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C A Cobine, E E Hannah, M H Zhu, H E Lyle, J R Rock, K M Sanders, S M Ward, K D Keef
The mechanism underlying tone generation in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is controversial. We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon generation of electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) by activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (encoded by Ano1) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (encoded by Cacna1c). Phasic contractions and tone in the IAS were nearly abolished by ANO1 and CavL antagonists. ANO1 antagonists also abolished SWs as well as transient depolarizations that persisted after addition of CavL antagonists...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
A Kumarasiri, C Liu, S Brown, C Glide-Hurst, M Elshaikh, I Chetty, B Movsas
PURPOSE: To estimate the delivered (cumulative) dose to targets and organs at risk for localized prostate cancer patients treated with reduced PTV margins and to evaluate preliminary patient reported quality-of-life (QOL). METHODS: Under an IRB-approved protocol, 20 prostate cancer patients (including 11 control patients) were treated with reduced planning margins (5 mm uniform with 4 mm at prostate/rectum interface). Control patients had standard margin (10/6 mm)-based treatments...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Om Prakash Gurjar, Manika Batra, Priyusha Bagdare, Sandeep Kaushik, Atul Tyagi, Ayush Naik, Virendra Bhandari, Krishna Lal Gupta
AIM: To analyse the dosimetric parameters of Co-60 based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy plans for patients of carcinoma uterine cervix. BACKGROUND: Co-60 high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy unit has been introduced in past few years and is gaining importance owing to its long half life, economical benefits and comparable clinical outcome compared to Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was conducted on ten patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Ca Cx)...
May 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Vindu Kathriarachchi, Charles Shang, Grant Evans, Theodora Leventouri, Georgios Kalantzis
The impetus behind our study was to establish a quantitative comparison between the IRIS collimator and the InCise multileaf collimator (MLC) (Accuray Inc. Synnyvale, CA) for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Treatment plans for ten prostate cancer patients were performed on MultiPlan™ 5.1.2 treatment planning system utilizing MLC and IRIS for 36.25 Gy in five fractions. To reduce the magnitude of variations between cases, the planning tumor volume (PTV) was defined and outlined for treating prostate gland only, assuming no seminal vesicle or ex-capsule involvement...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
Roberto Rossini, Daniela Monsellato, Luca Bertolaccini, Anna Pesci, Giuseppe Zamboni, Marcello Ceccaroni, Giacomo Ruffo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To review our data for any correlation between the severity of endometriosis and lymph node involvement. DESIGN: Observational study with control (Canadian Task Force classification III). SETTING: Public medical center. PATIENTS: All women who underwent laparoscopic segmental rectal resection for endometriosis at our institution (Sacro Cuore Negrar Hospital) between 2000 and 2010. INTERVENTIONS: We retrospectively included 140 cases of colorectal surgery for intestinal endometriosis performed between 2004 and 2010 in our institution...
July 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Akiko Sasaki, Takeshi Nakajima, Hideto Egashira, Kotaro Takeda, Shinnosuke Tokoro, Chikamasa Ichita, Sakue Masuda, Haruki Uojima, Kazuya Koizumi, Takeshi Kinbara, Taku Sakamoto, Yutaka Saito, Makoto Kako
Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by human papilloma virus infection. Not all individuals develop persistent, progressive disease, but careful follow up is required with moderate-to-severe dysplasia to prevent progression to malignancy. Standard therapies include surgical treatments (trans-anal resection and trans-anal endoscopic microsurgery) and immunotherapeutic and topical methods (topical imiquimod); however, local recurrence remains a considerable problem. Here, we report a case with superficial CA of the anal canal, treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)...
February 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Claire S Danby, Lisa A Cosentino, Lorna K Rabe, Carol L Priest, Khrystine C Damare, Ingrid S Macio, Leslie A Meyn, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Sharon L Hillier
BACKGROUND: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) in men who have sex with men is risk based. Despite high frequencies of oral and receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among women, extragenital screening is not recommended. METHODS: Women (n = 175) and men who have sex with men (n = 224) primarily recruited from a sexually transmitted infection clinic reporting a lifetime history of RAI completed a structured questionnaire and clinician-collected swab samples from the rectum, pharynx, vagina (women), and urine (men)...
February 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Yunxia Lu, Eivind Ness-Jensen, Kristian Hveem, Anna Martling
Whether different definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are differently associated with colorectal adenocarcinoma (CA) by anatomical location is unclear. A population-based cohort study, the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) Study, was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 2010. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and lifestyle data were collected at recruitment. CAs were identified through linkage to the Norwegian Cancer Register. A composite index of MetS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or/and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and single components of MetS, including anthropometric factors, blood pressure, lipids, triglycerides, and glucose, were analyzed...
November 15, 2015: American Journal of Epidemiology
Kasey E Williams, Martha C Washington, Tanisha Johnson-Rouse, Ruth E Johnson, Corren Freeman, Chris Reed, John Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
Three experiments were done to better assess the gastrointestinal (GI) site(s) of action of GLP-1 on food intake in rats. First, near-spontaneous nocturnal chow meal size (MS), intermeal intervals (IMI) length and satiety ratios (SR = MS/IMI) were measured after infusion of saline, 0.025 or 0.5 nmol/kg GLP-1 into the celiac artery (CA, supplying the stomach and upper duodenum), cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, supplying small and all of the large intestine except the rectum), femoral artery (FA, control) or portal vein (PV, control)...
