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James Buxbaum, Michael Quezada, Bradford Chong, Nikhil Gupta, Chung Yao Yu, Christianne Lane, Ben Da, Kenneth Leung, Ira Shulman, Stephen Pandol, Bechien Wu
OBJECTIVES: The Pancreatitis Activity Scoring System (PASS) has been derived by an international group of experts via a modified Delphi process. Our aim was to perform an external validation study to assess for concordance of the PASS score with high face validity clinical outcomes and determine specific meaningful thresholds to assist in application of this scoring system in a large prospectively ascertained cohort. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients admitted to the Los Angeles County Hospital between March 2015 and March 2017...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Daniel Isacson, Karl Andreasson, Maziar Nikberg, Kenneth Smedh, Abbas Chabok
PURPOSE: Outpatient management without antibiotics has been shown to be safe for selected patients diagnosed with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on admissions, complication rates and health-care costs of the policy of outpatient treatment without using antibiotics. METHODS: The medical records of all patients diagnosed with AUD in the year before (2011) and after (2014) the implementation of outpatient management without antibiotics in Västmanland County were reviewed...
March 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Clarice Okumu, Boniface Oyugi
BACKGROUND: This study intended to compare the clients' satisfaction with the quality of childbirth services in a private and public facility amongst mothers who have delivered within the last twenty four to seventy hours. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional comparative research design with both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Data were collected through a focused group discussion guide and structured questionnaire collecting information on clients' satisfaction with quality of childbirth services...
2018: PloS One
Balázs Bánky, Miklós Lakatos, Krisztina Varga, Edit Hansági, Éva Horváth, Géza Járay
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme has been described and practiced for twenty years in the perioperative management of colorectal patients. ERAS is a complex, evidence based strategy which proved to be extremely effective when linked to laparoscopy in reducing morbidity, length of hospital stay, as well as reducing cost of colorectal service. AIMS: We gradually adapted elements of ERAS protocol along with laparoscopy in the colorectal surgical treatment at a county hospital from 2013...
March 2018: Magyar Sebészet
David W Morris, Subroto Ghose, Ella Williams, Kevin Brown, Fuad Khan
Introduction: Hospital emergency departments (EDs) around the country are being challenged by an ever-increasing volume of patients seeking psychiatric services. This manuscript describes a study performed to identify internal and external factors contributing to repeated psychiatric patient admissions to the hospital main ED. Methods: Data from ED visits of patients who were admitted to the Parkland Memorial Hospital ED (the community hospital for Dallas County, TX, USA) with a psychiatric complaint more than once within a 30-day period were evaluated (n=202)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yi Wang, Hao Fan, Rudy Banerjee, Anne M Weaver, Michael Weiner
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases disease risk in older adults. Nursing facilities located near major roadways potentially expose older adults to traffic pollution. No studies, however, have described the association between nursing facilities and traffic pollution. We obtained data on facility- and census-tract-level characteristics of 15,706 U.S. facilities from the Medicare Nursing Home Compare datasets. We calculated distance to major roadways and traffic density for each facility. In the contiguous U...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Joe D Piper, Salim Mwarumba, Moses Ngari, Benedict Mvera, Susan Morpeth, James A Berkley
For children with acute malnutrition, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lifesaving treatments. In 2012, detailed testing detected Enterobacteriaceae including Cronobacter species at low levels in RUTF from all UNICEF-approved producers. Cronobacter in milk feeds has previously been associated with severe neonatal infections. Thus, given the susceptibility of severely malnourished children to invasive bacterial infections, concerns arose about the potential for Cronobacter infections from RUTF. This led to widespread production and supply problems in emergency feeding programmes...
March 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Anny Lam, Magnus Rasmussen, Olof Thompson
BACKGROUND/AIM: Streptococci cause approximately 10% of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of patients with streptococcal PJIs and to describe the treatment and outcome of streptococcal PJIs in Skåne county between 2011 and 2015. METHODS: Patients with streptococcal PJIs with positive cultures or PCRs on samples from joint aspirate and/or periprosthetic tissue between 2011 and 2015 in Skåne county, were identified and medical records were studied...
March 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Lizhong Peng, Chad Meyerhoefer, Shin-Yi Chou
We investigate the health impacts of unconventional natural gas development of Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania between 2001 and 2013 by merging well permit data from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection with a database of all inpatient hospital admissions. After comparing changes in hospitalization rates over time for air pollution-sensitive diseases in counties with unconventional gas wells to changes in hospitalization rates in nonwell counties, we find a significant association between shale gas development and hospitalizations for pneumonia among the elderly, which is consistent with higher levels of air pollution resulting from unconventional natural gas development...
March 13, 2018: Health Economics
Jie Tian, Yong-Liang Liu, Yan Jiang
Objective To investigate the correlation between the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR) and the air quality in Zibo area. Methods The number of AR cases in the outpatient departments of eight hospitals in five districts and three counties of Zibo city from January 2014 to December 2016 and the monthly change of the air pollution index (API) in Zibo area provided by Zibo Environment Protection Bureau during the same period were analyzed.Results The highest AR visit rates were recorded in April,May,and December,and the API was the highest in November,December,and January...
February 28, 2018: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Shuang Liu, Jing Wang, Liang Zhang, Xiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: In China, increases in both the caesarean section (CS) rates and delivery costs have raised questions regarding the reform of the medical insurance payment system. Case payment is useful for regulating the behaviour of health providers and for controlling the CS rates and excessive increases in medical expenses. New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) agencies in Xi County in Henan Province piloted a case payment reform (CPR) in delivery for inpatients. We aimed to observe the changes in the CS rates, compare the changes in delivery-related variables, and identify variables related to delivery costs before and after the CPR in Xi County...
