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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771462/different-neural-activities-support-auditory-working-memory-in-musicians-and-bilinguals
#1
Claude Alain, Yasha Khatamian, Yu He, Yunjo Lee, Sylvain Moreno, Ada W S Leung, Ellen Bialystok
Musical training and bilingualism benefit executive functioning and working memory (WM)-however, the brain networks supporting this advantage are not well specified. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and the n-back task to assess WM for spatial (sound location) and nonspatial (sound category) auditory information in musician monolingual (musicians), nonmusician bilinguals (bilinguals), and nonmusician monolinguals (controls). Musicians outperformed bilinguals and controls on the nonspatial WM task...
May 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758238/electrophysiological-correlates-of-timbre-imagery-and-perception
#2
Przemysław Tużnik, Paweł Augustynowicz, Piotr Francuz
The primary objective of the present study was to verify whether the differences in imagined timbre are reflected by the event-related potentials (ERPs). It was verified the hypotheses that imagining of sounds, varying in spectral characteristics of timbre, influence the amplitude of the late positive component (LPC), associated with auditory imagery-related processes. It was also verified whether the manipulation of the perceived timbre corresponds to the amplitude fluctuations of the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) N1 and P2...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757798/tinnitus-severity-is-related-to-the-sound-exposure-of-symphony-orchestra-musicians-independently-of-hearing-impairment
#3
Jesper Hvass Schmidt, Helene M Paarup, Jesper Bælum
OBJECTIVES: Tinnitus can be debilitating and with great impact of musicians professional and private life. The objectives of the study were therefore to: (1) describe the epidemiology of tinnitus including its severity in classical orchestra musicians, (2) investigate the association between tinnitus severity in classical musicians and their cumulative lifetime sound exposure, and (3) the association between tinnitus and hearing thresholds. DESIGN: The study population included all musicians from five Danish symphony orchestras...
May 11, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756657/amplitude-envelope-correlations-measure-synchronous-cortical-oscillations-in-performing-musicians
#4
Anna Zamm, Stefan Debener, Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Martin G Bleichner, Alexander P Demos, Caroline Palmer
A major question facing cognitive neuroscience is measurement of interbrain synchrony between individuals performing joint actions. We describe the application of a novel method for measuring musicians' interbrain synchrony: amplitude envelope correlations (AECs). Amplitude envelopes (AEs) reflect energy fluctuations in cortical oscillations over time; AE correlations measure the degree to which two envelope fluctuations are temporally correlated, such as cortical oscillations arising from two individuals performing a joint action...
May 14, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753700/spectrum-and-prevalence-of-genetic-predisposition-in-medulloblastoma-a-retrospective-genetic-study-and-prospective-validation-in-a-clinical-trial-cohort
#5
Sebastian M Waszak, Paul A Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, Giles W Robinson, Christian Sutter, Susanne Groebner, Kerstin B Grund, Laurence Brugières, David T W Jones, Kristian W Pajtler, A Sorana Morrissy, Marcel Kool, Dominik Sturm, Lukas Chavez, Aurelie Ernst, Sebastian Brabetz, Michael Hain, Thomas Zichner, Maia Segura-Wang, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Tobias Rausch, Balca R Mardin, Xin Zhou, Cristina Baciu, Christian Lawerenz, Jennifer A Chan, Pascale Varlet, Lea Guerrini-Rousseau, Daniel W Fults, Wiesława Grajkowska, Peter Hauser, Nada Jabado, Young-Shin Ra, Karel Zitterbart, Suyash S Shringarpure, Francisco M De La Vega, Carlos D Bustamante, Ho-Keung Ng, Arie Perry, Tobey J MacDonald, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Anne E Bendel, Daniel C Bowers, Geoffrey McCowage, Murali M Chintagumpala, Richard Cohn, Timothy Hassall, Gudrun Fleischhack, Tone Eggen, Finn Wesenberg, Maria Feychting, Birgitta Lannering, Joachim Schüz, Christoffer Johansen, Tina V Andersen, Martin Röösli, Claudia E Kuehni, Michael Grotzer, Kristina Kjaerheim, Camelia M Monoranu, Tenley C Archer, Elizabeth Duke, Scott L Pomeroy, Redmond Shelagh, Stephan Frank, David Sumerauer, Wolfram Scheurlen, Marina V Ryzhova, Till Milde, Christian P Kratz, David Samuel, Jinghui Zhang, David A Solomon, Marco Marra, Roland Eils, Claus R Bartram, Katja von Hoff, Stefan Rutkowski, Vijay Ramaswamy, Richard J Gilbertson, Andrey Korshunov, Michael D Taylor, Peter Lichter, David Malkin, Amar Gajjar, Jan O Korbel, Stefan M Pfister
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED)...
