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Chronic adrenal stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338944/histological-and-morphofunctional-parameters-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system-are-sensitive-to-daidzein-treatment-in-the-adult-rat
#1
Svetlana Trifunović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo Pendovski, Verica Milošević
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats...
January 12, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329057/chronic-corticosterone-induced-depression-mediates-premature-aging-in-rats
#2
Xiaoxian Xie, Qichen Shen, Lingyan Ma, Yangyang Chen, Binggong Zhao, Zhengwei Fu
BACKGROUND: Stress hormones such as corticosterone (CORT) play an essential role in the development of depression. Chronic CORT administration has been shown to induce dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to depression, which was in turn associated with accelerated aging. However, the effect of CORT administration on aging remains unclear. METHODS: Rats were acclimatized for 1 week and then injected daily with CORT (40mg/kg) or vehicle (n = 10 each) for 21 consecutive days...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310960/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#3
John R Richards
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a challenging clinical disorder. CHS patients frequently present to the emergency department and may require treatment for intractable emesis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. Thought to be a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, CHS has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis potency and use, as enabled by various states having legalized the recreational use of cannabis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiology of CHS and evaluate the published literature on pharmacologic treatment in the emergency department...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306773/midlife-stress-alters-memory-and-mood-related-behaviors-in-old-age-role-of-locally-activated-glucocorticoids
#4
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
December 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291430/the-potential-benefit-of-combined-versus-monotherapy-of-coenzyme-q10-and-fluoxetine-on-depressive-like-behaviors-and-intermediates-coupled-to-gsk-3%C3%AE-in-rats
#5
Sally A Abuelezz, Nevien Hendawy, Yosra Magdy
As a part of the serotoninergic dysfunction implicated in neurobiology of depression, evidence has focused on serotonin (5-HT) receptors downstream signaling intermediates including glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our team previously reported that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) exerted antidepressant-like effect in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mid stress (CUMS) via elevating serotonin levels. However, the effect of CoQ10 has not been elucidated in downstream signaling molecules mediating 5HT receptors' effect involved in depressive disorder hitherto...
December 29, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278511/the-adrenal-gland-microenvironment-in-health-disease-and-during-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Mariko Sue, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a key component of the stress system in the human body. Multiple direct and paracrine interactions between different cell types and their progenitors take place within the adrenal gland microenvironment. These unique interactions are supported by high vascularization and the adrenal cortex extracellular matrix. Alterations in the adrenal gland microenvironment are known to influence the progression of several pathological conditions, such as obesity and sepsis, and to be influenced by these disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277704/prevention-of-chronic-immobilization-stress-induced-enhanced-expression-of-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-by-inactivation-of-basolateral-amygdala
#7
Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Repeated exposure to stress precipitates anxiety, depression and cognitive deficits. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). It is well established that BLA positively regulates the HPA axis and undergoes hypertrophy following chronic immobilization stress (CIS). However, it is not known whether inactivation of the BLA can modulate the stress-induced changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the PFC...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275786/glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-methylation-and-childhood-trauma-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-patients
#8
Elise Beau Vangeel, Stefan Kempke, Jelena Bakusic, Lode Godderis, Patrick Luyten, Leen Van Heddegem, Veerle Compernolle, Philippe Persoons, Diether Lambrechts, Benedetta Izzi, Kathleen Freson, Stephan Claes
OBJECTIVE: Although the precise mechanisms are not yet understood, previous studies have suggested that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and trauma in early childhood. Consistent with findings suggesting that early life stress-induced DNA methylation changes may underlie dysregulation of the HPA axis, we previously found evidence for the involvement of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (NR3C1) methylation in whole blood of CFS patients...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250490/microbiota-modulate-anxiety-like-behavior-and-endocrine-abnormalities-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#9
Ran Huo, Benhua Zeng, Li Zeng, Ke Cheng, Bo Li, Yuanyuan Luo, Haiyang Wang, Chanjuan Zhou, Liang Fang, Wenxia Li, Rong Niu, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Intestinal microbes are an important system in the human body, with significant effects on behavior. An increasing body of research indicates that intestinal microbes affect brain function and neurogenesis, including sensitivity to stress. To investigate the effects of microbial colonization on behavior, we examined behavioral changes associated with hormones and hormone receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under stress. We tested germ-free (GF) mice and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, divided into four groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247282/camellia-euphlebia-exerts-its-antidepressant-like-effect-via-modulation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-brain-monoaminergic-systems
#10
Dongye He, Xuan Sai, Ning Wang, Xiaoyu Li, Lili Wang, Yongping Xu
Camellia euphlebia (family, Theaceae) is a Chinese folk medicine, known for its multiple pharmacological properties. The present study aimed to provide further insights into the therapeutic basis of C. euphlebia using several animal behavioral tests and physiological indexes. Tail suspension test, forced swimming test, open-field test, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), reversal of reserpine-induced hypothermia and palpebral ptosis, and 5-hydroxytryptophane-induced head-twitch response were used to evaluate the antidepressant effect of aqueous extract of Camellia euphlebia (AEC) on mice...
