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Chronic adrenal stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533888/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-administration-against-chronic-immobilization-stress-in-rats
#1
Asmaa Ms Gomaa, Heba M Galal, Amal T Abou-Elgait
Chronic stress can impair brain functions and play a well-known role in the development of stress-related disorders such as anxiety. Melatonin (Mel) is a neurohormone which regulate several physiological processes including mood and behavior. This experimental study was designed to evaluate the effect of Mel on chronic immobilization stress (CIS) for 6 weeks in rats and to elucidate its possible underlying mechanisms. Twenty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups: the control group, the Mel-treated group which was injected daily with Mel (10 mg/kg/day; IP) for 6 weeks, the stressed group which was subjected to CIS protocol daily for 6 weeks, and the Mel-treated stressed group which was injected with Mel and concurrently exposed to CIS protocol for 6 weeks...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528143/intergenerational-accumulation-of-impairments-in-maternal-behavior-following-postnatal-social-stress
#2
B C Nephew, L M Carini, S Sallah, C Cotino, R A S Alyamani, F Pittet, S Bradburn, C Murgatroyd
Early adversity such as depressed maternal care can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. Exposure to chronic social stress (CSS), an ethologically model of postpartum depression and anxiety, during lactation impairs maternal care and exerts similar effects on the F1 dam offspring of the stressed F0 dams. These changes associate with increased corticosterone and neuroendocrine alterations. CSS F2 offspring further display decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults and decreased basal levels of corticosterone...
May 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#3
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511822/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-and-the-dermatology-patient
#4
Madhulika A Gupta, Patricia Jarosz, Aditya K Gupta
Dermatologic symptoms can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in several situations: (1) as features of some core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusion symptoms manifesting as cutaneous sensory flashbacks, as autonomic arousal manifesting as night sweats and idiopathic urticaria, and as dissociation manifesting as numbness and dermatitis artefacta; (2) the cutaneous psychosomatic effects of emotional and physical neglect and sexual abuse (eg, infantile eczema, cutaneous self-injury, and body-focused repetitive behaviors such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder) and eating disorders, which can have dermatologic effects; (3) the direct effect of physical or sexual abuse or catastrophic life events (eg, earthquakes) on the skin; and (4) as a result of significant alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which can affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, and can lead to exacerbations of stress-reactive inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510653/chronic-corticosterone-treatment-during-adolescence-has-significant-effects-on-metabolism-and-skeletal-development-in-male-c57bl6-n-mice
#5
Scott A Kinlein, Ziasmin Shahanoor, Russell D Romeo, Ilia N Karatsoreos
Glucocorticoids are potent modulators of metabolic and behavioral function. Their role as mediators in the "stress response" is well known, but arguably their primary physiological function is in the regulation of cellular and organismal metabolism. Disruption of normal glucocorticoid function is linked to metabolic disease, such as Cushing's syndrome. Glucocorticoids are also elevated in many forms of obesity, suggesting that there are bidirectional effects of these potent hormones on metabolism and metabolic function...
