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Protein AND Fat conversion

Max C Petersen, Anila K Madiraju, Brandon M Gassaway, Michael Marcel, Ali R Nasiri, Gina Butrico, Melissa J Marcucci, Dongyan Zhang, Abudukadier Abulizi, Xian-Man Zhang, William Philbrick, Stevan R Hubbard, Michael J Jurczak, Varman T Samuel, Jesse Rinehart, Gerald I Shulman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
X M Chen, F Q Li, S Yan, X C Wu, C L Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-inflammation effects by activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and its mechanisms in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. METHODS: 6-week-old male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were randomly divided into four groups: the first group was normal mice, injected with saline; the second group was normal mice, injected with nicotine; the third group was NASH model mice, injected with saline; the fourth group was NASH model mice, injected with nicotine...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
L Della Casa, E Rossi, C Romanelli, L Gibellini, A Iannone
BACKGROUND: The individual genetic variations, as a response to diet, have recently caught the attention of several researchers. In addition, there is also a trend to assume food containing beneficial substances, or to supplement food with specific compounds. Among these, there is the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has been demonstrated to reduce fat mass and to increase lean mass, even though its mechanism of action is still not known. We investigated the effect of CLA isomers (CLA c9,t11 and CLA t10,c12) on the proteomic profile of liver, adipose tissue, and muscle of mouse, with the aim of verifying the presence of a modification in fat and lean mass, and to explore the mechanism of action...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
Metta Dülk, Gyöngyi Kudlik, Anna Fekete, Dávid Ernszt, Krisztián Kvell, Judit E Pongrácz, Balázs L Merő, Bálint Szeder, László Radnai, Miklós Geiszt, Dalma E Csécsy, Tamás Kovács, Ferenc Uher, Árpád Lányi, Virag Vas, László Buday
The commitment steps of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to adipogenic and other lineages have been widely studied but not fully understood. Therefore, it is critical to understand which molecules contribute to the conversion of stem cells into differentiated cells. The scaffold protein Tks4 plays a role in podosome formation, EGFR signaling and ROS production. Dysfunction of Tks4 causes a hereditary disease called Frank-ter Haar syndrome with a variety of defects concerning certain mesenchymal tissues (bone, fat and cartilage) throughout embryogenic and postnatal development...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aihua Wang, Jing Luo, William Moore, Hana Alkhalidy, Ling Wu, Jinhua Zhang, Wei Zhen, Yao Wang, Deborah J Clegg, Bin Xu, Zhiyong Cheng, Ryan P McMillan, Matthew W Hulver, Dongmin Liu
Recent studies showed that GPR30, a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor, is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that mediates some biological events elicited by estrogen in several types of cancer cells. However, its physiological or pathological role in vivo is unclear. Here, we show that GPR30 knockout (GPRKO) female mice were protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, blood glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. The decreased body weight gain in GPRKO female mice is due to the reduction in body fat mass...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yifei Zhang, Xing Wang, Hitoshi Matakatsu, Richard Fehon, Seth S Blair
Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue...
October 3, 2016: ELife
Isabela Estrada-Alcalde, Miriam R Tenorio-Guzman, Armando R Tovar, Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Lilia G Noriega
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism is regulated by the branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT2) and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). BCAT2 and BCKDH expression and activity are modified during adipogenesis and altered in adipose tissues of mice with genetic or diet-induced obesity. However, little is known about how these modifications and alterations affect the intracellular metabolic fate of BCAAs during adipogenesis, in adipocytes from mice fed a control or high-fat diet or in C2C12 myotubes...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Roshada Hashim, Mohammad Suhaimee Abdul Manaf, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
I C Ospina-Rojas, A E Murakami, C R A Duarte, G R Nascimento, E R M Garcia, M I Sakamoto, R V Nunes
The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performance, serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch. A total of 1,500 21-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments with 3 replicates of 20 birds each...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
Qingmei Zheng, Chunyan Han, Yanmei Zhong, Rushu Wen, Ming Zhong
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with green tea waste (GTW) on growth, digestive enzyme and lipid metabolism of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus. The fish (initial mean body weight, 12.63 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets that included 0 (control), 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 or 6.4 % of GTW in triplicate aquaria, twice daily. Growth performance, plasma metabolites content and liver and intestine digestive enzyme activities were determined...
September 16, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Hassan Abdel-Hafeez, Elham Saleh, Samar Tawfeek, Ibrahim Youssef, Asmaa Abdel-Daim
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic with and without feed restriction on broilers performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, and feed cost of production from 1 to 56 days of age. Two hundred and forty unsexed one day-old chicks of Arbor Acres breed were used. Two trials, I & II, were conducted, with 120 birds in every one. Each trial was divided into 4 equal groups. The birds in trial I were fed ad libitum throughout the experiment, while the chicks in trial II were fed ad libitum during the first week of age, then subjected to 5 hours / day of feed restriction from the beginning of the second week up to the end of the experiment...
