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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105256/fusarium-crown-rot-caused-by-fusarium-pseudograminearum-in-cereal-crops-recent-progress-and-future-prospects
#1
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037704/comparison-of-the-effect-of-chemical-composition-of-anthocyanin-rich-plant-extracts-on-colon-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-their-potential-mechanism-of-action-using-in-vitro-in-silico-and-biochemical-assays
#2
Candice Mazewski, Katie Liang, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
The objective was to compare the anti-proliferative effect of anthocyanin-rich plant extracts on human colon cancer cells and determine their mechanism of action. Eleven extracts were tested: red (RG) and purple grape, purple sweet potato, purple carrot, black and purple bean, black lentil (BL), black peanut, sorghum (SH), black rice, and blue wheat. HCT-116 and HT-29 inhibition correlated with total phenolics (r=0.87 and 0.77, respectively), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside concentration with HT-29 inhibition (r=0...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990541/associations-of-dietary-patterns-with-bone-mass-muscle-strength-and-balance-in-a-cohort-of-australian-middle-aged-women
#3
Feitong Wu, Karen Wills, Laura L Laslett, Brian Oldenburg, Graeme Jones, Tania Winzenberg
Influences of dietary patterns on musculoskeletal health are poorly understood in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional analysis from a cohort of 347 women (aged 36-57 years) aimed to examine associations between dietary patterns and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. Diet was measured by the Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ. Total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limbs muscle strength (LMS) and balance tests (timed up and go test, step test, functional reach test (FRT) and lateral reach test) were also measured...
October 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965965/preparation-characterization-and-application-of-haemoglobin-nanoparticles-for-detection-of-acrylamide-in-processed-foods
#4
Neelam Yadav, Anil Kumar Chhillar, Chandra S Pundir
The nanoparticles of haemoglobin (HbNPs) were prepared by desolvation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM),UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Protein profile of HbNPs was also studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). An amperometric acrylamide biosensor was constructed by immobilizing covalently HbNPs onto polycrystalline Au electrode. The Au electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) before and after immobilization of HbNPs...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764096/changes-in-anthocyanidin-levels-during-the-maturation-of-color-fleshed-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l-tubers
#5
Miloslav Šulc, Zora Kotíková, Luboš Paznocht, Vladimír Pivec, Karel Hamouz, Jaromír Lachman
Certain potato cultivars are capable of producing anthocyanin pigments in the potato skin and flesh and those pigments have been shown, together with other phytochemicals, to promote good health. Six common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, malvidin and peonidin) were analyzed weekly for 15weeks in red- and purple-fleshed potato cultivars (Red Emma, Königspurpur, Valfi and Blaue de la Mancha) grown in field conditions using a validated LC-(+ESI)MS/MS method. Pelargonidin was the major type detected in red-fleshed cultivars whereas petunidin was the major type detected in the purple ones...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763254/decolorization-of-textile-dyes-in-an-air-lift-bioreactor-inoculated-with-bjerkandera-adusta-obr105
#6
Hong Sodaneath, Jung-In Lee, Seung-Ok Yang, Hyekyeng Jung, Hee Wook Ryu, Kyung-Suk Cho
A new decolorizing white-rot fungus, OBR105, was isolated from Mount Odae in South Korea and identified by the morphological characterization of its fruit body and spores and partial 18s rDNA sequences. The ligninolytic enzyme activity of OBR105 was studied to characterize their decolorizing mechanism using a spectrophotometric enzyme assay. For the evaluation of the decolorization capacity of OBR105, the isolate was incubated in an erlenmeyer flask and in an airlifte bioreator with potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium supplemented with each dye...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760998/engineered-gray-mold-resistance-antioxidant-capacity-and-pigmentation-in-betalain-producing-crops-and-ornamentals
#7
Guy Polturak, Noam Grossman, David Vela-Corcia, Yonghui Dong, Adi Nudel, Margarita Pliner, Maggie Levy, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Betalains are tyrosine-derived red-violet and yellow plant pigments known for their antioxidant activity, health-promoting properties, and wide use as food colorants and dietary supplements. By coexpressing three genes of the recently elucidated betalain biosynthetic pathway, we demonstrate the heterologous production of these pigments in a variety of plants, including three major food crops: tomato, potato, and eggplant, and the economically important ornamental petunia. Combinatorial expression of betalain-related genes also allowed the engineering of tobacco plants and cell cultures to produce a palette of unique colors...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758684/delivery-of-cytoplasmic-and-apoplastic-effectors-from-phytophthora-infestans-haustoria-by-distinct-secretion-pathways
#8
Shumei Wang, Petra C Boevink, Lydia Welsh, Ruofang Zhang, Stephen C Whisson, Paul R J Birch
The potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans secretes effector proteins that are delivered inside (cytoplasmic) or can act outside (apoplastic) plant cells to neutralize host immunity. Little is known about how and where effectors are secreted during infection, yet such knowledge is essential to understand and combat crop disease. We used transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta expression, transformation of P. infestans with fluorescent protein fusions and confocal microscopy to investigate delivery of effectors to plant cells during infection...