May 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509906/therapeutic-efficacy-of-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs-by-targeting-multiple-stress-related-metabolic-pathways
#6
H L Cai, P Jiang, Q Y Tan, R L Dang, M M Tang, Y Xue, Y Deng, B K Zhang, P F Fang, P Xu, D X Xiang, H D Li, J K Yao
Schizophrenia (SZ) is considered to be a multifactorial brain disorder with defects involving many biochemical pathways. Patients with SZ show variable responses to current pharmacological treatments of SZ because of the heterogeneity of this disorder. Stress has a significant role in the pathophysiological pathways and therapeutic responses of SZ. Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) can modulate the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and exert therapeutic effects on stress by targeting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500827/psychological-vulnerability-to-stress-in-carriers-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#7
Eleni-Magdalini Kyritsi, Georgia Koltsida, Ioanna Farakla, Aikaterini Papanikolaou, Elena Critselis, Emilia Mantzou, Emmanouil Zoumakis, Gerasimos Kolaitis, George P Chrousos, Evangelia Charmandari
OBJECTIVE: Carriers of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) demonstrate increased secretion of cortisol precursors following ACTH stimulation, suggestive of impaired cortisol production and compensatory increases in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion. Both cortisol and CRH have behavioral effects, and hypothalamic CRH hypersecretion has been associated with chronic states of anxiety and depression. We performed an endocrinologic and psychological evaluation in carriers of 21-OHD and matched control subjects...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469557/modulation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-early-life-stress-exposure
#8
REVIEW
Miranda van Bodegom, Judith R Homberg, Marloes J A G Henckens
Exposure to stress during critical periods in development can have severe long-term consequences, increasing overall risk on psychopathology. One of the key stress response systems mediating these long-term effects of stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; a cascade of central and peripheral events resulting in the release of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands. Activation of the HPA-axis affects brain functioning to ensure a proper behavioral response to the stressor, but stress-induced (mal)adaptation of the HPA-axis' functional maturation may provide a mechanistic basis for the altered stress susceptibility later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460648/endothelial-dysfunction-in-individuals-born-after-fetal-growth-restriction-cardiovascular-and-renal-consequences-and-preventive-approaches
#9
C Yzydorczyk, J B Armengaud, A C Peyter, H Chehade, F Cachat, C Juvet, B Siddeek, S Simoncini, F Sabatier, F Dignat-George, D Mitanchez, U Simeoni
Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have an increased risk of perinatal morbidity/mortality, and those who survive face long-term consequences such as cardiovascular-related diseases, including systemic hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. In addition to the demonstrated long-term effects of decreased nephron endowment and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, individuals born after IUGR also exhibit early alterations in vascular structure and function, which have been identified as key factors of the development of cardiovascular-related diseases...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455701/chronic-rem-sleep-restriction-in-juvenile-male-rats-induces-anxiety-like-behavior-and-alters-monoamine-systems-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#10
Janaína da Silva Rocha-Lopes, Ricardo Borges Machado, Deborah Suchecki
Adolescence is marked by major physiological changes, including those in the sleep-wake cycle, such as phase delay, which may result in reduced sleep hours. Sleep restriction and/or deprivation in adult rats activate stress response and seem to be a risk factor for triggering emotional disorders. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of prolonged REM sleep restriction in juvenile male rats. Immediately after weaning, on postnatal day 21, three males from each litter were submitted to REM sleep deprivation and the other three animals were maintained in their home-cages...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450265/construct-and-face-validity-of-a-new-model-for-the-three-hit-theory-of-depression-using-pacap-mutant-mice-on-cd1-background
#11
József Farkas, László Á Kovács, László Gáspár, Anna Nafz, Tamás Gaszner, Balázs Ujvári, Viktória Kormos, Valér Csernus, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Dóra Reglődi, Balázs Gaszner
Major depression is a common cause of chronic disability. Despite decades of efforts, no equivocally accepted animal model is available for studying depression. We tested the validity of a new model based on the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience. Genetic predisposition (hit 1, mutation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, PACAP gene), early-life adversity (hit 2, 180-min maternal deprivation, MD180) and chronic variable mild stress (hit 3, CVMS) were combined. Physical, endocrinological, behavioral and functional morphological tools were used to validate the model...
