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Chronic adrenal stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202252/what-worries-parents-of-a-child-with-autism-evidence-from-a-biomarker-for-chronic-stress
#1
Vicki Bitsika, Christopher F Sharpley, Nicholas M Andronicos, Linda L Agnew
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported correlations between various aspects of the behaviour and symptomatology of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their parents' self-reports of stress via standardised scales. AIMS: To extend that literature, a physiological index of parental chronic stress was used instead of their self-reports-dysregulation of the Diurnal Rhythm (DR) of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. METHODS: A sample of 149 parents of a child with ASD provided salivary cortisol at the predicted time of daily maximum cortisol concentration and at a time of daily lower concentration...
February 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185964/experimental-occlusal-disharmony-a-promoting-factor-for-anxiety-in-rats-under-chronic-psychological-stress
#2
Xuan Tang, Jian Li, Ting Jiang, Shu-Hui Han, Dong-Yuan Yao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinically, patients under chronic psychological stress (PS) appear to be more susceptible to occlusal disharmony (OD) compared with those without PS. OD was proved to introduce anxiety-like stress. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate whether OD would affect psychological stress-induced anxiety and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Chronic PS was induced by a communication box, and OD was produced by bonding a 0.3mm-thick crown on the right maxillary first molar of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181173/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-reactivity-to-acute-stress-an-investigation-into-the-roles-of-perceived-stress-and-family-resources
#3
Ezemenari M Obasi, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff, Lucia Cavanagh, Kristen L Ratliff, Delishia M Pittman, Jessica J Brooks
Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST...
February 8, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179626/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-dysregulation-and-double-product-increases-potentiate-ischemic-heart-disease-risk-in-a-black-male-cohort-the-sabpa-study
#4
Leoné Malan, Christiaan E Schutte, Ala'a Alkerwi, Saverio Stranges, Nicolaas T Malan
Emotional distress has been associated with a poorer prognosis in myocardial infarction patients. Elevated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), lower cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol:DHEAS, as measures of emotional distress, might correlate with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and workload. Thus, we assessed the relationship between emotional distress, SMI and double product (systolic blood pressure (SBP) × heart rate). Cross-sectional South African biethnic single-set cohorts (N=378), aged 44...
February 9, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164167/neonatal-maternal-separation-increases-susceptibility-to-experimental-colitis-and-acute-stress-exposure-in-male-mice
#5
Isabella M Fuentes, Natalie K Walker, Angela N Pierce, Briana R Holt, Elizabeth R Di Silvestro, Julie A Christianson
Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS) would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1-21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD)...
December 2016: IBRO Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161436/higher-susceptibility-of-somatostatin-4-receptor-gene-deleted-mice-to-chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-alterations
#6
Bálint Scheich, Kata Csekő, Éva Borbély, István Ábrahám, Valér Csernus, Balázs Gaszner, Zsuzsanna Helyes
The somatostatin 4 receptor (sst4) is widely expressed in stress-related brain areas (e.g. hippocampus, amygdala) and regulates the emotional behavior in acute situations. Since its importance in chronic stress-induced complex pathophysiological alterations is unknown, we investigated the involvement of sst4 in the responsiveness to chronic variable stress (CVS). Sstr4 gene-deficient (Sstr4(-/-)) mice and their wildtype counterparts (Sstr4(+/+)) were used to examine the behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations as well as chronic neuronal activity (FosB expression) changes in response to CVS...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161195/activation-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-by-iptakalim-normalizes-stress-induced-hpa-axis-disorder-and-depressive-behaviour-by-alleviating-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-hypothalamus
#7
Xiao-Jie Zhao, Zhan Zhao, Dan-Dan Yang, Lu-Lu Cao, Ling Zhang, Juan Ji, Jun Gu, Ji-Ye Huang, Xiu-Lan Sun
Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159647/alcohol-stress-and-glucocorticoids-from-risk-to-dependence-and-relapse-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Sara K Blaine, Rajita Sinha
In this review, we detail the clinical evidence supporting the role of psychological and physiological stress in instrumental motivation for alcohol consumption during the development of mild to moderate alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and in the compulsive, habitual alcohol consumption seen in severe, chronic, relapsing AUDs. Traditionally, the study of AUDs has focused on the direct and indirect effects of alcohol on striatal dopaminergic pathways and their role in the reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, growing evidence also suggests that alcohol directly stimulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and has effects on glucocorticoid receptors in extrahypothalamic, limbic forebrain, and medial Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) circuits, which contribute to the development of AUDs and their progression in severity, chronicity, and relapse risk...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157180/toxic-metabolites-mapk-and-nrf2-keap1-signaling-pathways-involved-in-oxidative-toxicity-in-mice-liver-after-chronic-exposure-to-mequindox