September 12, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Chun-Yan Wu, Yuan-Yuan Wu, Chun-Dong Liu, Yu-Xiang Wang, Wei Na, Ning Wang, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism underlying broiler fat deposition is still poorly understood. METHOD: Currently, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins in abdominal adipose tissues of birds at 4 week of age derived from Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF). RESULTS: Thirteen differentially expressed protein spots were screened out and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
2016: Proteome Science
Lihe Dai, Xiaohong Chu, Fuzeng Lu, Ruhai Xu
As an important triglyceride hydrolase in mammalian cells, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 2 (PNPLA2) predominantly performs the first step in triglyceride hydrolysis. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate the effects of mutations in the 5' upstream region of porcine PNPLA2 gene with fat deposition and carcass traits. Four single nuclear polymorphisms were identified, including g.161969 T>C, g.161962 A>G, g.161953 C>G and g.161904 G>T, and subsequently genotyped in five pure breeds...
November 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Sahar Razmjou, Jean-Pilippe Bastard, Eric Doucet, Remi Rabasa-Lhoret, Soraya Fellahi, Jean-Marc Lavoie, Denis Prud'homme
OBJECTIVE: Menopausal transition is usually associated with changes in body composition and a decrease in physical activity energy expenditure. Adipose tissue, especially visceral fat, is an important source of inflammatory markers, which contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state. Conversely, high levels of physical activity and exercise have an anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to investigate the impact of menopausal transition and physical activity on inflammatory makers...
August 15, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Kelvin H M Kwok, Kenneth K Y Cheng, Ruby L C Hoo, Dewei Ye, Aimin Xu, Karen S L Lam
Both atherosclerosis and obesity, an independent atherosclerotic risk factor, are associated with enhanced systemic inflammation. Obesity is also characterized by increased adipose tissue inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the accelerated atherosclerosis in obesity remains unclear. In obesity, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) contributes to adipose tissue inflammation. The present study investigated whether the suppression of fat inflammation through adipose-specific JNK inactivation could protect against atherosclerosis in mice...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Agata Krawczyńska, Andrzej P Herman, Hanna Antushevich, Joanna Bochenek, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Alina Gajewska, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the modification of the Western-type diet (high-fat, high-sucrose diet rich in saturated fatty acids) considering macronutrients content would influence hepatic metabolism and activity of steroids. For 3 weeks Wistar rat were fed the Western-type diet (21% fat, 35% sucrose, 19% protein, lard) and its modifications regarding dietary protein (10 and 19%), fat (5 and 21%) and sucrose (0 and 35%) levels. The steroid 5α-reductase type 1 (Srd5a1) and androgen receptor (Ar) gene expression as well as testosterone (T) conversion towards 5α-reduced derivatives in liver were positively correlated with body weight gain...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Bruno Martinez-Perez, Miriam Ejarque, Cristina Gutierrez, Catalina Nuñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Mónica Ballesteros, Ibon Redondo-Angulo, Anna Planavila, Francesc Villarroya, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Ana Megía
Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8), a protein implicated in lipid and glucose homeostasis, is present only in mammals, suggesting that it is involved in processes unique to these vertebrates such as pregnancy and homeothermy. We explored the role of ANGPTL8 in maternal-fetal crosstalk and its relationship with newborn adiposity. In a longitudinal analysis of healthy pregnant women, ANGPTL8 levels decreased progressively during pregnancy although remained higher than levels in the postpartum period. In a cross-sectional observational study of women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and their offspring, ANGPTL8 levels were higher in venous cord blood than those in maternal blood and were significantly lower in GDM patients than those in healthy women...
July 9, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Amy R Johnson, Yuanyuan Qin, Alyssa J Cozzo, Alex J Freemerman, Megan J Huang, Liyang Zhao, Brante P Sampey, J Justin Milner, Melinda A Beck, Blossom Damania, Naim Rashid, Joseph A Galanko, Douglas P Lee, Matthew L Edin, Darryl C Zeldin, Patrick T Fueger, Brittney Dietz, Andreas Stahl, Ying Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Liza Makowski
OBJECTIVE: A novel approach to regulate obesity-associated adipose inflammation may be through metabolic reprogramming of macrophages (MΦs). Broadly speaking, MΦs dependent on glucose are pro-inflammatory, classically activated MΦs (CAM), which contribute to adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. In contrast, MΦs that primarily metabolize fatty acids are alternatively activated MΦs (AAM) and maintain tissue insulin sensitivity. In actuality, there is much flexibility and overlap in the CAM-AAM spectrum in vivo dependent upon various stimuli in the microenvironment...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Miwon Ahn, Stephanie M Yoder, Zhanxiang Wang, Eunjin Oh, Latha Ramalingam, Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Debbie C Thurmond
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Human islets from type 2 diabetic donors are reportedly 80% deficient in the p21 (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase, PAK1. PAK1 is implicated in beta cell function and maintenance of beta cell mass. We questioned the mechanism(s) by which PAK1 deficiency potentially contributes to increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Non-diabetic human islets and INS 832/13 beta cells cultured under diabetogenic conditions (i.e. with specific cytokines or under glucolipotoxic [GLT] conditions) were evaluated for changes to PAK1 signalling...
October 2016: Diabetologia
Sarbani Ghoshal, Richa Tyagi, Qingzhang Zhu, Anutosh Chakraborty
Lipolysis leads to the breakdown of stored triglycerides (TAG) to release free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol which is utilized by energy expenditure pathways to generate energy. Therefore, a decrease in lipolysis augments fat accumulation in adipocytes which promotes weight gain. Conversely, if lipolysis is not complemented by energy expenditure, it leads to FFA induced insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Thus, lipolysis is under stringent physiological regulation, although the precise mechanism of the regulation is not known...
September 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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