens each. Group 1 served as a control that was fed a basal diet without probiotics supplementation. Groups 2 and 3 were fed the basal diet supplemented with L. rhamnosus CF and E...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058420/exploration-of-biological-markers-of-feed-efficiency-in-young-bulls
#18
Sarah J Meale, Diego P Morgavi, Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Donato Andueza, Isabelle Ortigues-Marty, Richard J Robins, Anne-Marie Schiphorst, Sophie Laverroux, Benoit Graulet, Hamid Boudra, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar
The efficiency with which ruminants convert feed to desirable products is difficult to measure under normal commercial settings. We explored the use of potential biological markers from easily obtainable samples, that is, blood, hair, and feces, to characterize potential causes of divergent efficiency when considered as residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). A total of 54 Charolais bulls, 20 in period 1 and 34 in period 2, were examined for individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051826/apparent-and-standardized-ileal-nutrient-digestibility-of-broiler-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-raw-full-fat-soybean-and-microbial-protease
#19
Mammo M Erdaw, Rider A Perez-Maldonado, Paul A Iji
BACKGROUND: Although soybean meal (SBM) is excellent source of protein in diets for poultry, it is sometimes inaccessible, costly and fluctuates in supply. The SBM can partially be replaced by full-fat SBM, but the meals prepared from raw full-fat soybean contain antinutritional factors. To avoid the risk of antinutritional factors, heat treatment is always advisable, but either excessive or under heating the soybean could negatively affect the quality. However, the potential for further improvement of SBM by supplementing with microbial enzymes has been suggested by many researchers...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050301/mir-377-promotes-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-decreases-insulin-sensitivity-in-obesity-via-suppression-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#20
Jie Peng, Yinghui Wu, Zhao Deng, Yuanfei Zhou, Tongxing Song, Yang Yang, Xiaming Zhang, Tao Xu, Mao Xia, Anle Cai, Zuhong Liu, Jian Peng
Obesity is associated with a wide range of metabolic disorders including inflammation and insulin-resistance. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an important regulator of metabolic homeostasis and stress response pathways in white adipose tissue. However, involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating SIRT1 during obesity-induced inflammation and insulin-resistance remains unclear. Here, we found that miR-377 was upregulated in adipose tissue and showed a negative correlation with SIRT1 in chronic high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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