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Protein AND Fat conversion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103301/differences-in-beef-quality-between-angus-bos-taurus-taurus-and-nellore-bos-taurus-indicus-cattle-through-a-proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-approach
#1
Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues, Mario Luiz Chizzotti, Camilo Elber Vital, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Edvaldo Barros, Karina Costa Busato, Rafael Aparecido Gomes, Márcio Machado Ladeira, Taiane da Silva Martins
Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088923/an-assessment-of-the-influence-of-macronutrients-on-growth-performance-and-nutrient-utilisation-in-broiler-chickens-by-nutritional-geometry
#2
Sonia Y Liu, Peter H Selle, David Raubenheimer, David J Cadogan, Stephen J Simpson, Aaron J Cowieson
The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051762/impact-of-long-term-high-fat-diet-intake-gestational-protein-restricted-offspring-on-kidney-morphology-and-function
#3
V H G Rizzi, L D B Sene, C D B Fernandez, J A R Gontijo, P A Boer
Emerging evidence highlights the far-reaching consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) and obesity on kidney morphological and functional disorders. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the effects of early HFD intake on renal function and morphology in maternal protein-restricted offspring (LP). LP and normal protein-intake offspring (NP) were fed HFD (LPH and NPH, respectively) or standard rodent (LPN and NPN) diet from the 8th to 13th week of age. Blood pressure, kidney function, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy were analyzed...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973445/roles-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-in-bitter-melon-seed-oil-corrected-lipid-disorders-and-conversion-of-%C3%AE-eleostearic-acid-into-rumenic-acid-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#4
Ya-Yuan Chang, Hui-Min Su, Szu-Han Chen, Wen-Tsong Hsieh, Jong-Ho Chyuan, Pei-Min Chao
We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα in BMSO-modulated lipid disorders and α-ESA metabolism. C57BL/6J wild (WD) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet containing BMSO (15% soybean oil + 15% BMSO, HB) or not (30% soybean oil, HS) for 5 weeks...
December 12, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927977/ppar-mrna-levels-are-modified-by-dietary-n-3-fatty-acid-restriction-and-energy-restriction-in-the-brain-and-liver-of-growing-rats
#5
Matthew J Picklo, LuAnn Johnson, Joseph Idso
BACKGROUND: Without dietary sources of n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) affects ALA conversion to DHA. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces n-3 LCPUFA concentrations in tissues of growing rats fed diets replete with and deficient in ALA. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (23 d old) were provided AIN93G diets (4 wk) made with soybean oil (SO; ALA sufficient) or corn oil (CO; ALA deficient) providing 16% of energy as fat...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899481/hznt8-slc30a8-transgenic-mice-which-overexpress-the-r325w-polymorph-have-reduced-islet-zn2-and-proinsulin-levels-increased-glucose-tolerance-after-a-high-fat-diet-and-altered-levels-of-pancreatic-zinc-binding-proteins
#6
Li Li, Shi Bai, Christian T Sheline
Zinc is involved in both type-1 (T1DM) and type-2 (T2DM) diabetes. The wildtype (WT) form of the beta-cell specific Zn(2+) transporter, ZNT8, is linked to T2DM susceptibility. ZnT8 null mice have a mild phenotype with a slight decrease in glucose tolerance, whereas patients with the ZnT8 R325W polymorphism (rs13266634) have decreased proinsulin staining and susceptibility to T2DM. We measured zinc, insulin, and proinsulin stainings, and IPGTT in transgenic mice overexpressing hZnT8 WT or hZnT8 R325W fed a normal or high fat diet (HFD)...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898932/performance-and-methane-emissions-of-grazing-nellore-bulls-supplemented-with-crude-glycerin
#7
E San Vito, J F Lage, J D Messana, E E Dallantonia, R T S Frighetto, R A Reis, A J Neto, T T Berchielli