October 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693237/inhibitory-effects-of-delphinidin-on-the-proliferation-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-pi3k-akt-and-erk-1-2-mapk-signal-transduction
#9
Whasun Lim, Gwonhwa Song
Delphinidin is a member of the anthocyanidin family and is a natural pigment in red cabbage, berries, sweet potatoes and grapes. It possesses nutraceutical properties against various chronic diseases and types of cancer. However, little is known about its preventative effects on epithelial ovarian cancer, a disease that is associated with a low survival rate, a poor prognosis and a high rate of recurrence. The results of the present study demonstrated that the proliferation of SKOV3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to treatment with delphinidin, and the phosphorylation of carcinogenic protein kinases associated with the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer was affected by delphinidin treatment...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664422/metabolite-profiling-of-red-and-blue-potatoes-revealed-cultivar-and-tissue-specific-patterns-for-anthocyanins-and-other-polyphenols
#10
Anne Oertel, Andrea Matros, Anja Hartmann, Panagiotis Arapitsas, Klaus J Dehmer, Stefan Martens, Hans-Peter Mock
Metabolite profiling of tuber flesh and peel for selected colored potato varieties revealed cultivar and tissue specific profiles of anthocyanins and other polyphenols with variations in composition and concentration. Starchy tubers of Solanum tuberosum are a staple crop and food in many countries. Among cultivated potato varieties a huge biodiversity exists, including an increasing number of red and purple colored cultivars. This coloration relates to the accumulation of anthocyanins and is supposed to offer nutritional benefits possibly associated with the antioxidative capacity of anthocyanins...
August 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653743/genetic-diversity-and-pectinolytic-activity-of-epiphytic-yeasts-from-grape-carposphere
#11
M Cilião Filho, M B D Bertéli, J S Valle, L D Paccola-Meirelles, G A Linde, F G Barcellos, N B Colauto
The genetic diversity of epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere is susceptible to environmental variations that determine the predominant carposphere microbiota. Understanding the diversity of yeasts that inhabit grape carposphere in different environments and their pectinolytic activity is a way to understand the biotechnological potential that surrounds us and help improve winemaking. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pectinolytic activity and characterize the genetic diversity of isolated epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere...
June 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554635/anthocyanins-from-purple-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-and-their-color-modulation-by-the-addition-of-phenolic-acids-and-food-grade-phenolic-plant-extracts
#12
Claudia C Gras, Nicole Nemetz, Reinhold Carle, Ralf M Schweiggert
Anthocyanin profiles and contents of three purple sweet potato provenances were investigated by HPLC-DAD-MS(n). In contrast to widely uniform profiles, the contents of total (558-2477mg/100gDM) and individual anthocyanins varied widely. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative effects of intermolecular co-pigmentation were studied by adding chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, and food-grade phenolic apple and rosemary extracts at various dosages to a diluted purple sweet potato concentrate at pH 0.9, 2.6, 3...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504180/the-glycogen-of-galdieria-sulphuraria-as-alternative-to-starch-for-the-production-of-slowly-digestible-and-resistant-glucose-polymers
#13
Marta Martinez-Garcia, Akrivi Kormpa, Marc J E C van der Maarel
Highly branched glucose polymers produced from starch are applied in various products, such as peritoneal dialysis solutions and sports drinks. Due to its insoluble, granular nature, the use of native starch as substrate requires an energy consuming pre-treatment to achieve solubilization at the expense of process costs. Glycogen, like starch, is also a natural glucose polymer that shows more favorable features, since it is readily soluble in cold water and more accessible by enzymes. The extremophilic red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria accumulates large amounts of a small, highly branched glycogen that could represent a good alternative to starch as substrate for the production of highly branched glucose polymers...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466848/dietary-pattern-derived-by-reduced-rank-regression-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-multi-ethnic-population-the-helius-study
#14
E Vermeulen, K Stronks, M Visser, I A Brouwer, M B Snijder, R J T Mocking, E M Derks, A H Schene, M Nicolaou
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands were included. Diet was measured using ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires...