January 1, 2016: Appetite
Colinda C J M Simons, Leo J Schouten, Roger W L Godschalk, Manon van Engeland, Piet A van den Brandt, Frederik J van Schooten, Matty P Weijenberg
Interrelationships between insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), hyperinsulinaemia, diabetes, and colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate involvement of IGFs in colorectal tumorigenesis. We investigated the CRC risk associated with 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes related to the IGF pathway and an IGF1 19-CA repeat polymorphism. Variants were selected from literature and genotyped in toenail DNA from 3,768 subcohort members and 2,580 CRC cases from the Netherlands Cohort Study, which has a case-cohort design (n = 120,852)...
2015: Scientific Reports
Valerie S Albrecht, Brandi M Limbago, Gregory J Moran, Anusha Krishnadasan, Rachel J Gorwitz, Linda K McDougal, David A Talan
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a prevalent cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), but the association between CA-MRSA colonization and infection remains uncertain. We studied the carriage frequency at several body sites and the diversity of S. aureus strains from patients with and without SSTI. Specimens from the nares, throat, rectum, and groin of case subjects with a closed skin abscess (i.e., without drainage) and matched control subjects without a skin infection (n = 147 each) presenting to 10 U...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Xiaoming Guan, Michelle Tu Anh Nguyen, Teresa M Walsh, Bridgett Kelly
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of robotic single-site resection of advanced endometriosis using new technology. DESIGN: We show a video that demonstrates our technique for accomplishing single-site laparoscopic resection of advanced endometriosis. The video is a step-by-step explanation of robotic single-site resection of endometriosis nodules overlying the ureter and rectum. BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery has been shown to effectively improve pain and fertility in women with endometriosis [1]...
January 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Ying Ye, Xiang-Zhao Sun, Jin-Shan Feng
Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, and it often occurs in the genital and perianal regions. The subtypes of HPV mainly include HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18. This case report presents a 37-year-old woman admitted to hospital because of lower abdominal pain and increased stool frequency for > 1 year. Colonoscopy found a neoplasm with a diameter ~5 mm in the rectum, ~5 cm from the anal margin. The pathological diagnosis of the excised specimen was CA. HPV DNA analysis indicated HPV-6...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Eric I Marks, Matthew Brennan, Wafik S El-Deiry
We present the case of a 62-year-old-man with moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rectum. This patient underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. After completing therapy, this patient had 2 instances of CEA elevation, both of which preceded the discovery of recurrent disease. While on treatment for these recurrences, CA 19-9 increased rapidly to 4,405. This CA 19-9 elevation persisted for approximately 4 months in the absence of clinical, radiographic or additional serologic evidence of progressive disease before returning to baseline...
2015: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Baki Eker, Ersin Ozaslan, Halit Karaca, Veli Berk, Oktay Bozkurt, Mevlude Inanc, Ayse Ocak Duran, Metin Ozkan
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in developed countries, and it is the third most frequent malignancy in Turkey. There are many biological, genetic, molecular, and tissue-derived prognostic factors for CRCs. In this study, we evaluated prognostic factors in patients who were metastatic at diagnosis or progressed to metastatic disease during follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 116 patients with malignancies either in the colon or rectum...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Zora Vukobrat-Bijedic, Azra Husic-Selimovic, Amela Sofic, Nina Bijedic, Ivana Bjelogrlic, Bisera Gogov, Amila Mehmedovic
INTRODUCTION: CEA and CA 19-9 are the most common tumor associated antigens used in the staging of patients with rectal cancer and other parts of the colon. GOAL: of this study was to evaluate the value of CEA and CA 19-9 in serum of patients with colon cancer and prove its place in the diagnostic staging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was retrospective-prospective performed at the Gastroenterohepatology Clinic, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University...
December 2013: Medical Archives
Carlos A Rubio
The cells that line the mucosa of the human gastrointestinal tract (GI, that is, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum) are constantly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as different pH, enzymes, and bacterial flora. With exception of the oral cavity, these microenvironments also contain remnant cocktails of secreted enzymes and bacteria from upper organs along the tract. The density of the GI bacteria varies, from 103/mL near the gastric outlet, to 1010/mL at the ileocecal valve, to 1011 to 1012/mL in the colon...
2014: Pathogens
Yukiko Katagiri, Yasunori Miyazaki, Tomonobu Uchino, Yoshiyuki Kagawa
Goreisan suppository is prepared as a hospital preparation, and successfully used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting in young children with common cold. While clinical efficacy of the suppository has been reported, few studies have been carried out to clarify the preparation procedure and pharmacokinetics of the suppository. In this study, trans-cinnamic acid (CA) was used as a representative substance of goreisan constituents, and assayed by HPLC-UV. We investigated the properties of goreisan suppositories prepared using various sizes of pulverized goreisan extract granules, in vitro dissolution profiles using the reciprocating dialysis tube method, and pharmacokinetics in rabbits compared with those for goreisan enema...
2014: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Luis Busto Martín, Maria Carral Freire, Teresa Hermida, Marcos Aller, Luis Busto Castañón
OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of prostate sarcoma and perform a review of the published literature. METHODS / RESULTS: The first case is a 21 year old patient who presented acute urine retention and lung metastases on diagnosis. He was diagnosed by TURP of rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate dying 1 month after surgery. The second case was a 33 years old male who presented to the emergency room with anal pain, urinary symptoms, hematochezia and loss of 20 kg over the past 3 months...
October 2014: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Lin Yang, Xu-Ming Zhao, Li-Jun Liu
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation after cardiac arrest (CA) with a whole-body ischemia-reperfusion injury causes brain injury and multiple organ dysfunction (MODS). This study aimed to determine whether mild systemic hypothermia could decrease multiple organ dysfunctions after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. METHODS: The patients who had been resuscitated after cardiac arrest were reviewed. During the resuscitation they had been assigned to undergo therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 32°C to 34°C, measured in the rectum) over a period of 24 to 36 hours or to receive standard treatment with normothermia...
2010: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
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