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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791796/tracking-of-engineered-bacteria-in-vivo-using-non-standard-amino-acid-incorporation
#1
Pichet Praveschotinunt, Noemie-Manuelle Dorval Courchesne, Ilona den Hartog, Chaochen Lu, Jessica J Kim, Peter Q Nguyen, Neel S Joshi
The rapidly growing field of microbiome research presents a need for better methods of monitoring gut microbes in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution. We report a method of tracking microbes in vivo within the gastrointestinal tract by programming them to incorporate non-standard amino acids (NSAA) and labeling them via click chemistry. Using established machinery constituting an orthogonal translation system (OTS), we engineered Escherichia coli to incorporate p-azido-L-phenylalanine (pAzF) in place of the UAG (amber) stop codon...
May 23, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791425/-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-of-a-transpyloric-early-gastric-c%C3%A3-ncer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Juan Antonio Chirinos Vega, César García Delgado, Alfonso Delgado Vergara
The endoscopic sumucosal disection (ESD) is an advanced endoscopic technique that achieves the curative resection of superficial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, getting block exeresis with margins free of neoplasia avoiding surgery. However, tumors located in the esophagogastric junction, or pylorus, are technically more complex to resect by ESD. When a neoplasm settles in the pylorus, the anatomical characteristics of this region can affect the adequate assessment of the margins and the performance of the procedure...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791242/liver-targeted-delivery-of-insulin-loaded-nanoparticles-via-enterohepatic-circulation-of-bile-acids
#3
Zhe Zhang, Hongxiang Li, Guangrui Xu, Ping Yao
Liver is the primary acting site of insulin. In this study, we developed innovative nanoparticles for oral and liver-targeted delivery of insulin by using enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. The nanoparticles were produced from cholic acid and quaternary ammonium modified chitosan derivative and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP). The nanoparticles had a diameter of 239 nm, an insulin loading efficiency of 90.9%, and a loading capacity of 18.2%. Cell culture studies revealed that the cholic acid groups effectively enhanced the transport of the nanoparticles through Caco-2 cell monolayer and greatly increased the absorption of the nanoparticles in HepG-2 cells via bile acid transporter mechanism...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790946/a-microbial-endocrinology-based-simulated-small-intestinal-medium-for-the-evaluation-of-neurochemical-production-by-gut-microbiota
#4
Daniel N Villageliú, Sharon Rasmussen, Mark Lyte
Microbial endocrinology represents the union of microbiology and neurobiology and is concerned with the ability of neurochemicals to serve as an evolutionary-based language between host and microbiota in health and disease. The recognition that microorganisms produce, modify and respond to the same neurochemicals utilized in the various signaling pathways of their mammalian hosts is increasingly being recognized as a mechanism by which the host and microbiota may interact to influence the progression of infectious disease as well as influence behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790376/plateau-hypoxia-attenuates-the-metabolic-activity-of-intestinal-flora-to-enhance-the-bioavailability-of-nifedipine
#5
Juanhong Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Yuemei Sun, Rong Wang, Junmin Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Nifedipine is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and its pharmacokinetics and metabolism may be influenced by microorganisms. If gut microbes are involved in the metabolism of nifedipine, plateau hypoxia may regulate the bioavailability and the therapeutic effect of nifedipine by altering the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We herein demonstrated for the first time that gut flora is involved in the metabolism of nifedipine by in vitro experiments. In addition, based on the results of 16S rRNA analysis of feces in rats after acute plateau, we first confirmed that the plateau environment could cause changes in the number and composition of intestinal microbes...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790356/-non-opioid-analgesics
#6
Jitka Fricová
Non-opioid analgesics are commonly used to treat mild and moderate acute and chronic pain. They can be used as monotherapy; however, they have greater efficacy in combination with weak and strong opioids. Unlike opioids, long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs does not lead to physical dependence. One of the main disadvantages of the NSA is the risk of gastrointestinal side effects, especially bleeding into the digestive tract. This is increased especially in ulcerative disease and in higher doses, but also in the elderly (over 65 years), also with concomitant administration of corticosteroids, anticoagulants or other NSAIDs...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790143/-managing-the-adverse-effects-related-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#7
Hsiao-Hsuan Kuo, Wei-Wu Chen
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become the new posterchild of cancer treatment in recent years largely due to their impressive clinical efficacy. Drugs targeting cytotoxic T- lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies, e.g., ipilimumab (Yervoy®), pembrolizumab (Keytruda®), and nivolumab (Opdivo®), reinvigorate cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer cells in patients. Despite the impressive clinical benefits, ICIs may induce immune-related adverse events (irAE) of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, endocrine, and lung with a wide spectrum of severity...