April 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444833/chronic-stress-induced-mechanical-hyperalgesia-is-controlled-by-capsaicin-sensitive-neurones-in-the-mouse
#12
B Scheich, P Vincze, É Szőke, É Borbély, Á Hunyady, J Szolcsányi, Á Dénes, Zs Környei, B Gaszner, Zs Helyes
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies demonstrated peripheral nociceptor deficit in stress-related chronic pain states, such as fibromyalgia. The interactions of stress and nociceptive systems have special relevance in chronic pain, but the underlying mechanisms including the role of specific nociceptor populations remain unknown. We investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in chronic stress-related nociceptive changes. METHOD: Capsaicin-sensitive neurones were desensitized by the capsaicin analogue resiniferatoxin (RTX) in CD1 mice...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421200/detection-of-urine-metabolites-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-before-and-after-exercise
#13
Changzhuan Shao, Yiming Ren, Zinan Wang, Chenzhe Kang, Hongke Jiang, Aiping Chi
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) via an analysis of urine metabolites prior to and following exercise in a rat model. Methods. A rat model of CFS was established using restraint-stress, forced exercise, and crowded and noisy environments over a period of 4 weeks. Behavioral experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the model. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis before and after exercise...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408300/%C3%AE-9-nachr-knockout-mice-exhibit-dysregulation-of-stress-responses-affect-and-reward-related-behaviour
#14
Sarasa A Mohammadi, Thomas J Burton, MacDonald J Christie
The α9α10-subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has recently garnered interest in biomedicine and is being pursued as an analgesic target. However, the receptor exhibits diverse tissue distribution, the function of which is known to varying degrees, and targeting this receptor for clinical treatments without a broad understanding of its function may have adverse consequences. The α9α10-nAChR is expressed in the adrenal and pituitary glands, suggesting a potential role in the stress response, but little is known about its function in this tissue...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408299/ovarian-hormones-modify-anxiety-behavior-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-after-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#15
Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Raura J Doreste-Mendez, John K Alvarado-Torres, Annelyn Torres-Reveron
Chronic social isolation could lead to a disruption in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors but cycling estrogens could modify these behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in ovarian hormones during the normal cycle could interact with social isolation to alter anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In parallel, we examined the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of Sprague Dawley normal cycling female rats...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#16
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403684/mangiferin-prevents-corticosterone-induced-behavioural-deficits-via-alleviation-of-oxido-nitrosative-stress-and-down-regulation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-ido-activity
#17
Gao-Quan Luo, Ling Liu, Qu-Wen Gao, Xiao-Na Wu, Wei Xiang, Wen-Ting Deng
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a substantial amount of experimental studies have demonstrated that exogenous administration of corticosterone causes anxiety and depressive-like behaviour in rodents which involves hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. Our present study aimed to explore the neuroprotective potential of mangiferin against corticosterone-induced anxiety and depressive-like behaviour. METHODS: Corticosterone (40 mg/kg; subcutaneously) was administered once daily in swiss albino mice for 21 days...
April 12, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400482/epigenetic-programming-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-response-by-adult-life-stress
#18
Bart Dirven, Judith Homberg, Tamas Kozicz, Marloes Henckens
The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and chronic anxiety. It has long been understood that stress during early life can have a significant lasting influence on the development of the neuroendocrine system and its neural regulators, partially by modifying epigenetic regulation of gene expression, with implications for health and well-being in later life...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368468/chronic-mild-stress-causes-bone-loss-via-an-osteoblast-specific-glucocorticoid-dependent-mechanism
#19
Holger Henneicke, Jingbao Li, Sarah Kim, Sylvia J Gasparini, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou
Chronic stress and depression are associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal signalling cascade and considered a risk factor for bone loss and fractures. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between stress and poor bone health are unclear. Utilising a transgenic (tg) mouse model in which glucocorticoid signalling is selectively disrupted in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes (HSD2OB-tg mice), the current study examines the impact of chronic stress on skeletal metabolism and structure...
March 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352358/alterations-in-vegf-expression-induced-by-antidepressant-drugs-in-female-rats-under-chronic-social-stress
#20
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Anna Maria Bielecka-Wajdman, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to serve a role in neurogenesis and the stress response. Although a definite link between the action of antidepressants and VEGF has not been identified, it is assumed that VEGF, as a neurotrophic factor, serves an important role in the effects of antidepressant treatment. To examine this, the present study subjected adult female rats to four weeks of social instability stress and measured the effect of antidepressant treatment on the expression of VEGF. Firstly, endocrine markers of stress and body weight were measured in parallel with behavioral tests prior to and following subjection to stress...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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