Supplementation of grass-fed cattle with low-cost feeding alternatives may be an attractive way to improve efficiency of cattle production. We hypothesized that inclusion of crude glycerin (CG) in supplements provided to grass-fed cattle could improve feed conversion without negative effects on growth performance while reducing methane emissions. Our hypothesis was tested using Nellore bulls grazing tropical pasture ( = 50; initial BW of 427 ± 19.41 kg; age of 17 ± 2 mo) supplemented with increasing concentrations (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g/kg DM basis of supplement) of CG and corn gluten replacing corn grain...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898907/apparent-total-tract-macronutrient-digestibility-fecal-characteristics-and-fecal-fermentative-end-product-concentrations-of-healthy-adult-dogs-fed-bioprocessed-soy-protein
#8
A N Beloshapka, M R C de Godoy, K B Detweiler, M Newcomb, K H Ellegård, G C Fahey, K S Swanson
Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885273/fatty-acid-binding-protein-fabp4-mechanistically-links-obesity-with-aggressive-aml-by-enhancing-aberrant-dna-methylation-in-aml-cells
#9
F Yan, N Shen, J X Pang, Y W Zhang, E Y Rao, A M Bode, A Al-Kali, D E Zhang, M R Litzow, B Li, S J Liu
Obesity is becoming more prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, remains a frequently fatal disease. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which obesity favors AML growth and uncovered the fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) regulatory axis that mediates aggressive AML in obesity. We showed that leukemia burden was much higher in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, which had higher levels of FABP4 and interleukin (IL)-6 in the sera...
December 2, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878513/nanoselenium-supplementation-of-heat-stressed-broilers-effects-on-performance-carcass-characteristics-blood-metabolites-immune-response-antioxidant-status-and-jejunal-morphology
#10
Morteza Safdari-Rostamabad, Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan, Ali Hossein Perai, Hadi Sarir
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nanoselenium supplementation at 0, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg of diet on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, immune response, antioxidant capacity, and jejunal morphology of 29-d-old male broilers subjected to heat stress at 37 ± 1°C for 14 d. Broilers were fed for 42 d on the experimental diets. The results showed that nanoselenium supplementation had no effect on growth performance, but it supplementation at the rate of 1.2 mg/kg diet decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol prior to the heat exposure...
November 22, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872488/pld1-regulates-adipogenic-differentiation-through-mtor-irs-1-phosphorylation-at-serine-636-639
#11
Hae-In Song, Mee-Sup Yoon
Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) plays a known role in several differentiation processes, but its role in adipogenic differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, we identified PLD1 as a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation. We showed that PLD activity was downregulated by both 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and insulin upon induction of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipogenic cells. In line with this observation, PLD activity decreased in both high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and ob/ob mice. We also found that differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was enhanced by the depletion of PLD1 levels or inhibition of PLD1 activity by VU0155069, a PLD1-specific inhibitor...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862709/selection-for-high-and-low-oxygen-consumption-induced-differences-in-maintenance-energy-requirements-of-mice
#12
Hongyu Darhan, Motoi Kikusato, Masaaki Toyomizu, Sang-Gun Roh, Kazuo Katoh, Masahiro Sato, Keiichi Suzuki
Maintenance energy requirements (MER) of mice selected for high (H) or low (L) oxygen consumption (OC) were compared. Forty-four mice from H and L OC lines were weaned at 3 weeks and divided into four experimental groups: group A were sacrificed at 4 weeks; group B were fed ad libitum, and groups C and D were fed 2.8 and 2.4 g/day, respectively, from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Groups B-D were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Chemical components were estimated for all groups. MER was estimated using a model that partitioned metabolizable energy intake into that used for maintenance, and protein and fat deposition...
