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lay health worker

John C Flunker, Jessica Miller Clouser, David Mannino, Jennifer Swanberg
BACKGROUND: Latino thoroughbred workers may be at risk for developing abnormal pulmonary function related to occupational exposures. METHODS: Eighty worker participants were recruited via community-based purposive sampling. Questionnaires and spirometry tests were administered by trained lay health promoters. Demographic and occupational factors were assessed for associations with respiratory outcomes via multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of participants exhibited abnormal pulmonary function (primarily restrictive), 79% reported any respiratory symptoms, and 94% infrequently used dust masks...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Angkana Sommanustweechai, Weerasak Putthasri, Mya Lay Nwe, Saw Thetlya Aung, Mya Min Theint, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, San Shway Wynn
BACKGROUND: Myanmar is classified as critical shortage of health workforce. In responses to limited number of trained health workforce in the hard-to-reach and remote areas, the MOH trained the Community Health Worker (CHW) as health volunteers serving these communities on a pro bono basis. This study aimed to assess the socio-economic profiles, contributions of CHW to primary health care services and their needs for supports to maintain their quality contributions in rural hard to reach areas in Myanmar...
October 21, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Qingyan Ma, Lai Sze Tso, Zachary C Rich, Brian J Hall, Rachel Beanland, Haochu Li, Mellanye Lackey, Fengyu Hu, Weiping Cai, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. METHODS: We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ahmed Al-Mandhari, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Samir Al-Adawi, Samra Al-Barwani, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan
BACKGROUND: The pressing need to reduce burgeoning poor safety measures affecting millions worldwide has alerted World Health Assembly to set-up mechanisms to increase patient safety. In response to such needs, World Health Organization (WHO) formulated nine life-saving patient safety solutions that would be essential to lower reduce healthcare-related harm. There is a paucity of research examining awareness of such nine patient safety solutions. This study has been designed and conducted to compare self-estimated awareness and practice of the World Health Organization's nine "Life-saving Patient Safety Solutions" aide memoirs among different groups of healthcare workers in Oman...
September 30, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Mary R Janevic, Amparo C Aruquipa Yujra, Nicolle Marinec, Juvenal Aguilar, James E Aikens, Rosa Tarrazona, John D Piette
BACKGROUND: Innovative, scalable solutions are needed to address the vast unmet need for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We conducted a feasibility study of a 14-week automated telephonic interactive voice response (IVR) depression self-care service among Bolivian primary care patients with at least moderately severe depressive symptoms. We analyzed IVR call completion rates, the reliability and validity of IVR-collected data, and participant satisfaction...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Jo Durham, Melissa Warner, Alongkone Phengsavanh, Vanphanom Sychareun, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Keith Rickart
BACKGROUND: Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing maternal mortality, yet in many low-resource contexts it remains unacceptably high. Many of these deaths are due to postpartum haemorrhage and are preventable with access to essential obstetric care. Where there are barriers to access, maternal deaths could be prevented if community-level misoprostol was available. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, a setting with high maternal mortality...
2016: PloS One
Hee-Soon Juon, Carol Strong, Frederic Kim, Eunmi Park, Sunmin Lee
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a lay health worker (LHW) telephone intervention on completing a series of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccinations among foreign-born Asian Americans in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan area. METHODS: During the period of April 2013 and March 2014, we recruited Asian Americans who were 18 years of age and older in the community-based organizations. Of the 645 eligible participants, 600 (201 Chinese, 198 Korean, 201 Vietnamese) completed a pretest survey and received hepatitis B screening...
2016: PloS One
Kali Zhou, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Nick Walsh, Ji Young Kim, Roger Chou, Mellanye Lackey, Julia Scott, Ying-Ru Lo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Advances in therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have ushered in a new era in chronic hepatitis treatment. To maximise the effectiveness of these medicines, individuals must be engaged and retained in care. We analysed operational interventions to enhance chronic viral hepatitis testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, adherence, and viral suppression or cure. METHODS: We did a systematic review of operational interventions, and did meta-analyses for sufficiently comparable data...
September 5, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Lisa M Puchalski Ritchie, Monique van Lettow, Austine Makwakwa, Adrienne K Chan, Jemila S Hamid, Harry Kawonga, Alexandra L C Martiniuk, Michael J Schull, Vanessa van Schoor, Merrick Zwarenstein, Jan Barnsley, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with low- and middle-income countries most affected. In many such settings, including Malawi, the high burden of disease and severe shortage of skilled healthcare workers has led to task-shifting of outpatient TB care to lay health workers (LHWs). LHWs improve access to healthcare and some outcomes, including TB completion rates, but lack of training and supervision limit their impact...
2016: Trials
Kathryn Brubaker, Brett D Nelson, Heather McPherson, Roy Ahn, Monica Oguttu, Thomas F Burke
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the beliefs of men and women in western Kenya regarding the appropriate role of men in maternal health and to identify barriers to greater involvement. METHODS: Between June 1 and July 31, 2014, a cross-sectional qualitative study enrolled lay men, lay women, and community health workers from Kisumu and Nyamira counties in western Kenya. Semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted and qualitative approaches were utilized to analyze the transcripts and identify common themes...
August 17, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Brian J Hall, Ka-Lon Sou, Rachel Beanland, Mellanye Lacky, Lai Sze Tso, Qingyan Ma, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
Retention in HIV care is vital to the HIV care continuum. The current review aimed to synthesize qualitative research to identify facilitators and barriers to HIV retention in care interventions. A qualitative evidence meta-synthesis utilizing thematic analysis. Prospective review registration was made in PROSPERO and review procedures adhered to PRISMA guidelines. Nineteen databases were searched to identify qualitative research conducted with individuals living with HIV and their caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted using CASP and the certainty of the evidence was evaluated using CERQual...
