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Adrenal Glands AND Nutrition

Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
Luba Sominsky, Lin Kooi Ong, Ilvana Ziko, Phillip W Dickson, Sarah J Spencer
A poor nutritional environment during early development has long been known to increase disease susceptibility later in life. We have previously shown that rats that are overfed as neonates (i.e. suckled in small litters (4 pups) relative to control conditions (12 pups)) show dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to immune stress in adulthood, particularly due to an altered capacity of the adrenal to respond to an immune challenge. Here we hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding similarly affects the sympathomedullary system, testing this by investigating the biochemical function of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis...
November 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Halima Abobaker, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine, an important methyl donor, is known to execute epigenetic regulation of gene expression via nutritional reprogramming. Herein, we explore whether feeding a betaine-supplemented diet to laying hens would affect corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and corticosterone deposition in eggs, in correlation with the expression of methyl transfer enzymes and the promoter DNA methylation status of affected genes. Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens at 38 weeks of age were assigned to Control and Betaine groups, fed basal and betaine-supplemented diets, respectively, for four weeks...
December 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Carolyn R Hodges-Simeon, Sean P Prall, Aaron D Blackwell, Michael Gurven, Steven J C Gaulin
OBJECTIVES: Humans-and several other apes-exhibit a unique pattern of post-natal adrenal maturation; however, the causes and consequences of variation in adrenal development are not well understood. In this study, we examine developmental and age-related maturation of the adrenal gland (measured via dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate [DHEA-S]) for potential life-history associations with growth and mucosal immunity in a rural population of immune-challenged Bolivian juveniles and adolescents...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
J Shirakawa, D F De Jesus, R N Kulkarni
Impaired β-cell function and insufficient β-cell mass compensation are twin pathogenic features that underlie type 2 diabetes (T2D). Current therapeutic strategies continue to evolve to improve treatment outcomes in different ethnic populations and include approaches to counter insulin resistance and improve β-cell function. Although the effects of insulin secretion on metabolic organs such as liver, skeletal muscle and adipose is directly relevant for improving glucose uptake and reduce hyperglycemia, the ability of pancreatic β-cells to crosstalk with multiple non-metabolic tissues is providing novel insights into potential opportunities for improving β-cell function and/or mass that could have beneficial effects in patients with diabetes...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Johnathan R Nuttall, Heidi R Kucera, Suangsuda Supasai, Nilesh W Gaikwad, Patricia I Oteiza
Disruption of steroid hormone signaling has been implicated independently in the developmental abnormalities resulting from maternal phthalate plasticizer exposure and developmental zinc deficiency. This study investigated if secondary zinc deficiency may result from dietary exposure to a low level of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) through gestation and if this could be associated with altered steroid metabolism. The interaction between marginal zinc nutrition and DEHP exposure to affect pregnancy outcome, zinc status, and steroid metabolism was also assessed...
April 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, I Jeffrey, A E Heazell, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: The postmortem fetal brain:liver weight ratio is commonly used as a marker of nutrition for diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, there are limited data regarding the effects of intrauterine retention, fetal maceration and postmortem interval on organ weights and their ratios at autopsy. Our aims were to examine the relationships between gestational-age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fetal organ weights at autopsy, cause of intrauterine death and effects of intrauterine retention, and to determine whether the brain:liver weight ratio is a reliable marker of FGR in intrauterine death...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Eva F G Naninck, J Efraim Oosterink, Kit-Yi Yam, Lennart P de Vries, Henk Schierbeek, Johannes B van Goudoever, Rikst-Nynke Verkaik-Schakel, Josèe A Plantinga, Torsten Plosch, Paul J Lucassen, Aniko Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) impairs cognition later in life. Because ES prevention is problematic, intervention is needed, yet the mechanisms that underlie ES remain largely unknown. So far, the role of early nutrition in brain programming has been largely ignored. Here, we demonstrate that essential 1-carbon metabolism-associated micronutrients (1-CMAMs; i.e., methionine and B vitamins) early in life are crucial in programming later cognition by ES. ES was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice from postnatal d (P)2-9. 1-CMAM levels were measured centrally and peripherally by using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy...
February 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Vinicius J B Martins, Andrea P O Neves, Márcia C Garcia, Regina C Spadari, Ana Paula G Clemente, Maria P de Albuquerque, Daniel J Hoffman, Ana L Sawaya
Undernutrition is a stressor with long-term consequences, and the effect of nutritional recovery on cortisol and thyroid hormone status is unknown. To investigate basal thyroid hormones and the cortisol response to a cold pressor test in children recovered from undernutrition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on children (6-16 years) separated into four groups: control (n 41), stunted (n 31), underweight (n 27) and recovered (n 31). Salivary cortisol was collected over the course of 10 h: upon awakening, before and after an unpleasant and a pleasant stimulus...
January 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Mariana Sarto Figueiredo, Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Elaine de Oliveira, Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Egberto Gaspar de Moura
Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been a focus of interest in the field of functional foods because of its potential health benefits. However, we hypothesised that maternal flaxseed intake during lactation could induce several metabolic dysfunctions in adult offspring. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the adrenal function of adult offspring whose dams were supplemented with whole flaxseed during lactation. At birth, lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: rats from dams fed the flaxseed diet (FLAX) with 25% of flaxseed and controls dams...
