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Chronic adrenal stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738330/the-brain-gut-axis-contributes-to-neuroprogression-in-stress-related-disorders
#1
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and brain health. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells, and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment may contribute to the neuroprogression of stress-related disorders by altering physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, neurotransmitter systems, immune function, and inflammatory responses...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735061/up-regulation-of-glur1-in-paraventricular-nucleus-and-greater-expressions-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-hypothalamus-of-chronic-unpredictable-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#2
Rong Li, Xia Zhao, Li Cai, Wan-Wan Gao
Converging evidence indicates that abnormal glutamatergic and synaptic systems may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Over-activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a key role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and is a prominent feature in depression. In this study, we examined the effect of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in rats on the expression of AMPA subunit GluR1 protein in the hypothalamic PVN as well as on the expression of GluR1 and several synapse-related proteins in the hypothalamus...
July 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733038/ferulic-acid-reverses-depression-like-behavior-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-chronic-corticosterone-treatment-in-mice
#3
Ana Lúcia Bertarello Zeni, Anderson Camargo, Ana Paula Dalmagro
Corticosterone (CORT) treatment has been evidenced to develop a depression-like state in animals, that mimic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation implicated in the development of depression. The present study aimed to examine the ferulic acid (FA), a natural phenolic compound, antidepressant and antioxidant activities on the CORT chronic model. Mice orally treated with 20 mg/kg of CORT for 21 days were connsidered control group, while mice treated with FA (1 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) for the last week of CORT treatment, as drug groups...
July 18, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717330/an-experimental-evaluation-of-adaptogenic-potential-of-standardized-epipremnum-aureum-leaf-extract
#4
Sreemoy Kanti Das, Pinaki Sengupta, Mohd Shahimi Mustapha, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker
BACKGROUND: Stress is a normal part of everyday life but chronic stress can lead to a variety of stress-related illnesses including hypertension, anxiety, and depression. In the present investigation, standardized leaf extract of Epipremnumaureum was evaluated for its anti-stress potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the evaluation of anti-stress activity, groups of mice (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress and anoxic stress tolerance test in mice 1h after daily treatment of E...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706188/lack-of-social-support-raises-stress-vulnerability-in-rats-with-a-history-of-ancestral-stress
#5
Jamshid Faraji, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Hamid Lotfi, Reza Moeeini, Ali-Reza Moharreri, Shabnam Roudaki, S Abedin Hosseini, David M Olson, Ali-Akbar Abdollahi, Nasrin Soltanpour, Majid H Mohajerani, Gerlinde A S Metz
Stress is a primary risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood why some stressed individuals are more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders than others. Here, we investigated whether multigenerational ancestral stress produces phenotypes that are sensitive to depression-like symptoms in rats. We also examined whether social isolation reveals potentially latent sensitivity to depression-like behaviours. F4 female rats born to a lineage of stressed mothers (F0-F3) received stress in adulthood while housed in pairs or alone...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694433/antidepressant-effect-of-taurine-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#6
Gao-Feng Wu, Shuang Ren, Ri-Yi Tang, Chang Xu, Jia-Qi Zhou, Shu-Mei Lin, Ying Feng, Qun-Hui Yang, Jian-Min Hu, Jian-Cheng Yang
Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693955/adaptogenic-potential-of-oxitard-in-experimental-chronic-stress-and-chronic-unpredictable-stress-induced-dysfunctional-homeostasis-in-rodents
#7
Brajnandan Kishor, Pooja Rai, Rakesh Bharatia, Sanjay Kumar, Sujeet Kumar Gupta, Anshuman Sinha
BACKGROUND: Oxitard, a polyherbal formulation comprising the extracts of Withania somnifera, Mangifera indica, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Daucus carota, Vitis vinifera, powders of Syzygium aromaticum, Yashada bhasma and Emblica officinalis; and oils of Triticum sativum. OBJECTIVE: Current study deals with the assessment of Oxitard (a marketed polyherbal formulation) for its adaptogenic potential in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and chronic stress (CS) induced dysfunctional homeostasis in rodents...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691730/effects-of-colocynth-alkaloids-and-glycosides-on-wistar-rats-fed-high-fat-diet-a-biochemical-and-morphological-study
#8
Zahia Birem, Khadidja Tabani, Farid Lahfa, Rabah Djaziri, Fatima Hadjbekkouche, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir, Naima Omari
INTRODUCTION: . In traditional medicine, Citrullus colocynthis is used to treat diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all of which can appear when a diet rich in vegetable fats, such as palm oil, is continuously consumed. Such high-fat diets are chronic stressors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of our study was to analyze and evaluate the effects of colocynth total alkaloids and glycosides on metabolic, hormonal, and structural disorders of the adrenal medulla in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet...
