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Niels R Disbergen, Giancarlo Valente, Elia Formisano, Robert J Zatorre
Polyphonic music listening well exemplifies processes typically involved in daily auditory scene analysis situations, relying on an interactive interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes. Most studies investigating scene analysis have used elementary auditory scenes, however real-world scene analysis is far more complex. In particular, music, contrary to most other natural auditory scenes, can be perceived by either integrating or, under attentive control, segregating sound streams, often carried by different instruments...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kun Hwang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sara Tze Kwan Li, Janet Hui-Wen Hsiao
Music notation and English word reading both involve mapping horizontally arranged visual components to components in sound, in contrast to reading in logographic languages such as Chinese. Accordingly, music-reading expertise may influence English word processing more than Chinese character processing. Here we showed that musicians named English words significantly faster than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH) or the center position, suggesting an advantage of RH processing due to music reading experience...
March 17, 2018: Cognition
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Viktor Müller, Johanna Sänger, Ulman Lindenberger
When playing music in an ensemble, musicians need to precisely coordinate their actions with one another. As shown in our previous studies on guitar duets, interbrain synchronization plays an essential role during such interactions. In this study, we simultaneously recorded electroencephalograms from four guitarists during quartet playing, to explore the extent and the functional significance of synchronized cortical activity across four brains. We found that hyperbrain networks based on intra- and interbrain connectivity across four brains dwell on higher frequencies for intrabrain communication and on lower frequencies for interbrain connections...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Stefan Elmer, Lutz Jäncke
Numerous studies have documented the behavioral advantages conferred on professional musicians and children undergoing music training in processing speech sounds varying in the spectral and temporal dimensions. These beneficial effects have previously often been associated with local functional and structural changes in the auditory cortex (AC). However, this perspective is oversimplified, in that it does not take into account the intrinsic organization of the human brain, namely, neural networks and oscillatory dynamics...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
F N van der Weijden, R B Kuitert, F R U Berkhout, G A van der Weijden
PURPOSE: To systematically search the scientific literature concerning the influence of tooth position on wind instrumentalists' performance and embouchure comfort. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched up to November 2017. The main orthodontic journals were searched for papers older than the inception date of PubMed. Grey literature was sought via Google Scholar. Eligible studies were critically appraised and analysed. RESULTS: The searches retrieved 54 papers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Jessica V Strong, Benjamin T Mast
This study examined similarities and differences in the cognitive profiles of older adult instrumental musicians and non-musicians. We compared neuropsychological test scores among older adult non-musicians, low-activity musicians (<10 years of lessons), and high-activity musicians (≥10 years of lessons), controlling for self-reported physical and social activity, years of education, and overall health. Significant differences among groups were found on tasks of visual spatial ability, naming, and executive functioning...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Kongmeng Liew, PerMagnus Lindborg, Ruth Rodrigues, Suzy J Styles
Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama , a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Assal Habibi, Antonio Damasio, Beatriz Ilari, Matthew Elliott Sachs, Hanna Damasio
Evidence suggests that learning to play music enhances musical processing skills and benefits other cognitive abilities. Furthermore, studies of children and adults indicate that the brains of musicians and nonmusicians are different. It has not been determined, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing traits, musical training, or an interaction between the two. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on children's brain and cognitive development...
March 6, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Vincent K M Cheung, Lars Meyer, Angela D Friederici, Stefan Koelsch
Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vitória Piai, Sandra H Vos, Reinhard Idelberger, Pauline Gans, Jonne Doorduin, Mark Ter Laan
Objective: We report the case of a professional violin player who underwent an awake craniotomy to resect a tumor in the left supplementary motor area, an area involved in motor planning. Method: A careful pre- and intraoperative monitoring plan for music performance and complex motor function was established that could be used in combination with cortical stimulation. Results: The patient suffered an epileptic seizure during cortical stimulation...