October 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
I C Macedo, J R Rozisky, C Oliveira, C M Oliveira, G Laste, Y Nonose, V S Santos, P R Marques, M F M Ribeiro, W Caumo, I L S Torres
Chronic stress, whether associated with obesity or not, leads to different neuroendocrine and psychological changes. Obesity or being overweight has become one of the most serious worldwide public health problems. Additionally, it is related to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, which results in substituting nutritionally adequate meals for snacks. This metabolic disorder can lead to morbidity, mortality, and reduced quality of life. On the other hand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is widely expressed in all brain regions, particularly in the hypothalamus, where it has important effects on neuroprotection, synaptic plasticity, mammalian food intake-behavior, and energy metabolism...
June 2015: Neuropeptides
Kathrine F Vandraas, Åse V Vikanes, Nathalie C Støer, Rebecca Troisi, Olof Stephansson, Henrik T Sørensen, Siri Vangen, Per Magnus, Andrej M Grjibovski, Tom Grotmol
BACKGROUND: Hyperemesis gravidarum is a serious condition affecting 0.8-2.3% of pregnant women and can be regarded as a restricted period of famine. Research concerning potential long-term consequences of the condition for the offspring, is limited, but lack of nutrition in-utero has been associated with chronic disease in adulthood, including some cancers. There is growing evidence that several forms of cancer may originate during fetal life. We conducted a large study linking the high-quality population-based medical birth- and cancer registries in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, to explore whether hyperemesis is associated with increased cancer risk in offspring...
May 13, 2015: BMC Cancer
Mark A Babizhayev, Yegor E Yegorov
Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle...
2015: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Michaela Vrabcova, Livia Mikuska, M Zeman, B Mravec
Experimental and clinical studies have shown alterations in activity of systems responsible for neuroendocrine stress response in obese individuals. Therefore we investigated the effect of palatable normocaloric liquid nutrition (Fresubin) on alterations in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male Wistar rats of different developmental stages. Control rats (CON) received standard pellet chow all the time from weaning (21st day of age) to 150 days. Fresubin was administered throughout the experiment (LN), only in juvenility (from 21st to 90th day of age; LNJ) or only in adulthood (from 90th to 150th day of age; LNA)...
September 2014: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Swee Keong Yeap, Boon Kee Beh, Norlaily Mohd Ali, Hamidah Mohd Yusof, Wan Yong Ho, Soo Peng Koh, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Kamariah Long
Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose...
2014: BioMed Research International
Olivia Williams-Wyss, Song Zhang, Severence M MacLaughlin, David Kleemann, Simon K Walker, Catherine M Suter, Jennifer E Cropley, Janna L Morrison, Claire T Roberts, I Caroline McMillen
Exposure to poor maternal nutrition around the time of conception results in an early prepartum activation of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and in increased adrenal growth and stress response after birth associated with epigenetic changes in a differentially methylated region (DMR) of adrenal IGF2/H19. We have determined the effects of maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional period (PCUN: 70% of control intake from 60 days before until 6 days after conception) and early preimplantation period (PIUN: 70% of control intake for 6 days after conception) on fetal plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations and fetal adrenal ACTHR, StAR, 3βHSD, CYP11B, CYP17, TGFβ1, IGF1, IGF1R, IGF2, and IGF2R mRNA expression and the methylation level of sites within the DMRs of IGF2/H19 and IGF2R in the adrenal of twin and singleton fetuses at 136-138 days gestation...
July 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Aaron Harman, Kevin J Chang, Damian Dupuy, Peter Rintels
Ferumoxytol is a parenteral iron therapy that the Food and Drug Administration recently approved for the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia. The form of the iron, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, causes T1, T2, and T2* shortening on magnetic resonance imaging, which can mimic hemosiderosis. We report such a case, with laboratory findings that demonstrate normal iron stores, and discuss the potential implications.
July 2014: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
A J Forhead, A L Fowden
The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for normal growth and development of the fetus. Their bioavailability in utero depends on development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland axis and the abundance of thyroid hormone transporters and deiodinases that influence tissue levels of bioactive hormone. Fetal T4 and T3 concentrations are also affected by gestational age, nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero, and placental permeability to maternal thyroid hormones, which varies among species with placental morphology...
June 2014: Journal of Endocrinology
Song Zhang, Janna L Morrison, Amreet Gill, Leewen Rattanatray, Severence M MacLaughlin, David Kleemann, Simon K Walker, I Caroline McMillen
Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring...
December 2013: Endocrinology
Song Zhang, Janna L Morrison, Amreet Gill, Leewen Rattanatray, Severence M MacLaughlin, David Kleemann, Simon K Walker, I Caroline McMillen
Exposure to dietary restriction during the periconceptional period in either normal or obese ewes results in increased adrenal growth and a greater cortisol response to stress in the offspring, but the mechanisms that programme these changes are not fully understood. Activation of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been demonstrated to stimulate adrenal growth and steroidogenesis. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers from before and 1 week after conception on the methylation status, expression, abundance and localisation of key components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the adrenal of post-natal lambs...
2013: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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