May 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753304/enhanced-neural-and-behavioral-processing-of-a-non-native-phonemic-contrast-in-professional-musicians
#6
Eva Dittinger, Mariapaola D'Imperio, Mireille Besson
Based on growing evidence suggesting that professional music training facilitates foreign language perception and learning, we examined the impact of musical expertise on the categorization of syllables including phonemes that did (/p/, /b/) or did not (/ph /) belong to the French repertoire by analyzing both behavior (error rates and reaction times) and Event-Related brain Potentials (N200 and P300 components). Professional musicians and non-musicians categorized syllables either as /ba/ or /pa/ (voicing task), or as /pa/ or /ph a/ with /ph / being a non-native phoneme for French speakers (aspiration task)...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752659/individual-differences-in-musical-training-and-executive-functions-a-latent-variable-approach
#7
Brooke M Okada, L Robert Slevc
Learning and performing music draw on a host of cognitive abilities, and previous research has postulated that musicians might have advantages in related cognitive processes. One such aspect of cognition that may be related to musical training is executive functions (EFs), a set of top-down processes that regulate behavior and cognition according to task demands. Previous studies investigating the link between musical training and EFs have yielded mixed results and are difficult to compare. In part, this is because most studies have looked at only one specific cognitive process, and even studies looking at the same process have used different experimental tasks...
May 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744897/musical-and-verbal-short-term-memory-insights-from-neurodevelopmental-and-neurological-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Anne Caclin, Barbara Tillmann
Auditory short-term memory (STM) is a fundamental ability to make sense of auditory information as it unfolds over time. Whether separate STM systems exist for different types of auditory information (music and speech, in particular) is a matter of debate. The present paper reviews studies that have investigated both musical and verbal STM in healthy individuals and in participants with neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders. Overall, the results are in favor of only partly shared networks for musical and verbal STM...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740300/spectral-spatial-differentiation-of-brain-activity-during-mental-imagery-of-improvisational-music-performance-using-meg
#9
Jared Boasen, Yuya Takeshita, Shinya Kuriki, Koichi Yokosawa
Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738929/musicians-injuries-upper-quarter-motor-control-deficits-in-musicians-with-prolonged-symptoms-a-case-control-study
#10
Flavio M Silva, Jean-Michel Brismée, Phillip S Sizer, Troy L Hooper, Gary E Robinson, Alex B Diamond
STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. BACKGROUND: A large number of student and professional musicians are affected by long term playing related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMSDs) during their career, with prevalence rates above 80%. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if there were differences between musicians with and without prolonged symptoms of upper quarter PRMSDs in the presence of: (1) scapular dyskinesis; (2) cervical motor control and endurance deficits...
April 27, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727802/electromyography-of-neck-and-shoulder-muscles-in-instrumental-musicians-with-musculoskeletal-pain-compared-to-asymptomatic-controls-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Mark Overton, Heleen Du Plessis, Gisela Sole
Musicians report a high prevalence of annual musculoskeletal pain (86-89%), attributed to prolonged playing times consisting of repetitive static and dynamic muscle activity. The aim of this study was to explore, compare and synthesise evidence on electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity in neck, shoulder and spinal musculature between painful and asymptomatic instrumental musicians. Ovid, Wiley, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched in August 2016 for cross-sectional studies that compared EMG activity of neck, shoulder and spinal musculature between musicians with musculoskeletal pain and asymptomatic comparisons...
April 7, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705171/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-musculoskeletal-pain-in-keyboard-musicians-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Leticia Amaral Corrêa, Luciano Teixeira Dos Santos, Edmur Nelson Nogueira Paranhos Júnior, Alfredo Ignacio Minetti Albertini, Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira, Leandro Alberto Calazans Nogueira
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and risk factors for musculoskeletal pain in keyboard musicians. DESIGN: Systematic review METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the MOOSE recommendations and it was registered with the PROSPERO database under registration number CRD42016042913. We included observational studies through the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale (RILM), Retrospective Index to Music Periodicals (RIPM), Scielo and Google Scholar, with combinations of the keywords: "pianists", "keyboard players", "musculoskeletal pain", "muscular disease", "tendinitis", "tendinopathy", "observational", "case-control", "prevalence" and "risk factors"...