February 27, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Darko Breitenfeld, Davor Kust, Tomislav Breitenfeld, Marin Prpić, Marko Lucijanić, Davor Zibar, Vedran Hostić, Maja Franceschi, Ante Bolanča
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The most common mechanism of transmission is sexual intercourse. Although there are several hypotheses, the exact origin of the disease remains unknown. Newly published evidence suggests that the hypothesis supporting the theory of the American origin of the disease is the valid one. Among 1500 analyzed pathographies of composers and musicians, data on ten Anglo-American composers and jazz musicians having suffered from neurosyphilis (tertiary stage of the disease) were extracted for this report...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Paula Thomson, S V Jaque
Childhood adversity is identified as any exposure to abuse, neglect or family dysfunction. Greater exposure to childhood adversity has been strongly identified with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine differences in creative experiences, fantasy proneness, dispositional flow, exposure to adult traumatic events, and psychopathology (internalized shame, trait anxiety), amongst professional performing artists who experienced no childhood adversity, some adversity, or substantial adversity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Cecilie Møller, Andreas Højlund, Klaus B Bærentsen, Niels Chr Hansen, Joshua C Skewes, Peter Vuust
Perception is fundamentally a multisensory experience. The principle of inverse effectiveness (PoIE) states how the multisensory gain is maximal when responses to the unisensory constituents of the stimuli are weak. It is one of the basic principles underlying multisensory processing of spatiotemporally corresponding crossmodal stimuli that are well established at behavioral as well as neural levels. It is not yet clear, however, how modality-specific stimulus features influence discrimination of subtle changes in a crossmodally corresponding feature belonging to another modality...
February 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alini Daniéli Viana Sabino, Cristielli M Camargo, Marcos Hortes N Chagas, Flávia L Osório
Introduction: Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be defined as a lasting and intense apprehension connected with musical performance in public. Studies suggest that MPA can be regarded as a subtype of social anxiety. Since individuals with social anxiety have deficits in the recognition of facial emotion, we hypothesized that musicians with high levels of MPA would share similar impairments. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare parameters of facial emotion recognition (FER) between musicians with high and low MPA...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Anita D'Anselmo, Felice Giuliani, Federica Campopiano, Emanuele Carta, Alfredo Brancucci
Musical setticlavio (literally, seven clefs) reading refers to the ability to read (i.e., to say aloud, without to sing) the musical note labels in the 7 musical clefs. The present research report aims to investigate hemispheric asymmetries in such a basic musical ability, very poorly investigated in the domain of cognitive neurosciences. Sixty-three musicians underwent lateralized tachistoscopic presentation of musical notes on staves, 50% in the left and 50% in the right visual field, associated with each of the 7 musical clefs...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
Anastasia G Sares, Nicholas E V Foster, Kachina Allen, Krista L Hyde
Purpose: Musical training is often linked to enhanced auditory discrimination, but the relative roles of pitch and time in music and speech are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether pitch and time processing are correlated across individuals and how they may be affected by attention. This study aimed to examine pitch and time processing in speech and tone sequences, taking musical training and attention into account. Method: Musicians (16) and nonmusicians (16) were asked to detect pitch or timing changes in speech and tone sequences and make a binary response...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Alice Mado Proverbio, Francesco De Benedetto, Maria Vittoria Ferrari, Giorgia Ferrarini
Studies in the literature have provided conflicting evidence about the effects of background noise or music on concurrent cognitive tasks. Some studies have shown a detrimental effect, while others have shown a beneficial effect of background auditory stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of agitating, happy or touching music, as opposed to environmental sounds or silence, on the ability of non-musician subjects to perform arithmetic operations. Fifty university students (25 women and 25 men, 25 introverts and 25 extroverts) volunteered for the study...
2018: PloS One
Aimee E Morris, Scott A Norris, Joel S Perlmutter, Jonathan W Mink
BACKGROUND: Focal embouchure dystonia impairs orofacial motor control in wind musicians and causes professional disability. A paucity of quantitative measures or rating scales impedes the objective assessment of treatment efficacy. OBJECTIVES: We quantified specific features of focal embouchure dystonia using acoustic measures and developed a metric to assess severity across multiple domains of symptomatic impairment. METHODS: We recruited 9 brass musicians with and 6 without embouchure dystonia...
March 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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