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Adult learning theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779433/age-differences-in-the-neural-response-to-negative-feedback
#1
Holly J Bowen, Cheryl L Grady, Julia Spaniol
Affective processing is one domain that remains relatively intact in healthy aging. Investigations into the neural responses associated with reward anticipation have revealed that older and younger adults recruit the same midbrain reward regions, but other evidence suggests this recruitment may differ depending on the valence (gain, loss) of the incentive cue. The goal of the current study was to examine functional covariance during gain and loss feedback in younger and healthy older adults. A group of 15 older adults (mean age = 68...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768942/updated-meta-review-of-evidence-on-support-for-carers
#2
Jane Dalton, Sian Thomas, Melissa Harden, Alison Eastwood, Gillian Parker
Objective To update a 2010 meta-review of systematic reviews of effective interventions to support carers of ill, disabled, or older adults. In this article, we report the most promising interventions based on the best available evidence. Methods Rapid meta-review of systematic reviews published from January 2009 to 2016. Results Sixty-one systematic reviews were included (27 high quality, 25 medium quality, and nine low quality). The quality of reviews has improved since the original review, but primary studies remain limited in quality and quantity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764640/development-implementation-and-impact-of-a-collaborative-junior-faculty-engagement-and-professional-growth-program-the-young-faculty-leadership-initiative
#3
Adam Pate, Jennifer Smith, David Caldwell, Alexis Horace, Michelle Zagar
PURPOSE: To develop, implement, and evaluate the effect of a faculty engagement and professional growth program targeted at junior faculty members. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY: A faculty engagement and growth program based on adult learning theory was piloted in a clinical sciences department. Effect of the model was evaluated using a pre/post-survey evaluating faculty output and work engagement using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). FINDINGS: Average number of publications/projects with cross-campus collaboration increased (0...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736183/universality-of-clone-dynamics-during-tissue-development
#4
Steffen Rulands, Fabienne Lescroart, Samira Chabab, Christopher J Hindley, Nicole Prior, Magdalena K Sznurkowska, Meritxell Huch, Anna Philpott, Cedric Blanpain, Benjamin D Simons
The emergence of complex organs is driven by the coordinated proliferation, migration and differentiation of precursor cells. The fate behaviour of these cells is reflected in the time evolution their progeny, termed clones, which serve as a key experimental observable. In adult tissues, where cell dynamics is constrained by the condition of homeostasis, clonal tracing studies based on transgenic animal models have advanced our understanding of cell fate behaviour and its dysregulation in disease (1, 2). But what can be learned from clonal dynamics in development, where the spatial cohesiveness of clones is impaired by tissue deformations during tissue growth? Drawing on the results of clonal tracing studies, we show that, despite the complexity of organ development, clonal dynamics may converge to a critical state characterized by universal scaling behaviour of clone sizes...
May 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729857/development-of-a-patient-centered-video-series-to-improve-education-before-kidney-transplantation
#5
Nicola Rosaasen, Rahul Mainra, Azaad Kukha-Bryson, Victoria Nhin, Paraag Trivedi, Ahmed Shoker, Jay Wilson, Raj Padmanabh, Holly Mansell
BACKGROUND: Inadequate patient knowledge about transplantation can result in low patient satisfaction and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of this patient-oriented research project was to develop an educational intervention for patients awaiting kidney transplantation. METHODS: An educational intervention was developed by patients and health care providers, experts in medication adherence, video education, motivational psychology, and cultural education...
April 26, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685863/a-mobile-gaming-intervention-to-increase-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-for-youth-living-with-hiv-development-guided-by-the-information-motivation-and-behavioral-skills-model
#6
Laura Whiteley, Larry Brown, Michelle Lally, Nicholas Heck, Jacob J van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Highly active combination antiretroviral treatment has been shown to markedly improve the health of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment leads to decreased morbidity and mortality and decreases the number of hospitalizations. However, these clinical achievements can only occur when young persons with HIV are adherent to care. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults have poorer rates of adherence to antiretroviral medications and poorer rates of retention in care than older adults...