April 26, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696994/the-impact-of-musical-training-on-hand-biomechanics-in-string-musicians
#13
Stacey L Gorniak, Evan D Collins, Kimberly Goldie Staines, Forrest A Brooks, Ricardo V Young
BACKGROUND: The effects of musical training on the body in professional musicians remain an understudied area, particularly in reference to understanding and managing orthopedic/neuromuscular deviations and injuries in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hand/finger fine motor function in musicians via physical examination as well as laboratory-based evaluations. METHODS: Thirteen healthy noninjured young elite string musicians participated in this study...
April 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694384/mismatch-negativity-reflects-asymmetric-pre-attentive-harmonic-interval-discrimination
#14
Luise Wagner, Torsten Rahne, Stefan K Plontke, Nico Heidekrüger
OBJECTIVE: Western music is based on intervals; thus, interval discrimination is important for distinguishing the character of melodies or tracking melodies in polyphonic music. In this study the encoding of intervals in simultaneously presented sound is studied. STUDY DESIGN: In an electrophysiological experiment in 15 normal-hearing non-musicians, major thirds or fifths were presented in a controlled oddball paradigm. Harmonic intervals were created by simultaneously presented sinusoidals with randomized root frequency...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688097/-doctor-jazz-lessons-that-medical-professionals-can-learn-from-jazz-musicians
#15
Allard E van Ark, Marjo Wijnen-Meijer
BACKGROUND: The worlds of a physician and a jazz musician seem entirely different. Various studies, however, relating the concepts behind jazz music to medical practice and education, have been published. The aim of this essayistic review is to summarize previously described concepts behind jazz music and its required artistic skills that could be translated to medicine, encouraging doctors, medical students and medical educators to see their professional environment from a different perspective...
April 24, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687896/what-s-off-key-in-the-brain-of-musicians-with-focal-task-specific-dystonia
#16
Claire J Cadwallader, Dylan Curtin, Eleanor M Taylor, James P Coxon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687204/long-term-music-training-modulates-the-recalibration-of-audiovisual-simultaneity
#17
Crescent Jicol, Michael J Proulx, Frank E Pollick, Karin Petrini
To overcome differences in physical transmission time and neural processing, the brain adaptively recalibrates the point of simultaneity between auditory and visual signals by adapting to audiovisual asynchronies. Here, we examine whether the prolonged recalibration process of passively sensed visual and auditory signals is affected by naturally occurring multisensory training known to enhance audiovisual perceptual accuracy. Hence, we asked a group of drummers, of non-drummer musicians and of non-musicians to judge the audiovisual simultaneity of musical and non-musical audiovisual events, before and after adaptation with two fixed audiovisual asynchronies...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684337/how-the-degree-of-instrumental-practice-in-music-increases-perceptual-sensitivity
#18
Alice Mado Proverbio, Eleonora Bellini
Literature has shown that playing a musical instrument is associated with the formation of multimodal audio visuomotor representations that are strongly instrument-specific. Here, we investigated the effect of increased motor practice on perceptual sensitivity in 32 professional musicians of comparable expertise but with different amounts of instrumental practice with piano (10,000 vs. 3,000 estimated hours). Stimuli consisted of images of pianists' hands and piano arpeggio sounds. In half of the cases, the piano fingering and piano sounds were congruent, while they were incongruent in the other cases...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683495/now-you-hear-it-a-predictive-coding-model-for-understanding-rhythmic-incongruity
#19
Peter Vuust, Martin J Dietz, Maria Witek, Morten L Kringelbach
Rhythmic incongruity in the form of syncopation is a prominent feature of many contemporary musical styles. Syncopations afford incongruity between rhythmic patterns and the meter, giving rise to mental models of differently accented isochronous beats. Syncopations occur either in isolation or as part of rhythmic patterns, so-called grooves. On the basis of the predictive coding framework, we discuss how brain processing of rhythm can be seen as a special case of predictive coding. We present a simple, yet powerful model for how the brain processes rhythmic incongruity: the model for predictive coding of rhythmic incongruity...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681993/noise-exposure-and-auditory-thresholds-of-military-musicians-a-follow-up-study
#20
Reinhard Müller, Joachim Schneider
Background: Military musicians are working in a noisy environment with high sound exposure levels above the international standards. Aim of the current study is to find out, whether they develop the expected hearing impairments. Adherence to the regulations for prevention in musicians is more difficult than in other occupational fields. Methods: In an interval of 13.3 years, 36 out of 58 male military musicians of a German army music corps were subjected twice to an audiometric audit...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
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