July 10, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690049/initial-validation-of-blubber-cortisol-and-progesterone-as-indicators-of-stress-response-and-maturity-in-an-otariid-the-california-sea-lion-zalophus-californianus
#9
Nicole E Beaulieu-McCoy, Kathryn K Sherman, Marisa L Trego, Daniel E Crocker, Nicholas M Kellar
Chronic stress can have detrimental effects on an individual's health and reproductive success. The use of cortisol quantification as an indicator of stress in free-ranging cetaceans and phocids is increasing but no studies have applied this technique on blubber in otariids. We measured cortisol concentrations in blubber samples obtained from California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, stranded in San Diego County and those incidentally killed in the California drift gillnet fishery. We also measured progesterone concentrations to assess female reproductive status and, in males, as a potential secondary measure of adrenal steroid production...
July 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672951/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-hypersensitivity-in-female-rats-on-a-post-weaning-high-fat-diet-after-chronic-mild-stress
#10
Lian Liu, Junqiang Yang, Feng Qian, Chengbiao Lu
A high-fat diet (HFD) is highly correlated to obesity, metabolic diseases and certain behavioral changes. However, the effects of post-weaning HFD in rats during puberty and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this process have remained elusive. The present study hypothesized that the HPA axis mediates the behavioral alterations induced by a post-weaning HFD. To investigate this, female rats were divided into two groups, one of which was fed a HFD from postnatal weeks (PWs) 4-12, while the other group received standard chow...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670189/acth-cortisol-and-il-6-levels-in-athletes-following-magnesium-supplementation
#11
Gordana Dmitrašinović, Vesna Pešić, Dušanka Stanić, Bosiljka Plećaš-Solarović, Marijana Dajak, Svetlana Ignjatović
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and induces the body's inflammatory response. Due to contemporary dietary habits and increased energy expenditure, athletes are susceptible to depletion of magnesium ions. The aim of our study was to investigate, through assessment of plasma ACTH, serum IL-6, and salivary/serum cortisol levels, if chronic magnesium supplementation might reduce damaging stress effects in amateur rugby players. METHODS: Rugby players (N=23) were randomly assigned to intervention and control group...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661068/expression-of-mir-18a-and-mir-34c-in-circulating-monocytes-associated-with-vulnerability-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Si-Si Wang, Yong-Qiang Li, Ying-Zhi Liang, Jing Dong, Yan He, Ling Zhang, Yu-Xiang Yan
Chronic stress may facilitate the development of metabolic disorders including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MiR-18a and miR-34c modulate central cell responsiveness to stress by targeting glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) mRNA, which are important regulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study explored the relationship between T2DM/IR and expression of miR-18a and miR-34c in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in an occupational sample...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658297/abnormal-dendritic-maturation-of-developing-cortical-neurons-exposed-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-insights-into-effects-of-prenatal-adversity
#13
Megan M Curran, Curt A Sandman, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Tallie Z Baram
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648684/hbk-15-protects-mice-from-stress-induced-behavioral-disturbances-and-changes-in-corticosterone-bdnf-and-ngf-levels
#14
Karolina Pytka, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Magdalena Kotańska, Elżbieta Żmudzka, Magdalena Jakubczyk, Anna Waszkielewicz, Paulina Janiszewska, Maria Walczak
Unlike majority of current antidepressants, HBK-15-a 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist - showed memory-enhancing properties. In this study, we aimed to further characterize pharmacological profile of HBK-15 and investigate its antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity in the mouse model of unpredictable chronic mild stress. We used sucrose consumption test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze test as behavioral endpoints. We also evaluated the influence of HBK-15 on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as body weight, relative adrenal glands weight and plasma corticosterone level in the stressed mice...