March 9, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Katy B Kozhimannil, Peiyin Hung, Carrie Henning-Smith, Michelle M Casey, Shailendra Prasad
Importance: Hospital-based obstetric services have decreased in rural US counties, but whether this has been associated with changes in birth location and outcomes is unknown. Objective: To examine the relationship between loss of hospital-based obstetric services and location of childbirth and birth outcomes in rural counties. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study, using county-level regression models in an annual interrupted time series approach...
March 8, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ann Lögde, Gudrun Rudolfsson, Roma Runesson Broberg, Anna Rask-Andersen, Robert Wålinder, Erebouni Arakelian
The lack of specialist nurses in operating theatres is a serious problem. The aim of this study was to describe reasons why specialist nurses in perioperative care chose to leave their workplaces and to describe the process from the thought to the decision. Twenty specialist nurses (i.e. anaesthesia, NA, and operating room nurses) from seven university- and county hospitals in Sweden participated in qualitative individual in-depth interviews. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation. We identified four themes of reasons why specialist nurses quitted their jobs: the head nurses' betrayal and dismissive attitude, and not feeling needed; inhumane working conditions leading to the negative health effects; not being free to decide about one's life and family life being more important than work; and, colleagues' diminishing behaviour...
March 6, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
S Jie, M Xiao-Jun, C Wei-Xuan
Objective To investigate the capabilities of Plasmodium microscopic examinations of professional staff in medical institutions in Wuxi City, so as to provide evidences for improving malaria control and elimination work in the future. Methods The data of questionnaires for laboratorial staff in charge of Plasmodium microscopic examinations were collected and analyzed in the medical institutions in Wuxi City in 2016, and the influencing factors related to the capabilities of Plasmodium microscopic examinations were analyzed by the method of logistic regression...
June 9, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
C Yan-Qiang, P Zhi-Zhao, L I Yun, J Cai-Xiao, L Li
Objective To analyze the overseas imported malaria situation of Shijiazhuang City from 2012 to 2015, so as to provide the evidence for exploring the prevention and control strategy. Methods The data of overseas imported malaria were collected and analyzed with the descriptive method including Plasmodium species, population characteristics, epidemic focus distribution, onset time, diagnosis and treatment in Shijiazhuang City from 2012 to 2015, and the time from the onset to first medical visit, time from first medical visit to being diagnosed, and time from onset to being diagnosed of different Plasmodium species were analyzed respectively with the statistical analysis method...
July 18, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Mahat Jimale Mohamed, Sophie Ochola, Victor O Owino
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding for 2 years of age or beyond. There is paucity of information on the disparity in Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) on EBF between primiparous and multiparous mothers. This study compared the KAP on EBF between primiparous and multiparous mothers attending Wajir County Hospital, Wajir County, Kenya and investigated the association between maternal knowledge and attitudes and EBF...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Adobea Y Owusu, Amos Laar
As of December 2015 there were 37 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), 70% of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana, which contributes a relatively small number to Africa's HIV burden, has a generalised HIV epidemic. The current national prevalence is 1.47%. Agormanya, one of the HIV sentinel sites in the county and where this study was conducted, has current prevalence of 11.6%. This makes it critical to explore how persons infected with HIV manage their lives, especially in the midst of entrenched stigma and discrimination...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Michelle Biehl, Adil Ahmed, Rahul Kashyap, Amelia Barwise, Ognjen Gajic
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term survival of patients at similar risk for hospital-acquired acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who did and did not develop ARDS. METHODS: We conducted long-term follow-up of a population-based nested case-control study in a consecutive cohort of adult Olmsted County, Minnesota, patients admitted from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010. Patients in whom ARDS developed during their hospital stay (cases) were matched to similar-risk patients without ARDS (controls) by 6 characteristics: age, sex, sepsis, high-risk surgery, ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen, and ARDS risk according to the Lung Injury Prediction Score...
February 27, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Morris Ogero, Philip Ayieko, Boniface Makone, Thomas Julius, Lucas Malla, Jacquie Oliwa, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Background: Measurement and correct interpretation of vital signs is part of routine clinical care. Repeated measurement enhances early recognition of deterioration, may help prevent morbidity and mortality and is a standard of care in most countries. Objective: To examine documentation of vital signs by clinicians for admissions to paediatric wards in Kenyan hospitals, to describe monitoring frequency by nurses and explore factors influencing frequency. Methods: Vital signs information (temperature, respiratory and pulse rate) for the first 48 hours of admission was collected from case records of children admitted with non-surgical conditions to 13 Kenyan county hospitals between September 2013 and April 2016...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Dustin Heaton, Sandra Huang, Rita Shiau, Shannon Casillas, Anne Straily, Li Kuo Kong, Valerie Ng, Viviana Petru
On January 15, 2017, a hospital physician notified the Alameda County Public Health Department (ACPHD) in California of a patient with a suspected diagnosis of trichinellosis, a roundworm disease transmitted by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella spp. larvae (1). A family member of the initial patient reported that at least three other friends and family members had been evaluated at area hospitals for fever, myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients had attended a celebration on December 28, 2016, at which several pork dishes were served, including larb, a traditional Laotian raw pork dish, leading the hospital physician to suspect a diagnosis of trichinellosis...
March 2, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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