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Chronic adrenal stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938481/vesicular-glutamate-transporter-1-knockdown-in-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-augments-neuroendocrine-responses-to-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#1
Brent Myers, Jessica M McKlveen, Rachel Morano, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai, Matia B Solomon, Steven P Wilson, James P Herman
Chronic stress-associated pathologies frequently associate with alterations in the structure and activity of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, the influence of infralimbic cortex (IL) projection neurons on HPA axis activity is unknown, as is the involvement of these cells in chronic stress-induced endocrine alterations. In the current study, a lentiviral-packaged vector coding for a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1) mRNA was microinjected into the IL of male rats...
July 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-inter-individual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#2
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We use a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly account for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937015/chronic-noise-exposure-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#3
Anne T M Konkle, Stephen E Keith, James P McNamee, David Michaud
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between the relative risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and long-term exposure to elevated levels of transportation noise. The contention is that this association is largely owing to an increase in stress-related biomarkers that are thought to be associated with CVD. Animal models have demonstrated that acute noise exposure is capable of triggering a stress response; however, similar studies using chronic noise models are less common...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925861/perioperative-pulmonary-medication-management
#4
Johnathan Ross Renew, Stephen Aniskevich
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions that warrant special consideration in the perioperative period. When these patients undergo surgical interventions, they have risk of complications such as bronchospasm, hypoxia, and even postoperative respiratory failure that warrants unplanned intensive care unit admission. Thus, clinicians must be familiar with pulmonary medication regimens that are critical for maintaining stable homeostasis of these chronic conditions...
September 18, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911811/an-intergenerational-effect-of-neuroendocrine-metabolic-programming-alteration-induced-by-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#5
Hao Kou, Lang Shen, Han-Wen Luo, Liao-Bin Chen, Dong-Fang Wu, Hui Wang
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in the first generation (F1) rats. In this study, the HPA hormones and glucose/lipid phenotypes under basal state and stressed condition induced by a fortnight ice-water swimming were examined in F2 to verify the intergenerational effect. Under the basal state, serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose of some PEE groups were lowered while those of serum triglycerides (TG) were increased comparing with controls...
September 11, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911009/contemporaneous-social-environment-and-the-architecture-of-late-life-gene-expression-profiles
#6
Morgan E Levine, Eileen M Crimmins, David R Weir, Steve W Cole
Environmental or social challenges can stimulate a cascade of coordinated physiological changes in stress response systems. Unfortunately, chronic activation of these adaptations under conditions such as low socioeconomic status (SES) can have negative consequences for long-term health. While there is substantial evidence tying low SES to increased disease risk and reduced life expectancy, the underlying biology remains poorly understood. Using pilot data on 120 older adults from the Health and Retirement Study (United States, 2002-2010), we examined the associations between SES and gene expression levels in adulthood, with particular focus on a gene expression program known as the conserved transcriptional response to adversity...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895001/regulation-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical-responses-to-stressors-by-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-dorsal-vagal-complex
#7
REVIEW
James P Herman
Hindbrain neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are critical for regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to stress. It is well known that noradrenergic (as well as adrenergic) neurons in the NTS send direct projections to hypophysiotropic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and control activation of HPA axis responses to acute systemic (but not psychogenic) stressors. Norepinephrine (NE) signaling via alpha1 receptors is primarily excitatory, working either directly on CRH neurons or through presynaptic activation of glutamate release...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890366/increasing-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-mice-after-exposure-to-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-may-counteract-some-of-the-effects-of-stress
#8
Luka Culig, Alexandre Surget, Marlene Bourdey, Wahid Khemissi, Anne-Marie Le Guisquet, Elise Vogel, Amar Sahay, René Hen, Catherine Belzung
Major depression is hypothesized to be associated with dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Adult-born hippocampal neurons are required for several effects of antidepressants and increasing the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) before exposure to chronic corticosterone is sufficient to protect against its harmful effects on behavior. However, it is an open question if increasing AHN after the onset of chronic stress exposure would be able to rescue behavioral deficits and which mechanisms might be involved in recovery...
September 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886020/low-plasma-cortisol-and-fecal-cortisol-metabolite-measures-as-indicators-of-compromised-welfare-in-domestic-horses-equus-caballus
#9
Jodi Pawluski, Patrick Jego, Séverine Henry, Anaelle Bruchet, Rupert Palme, Caroline Coste, Martine Hausberger
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions…) on the HPA axis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875366/saikosaponin-d-relieves-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-involvement-of-hpa-axis-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#10
Hong-Yan Li, Ying-Hua Zhao, Min-Jie Zeng, Fang Fang, Min Li, Ting-Ting Qin, Lu-Yu Ye, Hong-Wei Li, Rong Qu, Shi-Ping Ma
RATIONALE: Saikosaponin D (SSD), a major bioactive component isolated from Radix Bupleuri, has been reported to exert neuroprotective properties. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-depressant-like effects and the potential mechanisms of SSD. METHODS: Behavioural tests including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST) were performed to study the antidepressant-like effects of SSD...