November 8, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843095/branched-chain-amino-acids-cause-liver-injury-in-obese-diabetic-mice-by-promoting-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-inhibiting-hepatic-autophagy
#13
Fuyang Zhang, Shihao Zhao, Wenjun Yan, Yunlong Xia, Xiyao Chen, Wei Wang, Jinglong Zhang, Chao Gao, Cheng Peng, Feng Yan, Huishou Zhao, Kun Lian, Yan Lee, Ling Zhang, Wayne Bond Lau, Xinliang Ma, Ling Tao
The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD) upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake) reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829952/effect-of-l-carnitine-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-on-energy-metabolism-using-indirect-calorimetry-a-pilot-study
#15
Yoshiyuki Sakai, Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Kazunori Yoh, Yoshinori Iwata, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Kyohei Kishino, Yoshihiro Shimono, Ryo Takata, Takashi Nishimura, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Akio Ishii, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: L-carnitine supplementation has been suggested to show several favorable effects on patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, there have been no reports regarding the effect of L-carnitine on energy metabolism in patients with LC using indirect calorimetry which is a well-established method for assessing the degree of liver malnutrition. We examined the effect of L-carnitine in patients with LC on energy metabolism using indirect calorimetry. METHODS: A total of 13 LC patients who are scheduled to be treated with L-carnitine (1,800 mg/day) were analyzed in this study...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827399/anthropometric-indicators-as-predictors-of-total-body-fat-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-chilean-children-at-4-7-and-10-years-of-age
#16
F D Vásquez, C L Corvalán, R E Uauy, J A Kain
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To compare the association between anthropometric indicators of global and central obesity as predictors of total body fat (TBF) and cardiometabolic risk factors in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1044 children were evaluated at 4 years (n=320), 7 years (n=1044) and 10 years (n=483). The following anthropometric indices were determined: body mass index (BMI) for age (BAZ, WHO), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825677/altered-autophagy-and-sympathetic-innervation-in-salivary-glands-from-high-fat-diet-mice
#17
Polliane Morais de Carvalho, Maria Beatriz Duarte Gavião, Guy Howard Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) on salivary glands in vivo, in a mouse model. In particular, whether it will induce the appearance of fat cells in salivary glands, alterations related to autophagy, mTOR pathway and sympathetic innervation. DESIGN: 27 adult female ICR mice were separated in six groups. Three groups fed with (HFD) containing 55% fat, for one, two and three month and another three groups fed with normal diet (2.7% of fat), for the same time periods...
October 29, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821816/tet-methylcytosine-dioxygenase-2-inhibits-atherosclerosis-via-upregulation-of-autophagy-in-apoe-mice
#18
Juan Peng, Qin Yang, A-Fang Li, Rong-Qing Li, Zuo Wang, Lu-Shan Liu, Zhong Ren, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiao-Qing Tang, Guo-Hua Li, Zhi-Han Tang, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Dang-Heng Wei
Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) mediates the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The loss of TET2 is associated with advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Our previous study showed that TET2 improves endothelial cell function by enhancing endothelial cell autophagy. Accordingly, this study determined the role of TET2 in atherosclerosis and potential mechanisms. In ApoE-/- mice fed high-fat diet, TET2 overexpression markedly decreased atherosclerotic lesions with uniformly increased level of 5hmC and decreased level of 5mC in genomic DNA...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816854/diet-quality-is-associated-with-mental-health-social-support-and-neighborhood-factors-among-veterans
#19
Katherine D Hoerster, Sarah Wilson, Karin M Nelson, Gayle E Reiber, Robin M Masheb
United States Veterans have a higher prevalence of overweight and related chronic conditions compared to the general population. Although diet is a primary and modifiable contributor to these conditions, little is known about factors influencing diet quality among Veterans. The goal of this study is to examine individual, social environment, and physical environment correlates of general diet quality among Veterans. Study participants (N=653) received care at an urban VA Medical Center in Seattle, WA and completed a mailed survey in 2012 and 2013...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807880/selection-signature-analysis-reveals-genes-associated-with-tail-type-in-chinese-indigenous-sheep
#20
Z Yuan, E Liu, Z Liu, J W Kijas, C Zhu, S Hu, X Ma, L Zhang, L Du, H Wang, C Wei
Fat-tailed sheep have commercial value because consumers prefer high-protein and low-fat food and producers care about feed conversion rate. However, fat-tailed sheep still have some scientific significance, as the fat tail is commonly regarded as a characteristic of environmental adaptability. Finding the candidate genes associated with fat tail formation is essential for breeding and conservation. To identify these candidate genes, we applied FST and hapFLK approaches in fat- and thin-tailed sheep with available 50K SNP genotype data...
November 3, 2016: Animal Genetics
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