June 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790028/stimulus-for-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-rats
#8
Yu V Natochin, A V Kutina, A S Marina, E I Shakhmatova
Blood concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increased 5 min after per os administration of water, sodium chloride solution, or glucose solution. Changes in blood osmolality or blood glucose level did not stimulate GLP-1 release. A method of short-term increase in the gastric capacity in rats using an inflating balloon attached to the Foley catheter was developed in order to test the hypothesis that excitation of the upper gastrointestinal tract receptors is a primary signal for the GLP-1 secretion during oral intake of the substances...
March 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789827/effect-of-the-monostearate-monopalmitate-ratio-on-the-oral-release-of-active-agents-from-monoacylglycerol-organogels
#9
F R Lupi, V Mancina, N Baldino, O I Parisi, L Scrivano, D Gabriele
The delivery of active agents from organogels is becoming an important topic owing to the possibility of releasing, in a controlled way, lipophilic agents. Controlled release from foods is a topic with increasing relevance owing to the growing industrial interest towards functional or medical foods, i.e. foods containing nutraceutical agents or drugs. Anyway, release properties are related to the rheological properties of organogels, and, therefore, a deep knowledge of their microstructure and physical characteristics is necessary to design carriers with expected release properties...
May 23, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789682/the-role-of-diet-in-the-aetiopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
REVIEW
Hamed Khalili, Simon S M Chan, Paul Lochhead, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Andrew R Hart, Andrew T Chan
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as IBD, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the aetiopathogenesis of IBD is largely unknown, it is widely thought that diet has a crucial role in the development and progression of IBD. Indeed, epidemiological and genetic association studies have identified a number of promising dietary and genetic risk factors for IBD. These preliminary studies have led to major interest in investigating the complex interaction between diet, host genetics, the gut microbiota and immune function in the pathogenesis of IBD...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788884/progress-of-oral-insulin-and-related-drug-delivery-systems-and-their-pharmacokinetics
#11
Jingjing Chen, Rui Liu, Changxiao Liu, Xin Jin, Qinghua Zhang, Jialu Wang, Fang Zhao, Ze Wang, Haiyan Qiu, Yazhuo Li, Xiulin Yi
BACKGROUND: As society has developed and living standards have improved, diabetes has become a severe public health issue. Insulin plays a crucial role in managing hyperglycemia caused by type I diabetes and particular type II diabetes. Many researchers are seeking alternative, more acceptable methods of insulin delivery, such as oral insulin. An oral formulation has become a new goal for insulin delivery in recent years. METHODS: The PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for "oral insulin, " "drug delivery systems, " and "pharmacokinetics, " and 85 relevant articles were selected from the results as material for this review...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788877/contribution-of-nrf2-in-gastrointestinal-protection-from-oxidative-injury
#12
Akinori Yanaka
The human gastrointestinal tract is exposed to a variety of toxic agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gastric acid, enteric pathogenic bacteria, excessive auto immune reactions, and chronic mental stresses. These stressors generate free radicals within the gastrointestinal tissues, causing chronic inflammatory diseases, ulcers, cancers, and functional disturbances. Recent studies have demonstrated that some natural food compounds upregulate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated antioxidant system, ameliorating or preventing these disorders...
May 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788876/exploiting-significance-of-physical-exercise-in-prevention-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#13
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Marcin Magierowski, Slawomir Kwiecien, Dagmara Wojcik, Agata Ptak-Belowska, Marcin Surmiak, Aneta Targosz, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
BACKGROUND: Physical activity can be involved in the prevention of gastrointestinal (GI)-tract diseases, however, the results regarding the volume and the intensity of exercise considered as beneficial for protection of gastrointestinal organs are conflicting. AIMS AND METHODS: The main objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive and updated overview on the beneficial and harmful effects of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. We attempted to discuss recent evidence regarding the association between different modes and intensity levels of exercise and physiological functions of the gut and gut pathology...
May 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788737/diagnosis-for-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary-site-with-the-aid-of-simple-pcr-tests-a-single-center-experience
#14
E Suspitsin, G Yanus, E Imyanitov
This study was aimed to incorporate PCR testing in the determination of organ/tissue origin for cancers of unknown primary site (CUP). We developed a PCR panel consisting of 7 expression markers (CDX2, CDH17, SPB, UGRP, MAM, LPB, TG) and 2 genes frequently mutated in cancer (KRAS and BRAF). The expression tests were intentionally interpreted in a non-quantitative way, i.e. classified tumors either as positive or negative expressors. While applying these tests to 135 cancers belonging to 8 common types of adenocarcinomas (AdCa), we observed that this panel was capable to clearly discriminate between gastrointestinal vs...