April 23, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683794/the-mount-sinai-international-enhancement-of-social-work-leadership-program-the-past-and-the-future
#7
Elisa Gordon, Karen Green, Louisa Whitwam, Irwin Epstein, Susan Bernstein
Developed in 1988, the Mount Sinai International Enhancement of Social Work Leadership Program brings 4-6 social workers from several countries each year to the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where they meet with leaders from the hospital, community based organizations and graduate schools of social work, to enhance their leadership ability, strengthen management and research skills, and build upon global social work relationships. This article reviews the results of a survey conducted in 2016 to assess whether the visiting scholars met established learning objectives of the Program...
July 2018: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681473/tracing-the-trajectory-of-sensory-plasticity-across-different-stages-of-speech-learning-in-adulthood
#8
Rachel Reetzke, Zilong Xie, Fernando Llanos, Bharath Chandrasekaran
Although challenging, adults can learn non-native phonetic contrasts with extensive training [1, 2], indicative of perceptual learning beyond an early sensitivity period [3, 4]. Training can alter low-level sensory encoding of newly acquired speech sound patterns [5]; however, the time-course, behavioral relevance, and long-term retention of such sensory plasticity is unclear. Some theories argue that sensory plasticity underlying signal enhancement is immediate and critical to perceptual learning [6, 7]. Others, like the reverse hierarchy theory (RHT), posit a slower time-course for sensory plasticity [8]...
April 18, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627718/cognitive-flexibility-and-memory-in-pigeons-human-children-and-adults
#9
Kevin P Darby, Leyre Castro, Edward A Wasserman, Vladimir M Sloutsky
This work examines cognitive flexibility using a comparative approach. Pigeons (Experiment 1), human children (Experiment 2a), and human adults (Experiment 2b) performed a task that required changing responses to the same stimuli twice across the experiment. The results indicate that all three groups demonstrated robust memory for learned information. In addition, pigeons showed comparable and substantial perseveration following both response shifts. In contrast, both children and adults exhibited some perseveration following a first response shift, while exhibiting no cost following the second response shift...
April 5, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614190/the-value-of-peer-mentorship-as-an-educational-strategy-in-nursing
#10
Tannis Andersen, Kathy Watkins
BACKGROUND: The emphasis of this article is to provide nursing instructors with a valuable educational strategy grounded in andragogical principles for reflection and implementation in their educational practice. METHOD: An expository review of the value of peer mentorship as an educational strategy that fits within the humanistic adult education philosophy and social constructivism theory was conducted. RESULTS: The value in peer mentorship is greatest for nursing students as mentors and mentees, predominantly in encouraging self-directed learning, building relationships, providing emotional and educational support, and developing collaboration and leadership skills...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608079/learning-nonadjacent-dependencies-embedded-in-sentences-of-an-artificial-language-when-learning-breaks-down
#11
Felix Hao Wang, Toben H Mintz
The structure of natural languages give rise to many dependencies in the linear sequences of words, and within words themselves. Detecting these dependencies is arguably critical for young children in learning the underlying structure of their language. There is considerable evidence that human adults and infants are sensitive to the statistical properties of sequentially adjacent items. However, the conditions under which learners detect nonadjacent dependencies (NADs) appears to be much more limited. This has resulted in proposals that the kinds of learning mechanisms learners deploy in processing adjacent dependencies are fundamentally different from those deployed in learning NADs...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590239/instructional-design-in-the-development-of-an-online-course-on-basic-life-support
#12
Lucia Tobase, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto Peres, Denise Maria de Almeida, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli Tomazini, Meire Bruna Ramos, Thatiane Facholi Polastri
OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate an online course on Basic Life Support. METHOD: Technological production research of online course guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) instructional design model based on Andragogy and the Meaningful Learning Theory. The online course was constructed in the platform Moodle, previously assessed by a group of experts, and then presented to the students of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo, who assessed it at the end of the course...