September 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866683/the-avian-hippocampal-formation-and-the-stress-response
#11
Tom V Smulders
Though widely studied for its function in memory and navigation, the hippocampal formation (HF) in mammals also plays an important role in regulating the stress response. If this is an ancestral feature of the hippocampus, then it is likely that the avian HF plays a similar role. Indeed, the avian HF strongly expresses both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, and has indirect projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which controls the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862266/genomic-and-epigenomic-mechanisms-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Jordan Marrocco, Bruce S McEwen
Following the discovery of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, research has focused on understanding the effects of glucocorticoids in the brain and their role in regulating emotion and cognition. Glucocorticoids are essential for adaptation to stressors (allostasis) and in maladaptation resulting from allostatic load and overload. Allostatic overload, which can occur during chronic stress, can reshape the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through epigenetic modification of genes in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and other stress-responsive brain regions...
September 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859530/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axes-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-stress-responsivity
#13
Mario G Oyola, Robert J Handa
Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism's response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status...
August 31, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859148/stellate-ganglion-block-attenuates-chronic-stress-induced-depression-in-rats
#14
Weiwei Wang, Weidong Shi, Hua Qian, Xijin Deng, Tong Wang, Wenzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Stress is a significant factor in the etiology of depression. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been shown to maintain the stability of the autonomic system and to affect the neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to determine the antidepressant-like effects of SGB on the autonomic system and the HPA axis, apoptosis-related proteins, related spatial learning and memory impairment, and sensorimotor dysfunction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852891/altered-ethanol-consumption-in-osteocalcin-null-mutant-mice
#15
Patricia Patterson-Buckendahl, Muhammad Shahid, Ankit Shah, Larissa A Pohorecky
Osteocalcin (OC) is an abundant extracellular calcium-binding protein synthesized by osteoblasts. Although most OC is bound to hydroxyapatite mineral during bone formation, a consistent amount is released directly to circulation. Plasma OC (pOC) levels are highly sensitive to stressful stimuli that alter stress-responsive hormones, such as glucocorticoids (cortisol or corticosterone) and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. To gain a better understanding of the apparent relationship of OC to the effects of ethanol (EtOH) and the stress responses, we compared mice that have OC (WT [OC+/+] and HET [OC+/-]) with OC null mutants (KO [OC-/-]), which have no OC in either plasma or in bone...
August 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852144/molecular-hydrogen-increases-resilience-to-stress-in-mice
#16
Qiang Gao, Han Song, Xiao-Ting Wang, Ying Liang, Yan-Jie Xi, Yuan Gao, Qing-Jun Guo, Tyler LeBaron, Yi-Xiao Luo, Shuang-Cheng Li, Xi Yin, Hai-Shui Shi, Yu-Xia Ma
The inability to successfully adapt to stress produces pathological changes that can lead to depression. Molecular hydrogen has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and neuroprotective effects. However, the potential role of molecular hydrogen in stress-related disorders is still poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the effects of hydrogen gas on resilience to stress in mice. The results showed that repeated inhalation of hydrogen-oxygen mixed gas [67%:33% (V/V)] significantly decreased both the acute and chronic stress-induced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors of mice, assessed by tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) test, and open field test (OFT)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846569/effects-of-prior-psychosocial-trauma-on-subsequent-immune-response-after-experimental-thorax-trauma
#17
Dominik Langgartner, Annette Palmer, Anne Rittlinger, Stefan O Reber, Markus Huber-Lang
Overshooting inflammation during the early phase after blunt thorax trauma promotes the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and subsequent mortality. Given that individuals diagnosed with stress-related disorders are characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, we hypothesize that "psychosocial traumatic preload" poses a risk factor for the above mentioned complications following thorax trauma.Here, we employed the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) paradigm to induce "psychosocial traumatic preload" and systemic low-grade immune activation in male mice, indicated by elevated plasma concentrations of different inflammatory mediators...
August 25, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844871/emerging-role-of-amyloid-beta-in-stress-response-implication-for-depression-and-diabetes
#18
Maria Grazia Morgese, Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Chronic stress is considered a widely accepted risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, high cortisol levels, and, thus, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation, have been indicated as the most frequent alteration in patients affected by depression, as well as by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, depressive state has been pointed as an early manifestation of AD, advocating an overlap between these neuropathological events. We have previously demonstrated that central soluble beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ) administration peptide induces a depressive like-behavior in rats, with altered HPA axis activation, reduced cortical serotonin and neurotrophin levels...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840198/biobehavioral-mechanisms-of-mindfulness-as-a-treatment-for-chronic-stress-an-rdoc-perspective
#19
Eric L Garland, Adam W Hanley, Anne K Baker, Matthew O Howard
Mindfulness-based interventions have been heralded as promising means of alleviating chronic stress. While meta-analyses indicate that mindfulness-based interventions significantly reduce global measures of stress, how mindfulness-based interventions modulate the specific mechanisms underpinning chronic stress as operationalized by the National Institute of Mental Health research domain criteria (RDoC) of sustained threat has not yet been detailed in the literature. To address this knowledge gap, this article aims to (1) review evidence that mindfulness-based interventions ameliorate each of the 10 elements of behavioral dysregulation characterizing sustained threat via an array of mindful counter-regulatory strategies; (2) review evidence that mindfulness-based interventions modify biological domains implicated in sustained threat, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as brain circuits involved in attentional function, limbic reactivity, habit behavior, and the default mode network; and (3) integrate these findings into a novel conceptual framework of mindful self-regulation in the face of stress-the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802900/adolescent-chronic-variable-social-stress-influences-exploratory-behavior-and-nicotine-responses-in-male-but-not-female-balb-cj-mice
#20
M J Caruso, D E Reiss, J I Caulfield, J L Thomas, A N Baker, S A Cavigelli, H M Kamens
Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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