August 31, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Judy Wu-Smart, Marla Spivak
Many factors can negatively affect honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health including the pervasive use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides. Through direct consumption of contaminated nectar and pollen from treated plants, neonicotinoids can affect foraging, learning, and memory in worker bees. Less well studied are the potential effects of neonicotinoids on queen bees, which may be exposed indirectly through trophallaxis, or food-sharing. To assess effects on queen productivity, small colonies of different sizes (1500, 3000, and 7000 bees) were fed imidacloprid (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 ppb) in syrup for three weeks...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rusty Souleymanov, Dan Allman
In this paper, we argue for the importance of unsettling dominant narratives in the current terrain of harm-reduction policy, practice and research. To accomplish this, we trace the historical developments regarding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and harm-reduction policies and practice. We argue that multiple historical junctures rather than single causes of social exclusion engender the processes of marginalisation, propelled by social movements, institutional interests, state legislation, community practices, neo-liberalism and governmentality techniques...
July 2016: British Journal of Social Work
Paul Michael Garrett
In 2013, Michael Gove, then Secretary of State for Education and Health in the UK coalition government, criticised social workers for laying insufficient emphasis on the 'agency' of individuals and for being too preoccupied with social and economic inequalities. Such a perspective, which is not unique to Gove, needs to be countered by reaffirming the significance of an expansively critical sociology for social work. In this context, the thematic concerns of the French theorist, Loïc Wacquant, illuminates key aspects of social work engagement with clients which Gove and his ideological associates appear intent on ignoring...
June 2016: British Journal of Social Work
Allison Squires, S Jennifer Uyei, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Simon A Jones
BACKGROUND: A key component to achieving good patient outcomes is having the right type and number of healthcare professionals with the right resources. Lack of investment in infrastructure required for producing and retaining adequate numbers of health professionals is one reason, and contextual factors related to socioeconomic development may further explain the trend. Therefore, this study sought to explore the relationships between country-level contextual factors and healthcare human resource production (defined as worker-to-population ratio) across 184 countries...
2016: Human Resources for Health
Pius Krütli, Thomas Rosemann, Kjell Y Törnblom, Timo Smieszek
BACKGROUND: Societies are facing medical resource scarcities, inter alia due to increased life expectancy and limited health budgets and also due to temporal or continuous physical shortages of resources like donor organs. This makes it challenging to meet the medical needs of all. Ethicists provide normative guidance for how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, but legitimate decisions require additionally information regarding what the general public considers to be fair. The purpose of this study was to explore how lay people, general practitioners, medical students and other health professionals evaluate the fairness of ten allocation principles for scarce medical resources: 'sickest first', 'waiting list', 'prognosis', 'behaviour' (i...
2016: PloS One
P A Braun, D O Quissell, W G Henderson, L L Bryant, S E Gregorich, C George, N Toledo, D Cudeii, V Smith, N Johs, J Cheng, M Rasmussen, N F Cheng, W Santo, T Batliner, A Wilson, A Brega, R Roan, K Lind, T Tiwari, S Shain, G Schaffer, M Harper, S M Manson, J Albino
The authors tested the effectiveness of a community-based, tribally delivered oral health promotion (OHP) intervention (INT) at reducing caries increment in Navajo children attending Head Start. In a 3-y cluster-randomized trial, we developed an OHP INT with Navajo input that was delivered by trained Navajo lay health workers to children attending 52 Navajo Head Start classrooms (26 INT, 26 usual care [UC]). The INT was designed as a highly personalized set of oral health-focused interactions (5 for children and 4 for parents), along with 4 fluoride varnish applications delivered in Head Start during academic years of 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Andrew Scheibe, Simon Howell, Alexandra Müller, Munyaradzi Katumba, Bram Langen, Lillian Artz, Monique Marks
INTRODUCTION: Sex workers, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and transgender people in South Africa frequently experience high levels of stigma, abuse and discrimination. Evidence suggests that such abuse is sometimes committed by police officers, meaning that those charged with protection are perpetrators. This reinforces cycles of violence, increases the risk of HIV infection, undermines HIV prevention and treatment interventions and violates the constitutional prescriptions that the police are mandated to protect...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Abiola O Olaleye, Yolisa Tsibolane, Lydia Van-Turha, Sibongile Monareng, Perpetual Chikobvu, Mohlouoa Sam Boleme, Celicia Serenata
Although HIV/AIDS constitute a significant health burden among children in South Africa, testing and counselling of exposed children are inadequate. It is therefore imperative that factors relating to paediatric HCT services offered by health workers are examined. This study was conducted to explore and describe the perceptions and experiences of trained professional nurses regarding HIV counselling and testing among children. We conducted six focus group discussions among trained professional nurses in health facilities in a district in Free State Province, South Africa...
March 2016: AIDS Care
Tarun Gera, Dheeraj Shah, Paul Garner, Marty Richardson, Harshpal S Sachdev
BACKGROUND: More than 7.5 million children younger than age five living in low- and middle-income countries die every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve quality of care by improving the delivery of a variety of curative and preventive medical and behavioral interventions at health facilities, at home, and in the community. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of programs that implement the IMCI strategy in terms of death, nutritional status, quality of care, coverage with IMCI deliverables, and satisfaction of beneficiaries...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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