March 26, 2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577771/a-participatory-process-to-engage-appalachian-youth-in-reducing-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption
#13
Hannah G Lane, Kathleen J Porter, Erin Hecht, Priscilla Harris, Jamie M Zoellner
Children and adolescents consume excessive amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which are associated with adverse health outcomes. We describe a yearlong participatory research study to reduce SSBs in Central Appalachia, where excessive consumption is particularly prevalent. This study was conducted in partnership with a community advisory board in Southwest Virginia. Nine "youth ambassadors," aged 10 to 13 years helped to systematically adapt SIPsmartER, an effective theory-based program for Appalachian adults, to be age and culturally appropriate and meet desired theoretical objectives...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527087/the-influences-of-described-and-experienced-information-on-adolescent-risky-decision-making
#14
Gail M Rosenbaum, Vinod Venkatraman, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Adolescents are known to take more risks than adults, which can be harmful to their health and well-being. However, despite age differences in real-world risk taking, laboratory risk-taking paradigms often do not evince these developmental patterns. Recent findings in the literature suggest that this inconsistency may be due in part to differences between how adolescents process information about risk when it is described (e.g., in a description-based classroom intervention) versus when it is experienced (e...
March 2018: Developmental Review: DR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465450/gamification-in-action-theoretical-and-practical-considerations-for-medical-educators
#15
Chrystal Rutledge, Catharine M Walsh, Nathan Swinger, Marc Auerbach, Danny Castro, Maya Dewan, Mona Khattab, Alyssa Rake, Ilana Harwayne-Gidansky, Tia T Raymond, Tensing Maa, Todd P Chang
Gamification involves the application of game design elements to traditionally non-game contexts. It is increasingly being used as an adjunct to traditional teaching strategies in medical education to engage the millennial learner and enhance adult learning. The extant literature has focused on determining whether the implementation of gamification results in better learning outcomes, leading to a dearth of research examining its theoretical underpinnings within the medical education context. The authors define gamification, explore how gamification works within the medical education context using self-determination theory as an explanatory mechanism for enhanced engagement and motivation, and discuss common roadblocks and challenges to implementing gamification...
February 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446561/the-role-of-play-objects-and-object-play-in-human-cognitive-evolution-and-innovation
#16
Felix Riede, Niels N Johannsen, Anders Högberg, April Nowell, Marlize Lombard
In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life-history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche-construction perspective. Niche-construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures...
January 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444084/attributional-style-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-male-prison-sample
#17
Danny J O'Sullivan, Maura E O'Sullivan, Brendan D O'Connell, Ken O'Reilly, Kiran M Sarma
The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422713/teaching-patient-centered-counseling-skills-for-assessment-diagnosis-and-management-of-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#18
REVIEW
Anna Marie Jilla, Richard A Roberts, Carole E Johnson
Audiologists are an integral part of the management of those with dizziness and vestibular disorders. However, little research has been performed on counseling approaches for patients who present with dizziness as a primary concern. Accordingly, it is important that audiology students are provided with didactic and experiential learning opportunities for the assessment, diagnosis, and management of this population. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common vestibular disorder among adults. Doctor of Audiology students, at a minimum, should be provided with learning opportunities for counseling patients with this particular disorder...
February 2018: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405653/spatial-navigation-from-same-and-different-directions-the-role-of-executive-functions-memory-and-attention-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Olivier de Condappa, Jan M Wiener, Dermot M Bowler
To resolve some of the inconsistencies in existing research into spatial navigation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we tested two large age- and ability-matched groups of ASD and typically developing (TD) participants for their spatial navigation abilities in a route learning task, which has been shown to shed light on the strategies participants employ when navigating complex environments. Participants studied a route through a virtual maze by watching a short video of a first-person perspective navigating a maze...
February 5, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400250/-the-journey-i-have-been-through-the-role-of-religion-and-spirituality-in-aging-well-among-hiv-positive-older-adults
#20
Charles A Emlet, Lesley Harris, Christina M Pierpaoli, Charles Furlotte
The National Institutes of Health human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Aging Working Group identified spirituality as a research emphasis. This qualitative study examines the importance of religion and spirituality among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory, adults 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada, through AIDS service organizations, clinics, and community agencies. Descriptions of religion and spirituality encapsulated the idea of a journey, which had two components: the long-term HIV survivor profile combined with the experience of aging itself...
March 2018: Research on Aging
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