March 14, 2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788271/the-innate-immune-system-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-role-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-and-lamina-propria-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-intestinal-inflammation
#15
A Montalban-Arques, M Chaparro, Javier P Gisbert, D Bernardo
Background: The gastrointestinal tract harbors the largest microbiota load in the human body, hence maintaining a delicate balance between immunity against invading pathogens and tolerance toward commensal. Such immune equilibrium, or intestinal homeostasis, is conducted by a tight regulation and cooperation of the different branches of the immune system, including the innate and the adaptive immune system. However, several factors affect this delicate equilibrium, ultimately leading to gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788186/nanoparticle-based-oral-drug-delivery-systems-targeting-the-colon-for-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Mingzhen Zhang, Didier Merlin
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Delivery of orally administered drugs to the colon is highly desirable for the treatment of UC, as it improves their efficacy while reducing systemic toxicity. However, the targeting of oral drugs to the colon, which is located at the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract, is difficult due to physiological challenges, biochemical barriers, and environmental barriers, including those associated with mucus and epithelium...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788005/morphological-identification-of-hair-recovered-from-feces-for-detection-of-cannibalism-in-eastern-chimpanzees
#17
Christopher S Walker, Kara K Walker, Gabo Paulo, Anne E Pusey
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are primarily frugivorous but consume a variable amount of meat from a variety of organisms, including other chimpanzees. Cannibalism is rare, usually follows lethal aggression, and does not occur following natural deaths. While chimpanzee cannibalism has been documented at multiple sites, many instances of this behavior go unrecorded. Identification of chimpanzee remains in feces, however, can provide indirect evidence of cannibalism. Hair, in particular, typically passes through the gastrointestinal tract undamaged and is commonly used for purposes of identification in wildlife forensics...
May 22, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786849/isolation-and-characterization-of-wheat-derived-nonspecific-lipid-transfer-protein-2-nsltp2
#18
Sara Bosi, Jessica Fiori, Giovanni Dinelli, Neil Rigby, Emanuela Leoncini, Cecilia Prata, Valeria Bregola, Ilaria Marotti, Roberto Gotti, Marina Naldi, Luca Massaccesi, Marco Malaguti, Paul Kroon, Silvana Hrelia
Numerous studies support the protective role of bioactive peptides against cardiovascular diseases. Cereals represent the primary source of carbohydrates, but they also contain substantial amounts of proteins, therefore representing a potential dietary source of bioactive peptides with nutraceutical activities. The analysis of wheat extracts purified by chromatographic techniques by means of HPLC-UV/nanoLC-nanoESI-QTOF allowed the identification of a signal of about 7 kDa which, following data base searches, was ascribed to a nonspecific lipid-transfer protein (nsLTP) type 2 from Triticum aestivum (sequence coverage of 92%)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786568/nutritive-support-for-newborns-in-critical-conditions-semi-elemental-formilas-as-a-means-of-enteral-nutrition
#19
Dmytro Shkurupii
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The goal is to increase the efficiency of nutritional support in intensive care of newborns by substantiating the choice of the enteral blend. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted, which included 173 newborns. The main group consisted of 143 patients of intensive care units. The comparison group - 30 virtually healthy newborns. Physical parameters, changes in protein metabolism, serum immunoglobulins, functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system in the development of critical conditions and depending on the type of enteric urine formula were determined...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785498/survival-of-planktonic-and-sessile-cells-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-and-lactobacillus-reuteri-upon-exposure-to-simulated-fasting-state-gastrointestinal-conditions
#20
Kyle B Klopper, Elanna Bester, Shelly M Deane, Gideon M Wolfaardt, Leon M T Dicks
In this study, we report on the formation and resilience of Lactobacillus reuteri HFI-LD5 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HFI-K2 biofilms cultivated in a CO2 evolution measurement system (CEMS) and exposed to biologically relevant, fasting-state gastrointestinal fluids under continuous flow conditions. For comparative purposes, planktonic and sessile populations of L. reuteri HFI-LD5 and L. rhamnosus HFI-K2 were each exposed to fasting-state gastric fluid (FSGF, pH 2.0) for 2 h, fasting-state intestinal fluid (FSIF, pH 7...
May 21, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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