#9
Qianying Liu, Zhixin Lei, Anxiong Huang, Qinghua Wu, Shuyu Xie, Ihsan Awais, Menghong Dai, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide group (QdNOs). The liver is regarded as the toxicity target of QdNOs, and the role of N → O group-associated various toxicities mediated by QdNOs is well recognized. However, the mechanism underlying the in vivo effects of MEQ on the liver, and whether the metabolic pathway of MEQ is altered in response to the pathophysiological conditions still remain unclear. We now provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative damage in the liver...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139727/cortisol-awakening-response-and-acute-stress-reactivity-in-first-nations-people
#10
Maximus Berger, Anthony Leicht, Angela Slatcher, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Sarangan Ketheesan, Sarah Larkins, Zoltán Sarnyai
First Nations people globally have a higher incidence of mental disorders and non-communicable diseases. These health inequalities are partially attributed to a complex network of social and environmental factors which likely converge on chronic psychosocial stress. We hypothesized that alterations in stress processing and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis might underlie health disparities in First Nations people. We assessed the cortisol awakening response and the dynamic response to a laboratory induced psychosocial stress of young Indigenous tertiary students (n = 11, mean age 23...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137660/effects-of-moderate-treadmill-exercise-and-fluoxetine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-dysfunction-and-alternations-in-hippocampal-bdnf-and-mrna-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic
#11
Sakineh Shafia, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Seyed Afshin Samaei, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan, Zahra Hosseini-Khah, Raziyeh Mohammadkhani, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after an individual has experienced a major trauma. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine are the first-line choice in PTSD drug treatment but their moderate response rates and side effects indicate an urgent need for the development of new treatment. Physical activity is known to improve symptoms of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated the effects of moderate treadmill exercise, the antidepressant fluoxetine and the combined treatment on behavioural deficits, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction...
January 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135239/hypothalamic-crfr1-is-essential-for-hpa-axis-regulation-following-chronic-stress
#12
Assaf Ramot, Zhiying Jiang, Jin-Bin Tian, Tali Nahum, Yael Kuperman, Nicholas Justice, Alon Chen
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a pivotal component of an organism's response to stressful challenges, and dysfunction of this neuroendocrine axis is associated with a variety of physiological and psychological pathologies. We found that corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is an important central component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation that prepares the organism for successive exposure to stressful stimuli.
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126450/piper-sarmentosum-roxb-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-in-rodents-associated-with-activation-of-the-creb-bdnf-erk-signalling-pathway-and-reversal-of-hpa-axis-hyperactivity
#13
Qing Li, Fa-Lin Qu, Yue Gao, Yi-Ping Jiang, Khalid Rahman, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Ting Han, Lu-Ping Qin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: There are many plants of genus Piper which have been reported to induce antidepressant-like effects, Piper sarmentosum (PS) is one of them. PS is a Chinese herbal medicine and a traditional edible vegetable. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the antidepressant-like effects of PS extracts and the ethyl acetate fraction of PS extracts (PSY) were assessed using the open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) in mice...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122298/stress-vulnerability-in-male-youth-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#14
Michael Kaess, Peter Parzer, Laura Mehl, Luisa Weil, Esther Strittmatter, Franz Resch, Julian Koenig
Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD] was introduced as new behavioral addiction in DSM-5 Section 3. Vulnerability to stress is a potential predisposing factor for IGD. Given a lack of preexisting empirical data, the study investigated differences in the psychological and neurobiological response to acute stress in patients with IGD. 24 young men (mean age 18.38 years; range 13-25 years) fulfilling DSM-5 criteria for IGD and 25 matched controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]. Participants provided hair samples for the analysis of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis activity and clinical interviews were conducted to assess psychopathology...