December 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237322/global-variation-in-diurnal-cortisol-rhythms-evidence-from-garisakangforager-horticulturalists-of-lowland-papua-new-guinea
#11
Samuel S Urlacher, Melissa A Liebert, Martina Konečná
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents an important and evolutionarily ancient biological pathway linking physical and psychological stressors with human health. Despite considerable research exploring the physiological stress response among developed populations, few studies have examined HPA activity in non-industrialized contexts, restricting understanding of variation in human stress reactivity across global socio-ecological diversity. The present study addresses this shortcoming by investigating diurnal cortisol rhythms among Garisakang forager-horticulturalists of remote, lowland Papua New Guinea...
December 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236043/stress-induced-endocrine-and-immune-dysfunctions-in-caregivers-of-people-with-eating-disorders
#12
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luis Moya-Albiol
Caregivers have to cope repeatedly with acute stressors in their daily lives, and this is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system. Such disturbances could contribute to the development of health problems in informal caregivers of people with chronic illnesses, such as eating disorders (EDs). The main objective of this study was to examine endocrine (salivary cortisol levels (Csal)), immune (immunoglobulin-A (IgA)), and psychological (anxiety, mood, and anger feelings) responses to an acute psychological stressor in a sample of informal caregivers of individuals with EDs compared to a sample of non-caregivers...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227289/perioperative-steroid-therapy-where-s-the-evidence
#13
Leon Freudzon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review of historical and current evidence of adrenal suppression in patients on chronic glucocorticoid therapy during perioperative period, and discussion of current recommendations for perioperative stress dose steroid administration. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence suggests low incidence of perioperative adrenal insufficiency in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Recent studies show no difference in survival or hemodynamic sequella by withholding perioperative stress steroids; however, these studies are limited in size and universal applicability...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225338/early-life-adversity-and-cortisol-response-to-social-stress-a-meta-analysis
#14
Ioana Maria Bunea, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Andrei C Miu
Early-life adversity has been associated with a life-long increased risk for psychopathology and chronic health problems. These long-term negative effects have been explained through stress sensitization, which may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through either increased or decreased reactivity. The present meta-analysis assessed for the first time the effect of early-life adversity on cortisol response to social stress. Thirty data sets were included in the meta-analysis, in which early-life adversity and salivary cortisol response to social stress were assessed in 4292 individuals of different ages...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220883/association-of-adrenal-hormone-metabolites-and-mortality-over-a-6-year-follow-up-in-copd-patients-with-acute-exacerbation
#15
Seline Zurfluh, Manuela Nickler, Manuel Ottiger, Christian Steuer, Alexander Kutz, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Werner Zimmerli, Robert Thomann, Claus Hoess, Christoph Henzen, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: The release of hormones from the adrenal gland is vital in acute and chronic illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involving recurrent exacerbations. Using a metabolomic approach, we aim to investigate associations of different adrenal hormone metabolites with short- and long-term mortality in COPD patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed 172 COPD patients (median age 75 years, 62% male) from a previous Swiss multicenter trial...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215456/child-and-adult-socioeconomic-status-and-the-cortisol-response-to-acute-stress-evidence-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#16
Félice Lê-Scherban, Allison B Brenner, Margaret T Hicken, Belinda L Needham, Teresa Seeman, Richard P Sloan, Xu Wang, Ana V Diez Roux
OBJECTIVE: A long-hypothesized pathway through which low socioeconomic status (SES) harms health is through dysregulation of the physiologic stress response systems. No previous studies have tested this hypothesis by investigating cortisol reactivity and recovery to acute stress in relation to SES at different times in the life course in adults. Alteration of the cortisol response to an acute stressor could signal dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has been associated with chronic illness...
December 5, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212586/hypercortisolemia-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-involved-in-visual-research
#17
Sean C Adams, Christine M Guyot, Kristina M Berry, Seth T Wallack, Andrew S Loar, Mathias Leblanc
A 10-y-old cranially implanted rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research was presented for dull mentation and weight loss. Physical examination revealed alopecia and poor body conditioning, and bloodwork revealed marked hypercortisolemia (23 μg/dL). Differential diagnoses for hypercortisolemia, weight loss, and alopecia included Cushing and pseudo-Cushing syndromes. To further evaluate hypercortisolemia, we compared the urine cortisol:creatinine ratio (UCCR) at baseline and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) testing in the presenting animal and healthy naïve and implanted working monkeys...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211774/food-restriction-reduces-neurogenesis-in-the-avian-hippocampal-formation
#18
Barbara-Anne Robertson, Lucy Rathbone, Giselda Cirillo, Richard B D'Eath, Melissa Bateson, Timothy Boswell, Peter W Wilson, Ian C Dunn, Tom V Smulders
The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203717/hsp90-and-fkbp51-complex-regulators-of-psychiatric-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Theo Rein, Elisabeth B Binder, James T Porter, John Koren, Laura J Blair
Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196916/bullying-victimization-heightens-cortisol-response-to-psychosocial-stress-in-chinese-children
#20
Guanghui Chen, Yanhong Kong, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Wenxin Zhang
Childhood adverse experiences have been consistently documented to engender persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to chronic stress. However, there has been very little research examining whether this effect can be elicited among children when using a standardized laboratory stress test, or whether such effects are found in non-Western youth. In the current study, 80 10-year-old Chinese children (45% girls, 4-5th grades) were selected from 970 students based on the experience of being bullied, resulting in a sample of 59 victims (physical, verbal, and relational/social), and a group of 21 nonbullied children with distributions of age and gender that were comparable...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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