August 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463583/decolorization-of-acid-disperse-and-reactive-dyes-by-trametes-versicolor-cbr43
#15
Seung-Ok Yang, Hong Sodaneath, Jung-In Lee, Hyekyeng Jung, Jin-Hee Choi, Hee Wook Ryu, Kyung-Suk Cho
The mycoremediation has been considered as a promising method for decolorizing dye wastewater. To explore new bioresource for mycoremediation, a new white-rot fungus that could decolorize various dyes commonly used in textile industries was isolated, and its ligninolytic enzyme activity and decolorization capacity were characterized. The isolated CBR43 was identified as Trametes versicolor based on the morphological properties of its fruit body and spores, as well as through partial 18S rDNA gene sequences...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440966/lead-levels-in-vegetables-from-artisanal-mining-sites-of-dilimi-river-bukuru-and-barkin-ladi-north-central-nigeria-cancer-and-non-cancer-risk-assessment
#16
Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Emmanuel Ayuba Dagur, Herbert Orji Chidi Mbagwu, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle
Lead (Pb) contamination of foods and especially of frequently consumed vegetables is a growing public health concern worldwide. Although levels of exposure in developed countries have declined over the past decades, the same cannot be said of developing countries. Health risk assessment has increasingly been employed to determine the potential hazard of heavy metal exposure to humans. In this study vegetable samples (tomatoes, red pepper, brown beans, lettuce, cabbage, Irish potatoes, onions, green beans and carrot), soil samples, irrigation water and sediment samples were collected from the Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi communities in north central Nigeria and analyzed for Pb content using atomic absorption spectroscopy...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431261/dietary-patterns-and-depression-risk-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Ye Li, Mei-Rong Lv, Yan-Jin Wei, Ling Sun, Ji-Xiang Zhang, Huai-Guo Zhang, Bin Li
Although some studies have reported potential associations of dietary patterns with depression risk, a consistent perspective hasn't been estimated to date. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the relation between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. A literature research was conducted searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to September 2016. In total, 21 studies from ten countries met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grain, fish, olive oil, low-fat dairy and antioxidants and low intakes of animal foods was apparently associated with a decreased risk of depression...
July 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428782/a-recombinant-potato-virus-y-infectious-clone-tagged-with-the-rosea1-visual-marker-pvy-ros1-facilitates-the-analysis-of-viral-infectivity-and-allows-the-production-of-large-amounts-of-anthocyanins-in-plants
#18
Teresa Cordero, Mohamed A Mohamed, Juan-José López-Moya, José-Antonio Daròs
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major threat to the cultivation of potato and other solanaceous plants. By inserting a cDNA coding for the Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 transcription factor into a PVY infectious clone, we created a biotechnological tool (PVY-Ros1) that allows infection by this relevant plant virus to be tracked by the naked eye with no need for complex instrumentation. Rosea1 is an MYB-type transcription factor whose expression activates the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments in a dose-specific and cell-autonomous manner...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376610/purification-and-characterization-of-the-laccase-involved-in-dye-decolorization-by-the-white-rot-fungus-marasmius-scorodonius
#19
Sung-Jong Jeon, Su-Jin Lim
Marasmius scorodonius secretes an extracellular laccase in potato dextrose broth, and this enzyme was purified up to 206-fold using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and a Hi-trap Q Sepharose column. The molecular mass of the purified laccase was estimated to be ~67 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The UV/vis spectrum of the enzyme was nontypical for laccases, and metal content analysis revealed that the enzyme contains 1 mole of Fe and Zn and 2 moles of Cu per mole of protein. The optimal pH for the enzymatic activity was 3.4, 4.0, and 4...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334066/effect-of-drive-row-ground-covers-on-hop-rosales-cannabaceae-yard-arthropod-pests-in-vermont-usa
#20
L Calderwood, J Cubins, D Vesty, H Darby
Alternatives to pesticides are necessary for the management of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) arthropod pests. The three major arthropod pests in northeastern US hop production include two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank), and potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris. This 3-yr study (2012-2014) in Vermont investigated the effect of flowering ground covers on arthropod pest abundance. Hop cultivars 'Nugget' and 'Cascade' were evaluated under a strip-split plot experimental design...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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