January 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115639/combined-effects-of-gestational-phthalate-exposure-and-zinc-deficiency-on-steroid-metabolism-and-growth
#15
J Nuttall, H R Kucera, S Supasai, N W Gaikwad, P I Oteiza
Disruption of steroid hormone signaling has been implicated independently in the developmental abnormalities resulting from maternal phthalate plasticizer exposure and developmental zinc deficiency. This study investigated if secondary zinc deficiency may result from dietary exposure to a low level of DEHP through gestation and if this could be associated with altered steroid metabolism. The interaction between marginal zinc nutrition and DEHP exposure to affect pregnancy outcome, zinc status, and steroid metabolism was also assessed...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112061/inflammation-and-depression-a-causal-or-coincidental-link-to-the-pathophysiology
#16
Brian E Leonard
This review summarises the evidence that chronic low grade inflammation triggers changes that contribute to the mental and physical ill health of patients with major depression. Inflammation, and the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis by stress, are normal components of the stress response but when stress is prolonged and the endocrine and immune system become chronic resulting in the activation of the peripheral macrophages, the central microglia and hypercortisolemia, the neuronal networks are damaged and become dysfunctional...
January 23, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110240/lead-exposure-is-related-to-hypercortisolemic-profiles-and-allostatic-load-in-brazilian-older-adults
#17
Juliana N Souza-Talarico, Deborah Suchecki, Robert-Paul Juster, Pierrich Plusquellec, Fernando Barbosa Junior, Vinícius Bunscheit, Tania Marcourakis, Tatiane Martins de Matos, Sonia J Lupien
Lead levels (Pb) have been linked to both hyper- and hypo-reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis to acute stress in animals and humans. Similarly, allostatic load (AL), the 'wear and tear' of chronic stress, is associated with inadequate HPA axis activity. We examined whether Pb levels would be associated with altered diurnal cortisol profile, as a primary mediator of AL, during aging. Pb levels were measured from blood samples (BPb) of 126 Brazilian individuals (105 women), between 50 and 82 years old...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106040/the-effects-of-prior-stress-on-anxiety-like-responding-to-intra-bnst-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-in-male-and-female-rats
#18
S Bradley King, Kim R Lezak, Micaela O'Reilly, Donna J Toufexis, William A Falls, Karen Braas, Victor May, Sayamwong E Hammack
Chronic or repeated exposure to stressful stimuli can result in several maladaptive consequences, including increased anxiety-like behaviors and altered peptide expression in anxiety-related brain structures. Among these structures, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in emotional behaviors as well as regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In male rodents, chronic variate stress (CVS) has been shown to increase BNST pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its cognate PAC1 receptor transcript, and BNST PACAP signaling may mediate the maladaptive changes associated with chronic stress...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100283/genetic-influences-on-hormonal-markers-of-chronic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-function-in-human-hair
#19
E M Tucker-Drob, A D Grotzinger, D A Briley, L E Engelhardt, F D Mann, M Patterson, C Kirschbaum, E K Adam, J A Church, J L Tackett, K P Harden
BACKGROUND: Cortisol is the primary output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is central to the biological stress response, with wide-ranging effects on psychiatric health. Despite well-studied biological pathways of glucocorticoid function, little attention has been paid to the role of genetic variation. Conventional salivary, urinary and serum measures are strongly influenced by diurnal variation and transient reactivity. Recently developed technology can be used to measure cortisol accumulation over several months in hair, thus indexing chronic HPA function...
January 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095431/hair-measurements-of-cortisol-dhea-and-dhea-to-cortisol-ratio-as-biomarkers-of-chronic-stress-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-china-known-group-validation
#20
Shan Qiao, Xiaoming Li, Samuele Zilioli, Zheng Chen, Huihua Deng, Juxian Pan, Weigui Guo
BACKGROUND: Existing literature suggests that endocrine measures, including the steroid hormones of cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), as well as the DHEA to cortisol ratio in the human hair can be used as promising biomarkers of chronic stress among humans. However, data are limited regarding the validity of these measures as biomarkers of chronic stress among people living with HIV (PLWH), whose endocrine system or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may be affected by HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications...
2017: PloS One
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