June 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647675/abstinence-from-prolonged-ethanol-exposure-affects-plasma-corticosterone-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-and-stress-related-behaviors
#15
Sucharita S Somkuwar, Leandro F Vendruscolo, McKenzie J Fannon, Brooke E Schmeichel, Tran Bao Nguyen, Jasmin Guevara, Harpreet Sidhu, Candice Contet, Eric P Zorrilla, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcohol dependence is linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we investigated effects of repeated ethanol intoxication-withdrawal cycles (using chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation; CIE) and abstinence from CIE on peak and nadir plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels. Irritability- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were assessed at various intervals (2h-28d) after cessation of CIE. Results show that peak CORT increased during CIE, transiently decreased during early abstinence (1-11d), and returned to pre-abstinence levels during protracted abstinence (17-27d)...
June 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647674/in-pregnancy-increased-maternal-stai-trait-stress-score-shows-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-increased-stress-hormones
#16
Georgios Valsamakis, Dimitrios C Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Chalarakis, Nikolaos Vrachnis, Elpida J Sidiropoulou, Maria Manolikaki, Aimilia Mantzou, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, George Mastorakos
INTRODUCTION: Chronic or acute stressors influence maternal and fetal Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axes (HPA) during pregnancy. In this study, the effect of maternal stress into maternal insulin sensitivity was investigated during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two pregnant women [aged 27.1±2.5 (mean±SD) yrs; BMI=25±2.2kg/m(2)] had at the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimesters anthropometry, fasting blood samples (cortisol, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), active amylin, Interleukin (IL6)), Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) for glucose and insulin, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) trait and state questionnaires (for stress assessment)...
June 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646798/social-context-matters-ethnicity-discrimination-and-stress-reactivity
#17
David Busse, Ilona S Yim, Belinda Campos
Exposure to chronic discrimination is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The study of biobehavioral pathways linking discrimination with health outcomes has mostly focused on the cardiovascular system, with fewer studies addressing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study we tested associations between Latino ethnicity, experiences of discrimination, and cortisol responses to an acute laboratory stressor. One hundred fifty eight individuals (92 female, 66 male) between the ages of 18 and 29 years participated in the study...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#18
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress induces an impaired GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is altered in chronic stress. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole cell patch-clamp recording was performed on PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats that had been subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633495/estradiol-protects-against-cardio-respiratory-dysfunctions-and-oxidative-stress-in-intermittent-hypoxia
#19
Sofien Laouafa, Alexandra Ribon-Demars, François Marcouiller, Damien Roussel, Aida Bairam, Vincent Pialoux, Vincent Joseph
Study Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E2) protects against cardio-respiratory disorders and oxidative stress induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in adult female rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley female rats (230-250g) were ovariectomized (OVX) and implanted with osmotic pumps delivering vehicle (Veh) or E2 (0.5 mg/kg/day). After 14 days of recovery, the rats were exposed to chronic CIH (21%-10% O2 - 8 hours/day - 10 cycles/hour) or room air (RA)...
June 19, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625926/prenatal-caffeine-exposure-induced-high-susceptibility-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-adult-female-offspring-rats-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#20
Lin-Guo Pei, Chao Yuan, Yi-Tian Guo, Hao Kou, Li-Ping Xia, Li Zhang, You-E Yan, Dan Xu, Hui Wang
Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced an intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)-associated neuroendocrine metabolism in 3-month-old offspring rats. In this study, we aimed to confirm this programming disorder and high susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in 10-month-old female PCE offspring with postnatal catch-up growth. We found that PCE female offspring rats showed decreased bodyweight but a higher rate of weight gain after birth...
June 15, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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