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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910723/powered-mobility-intervention-understanding-the-position-of-tool-use-learning-as-part-of-implementing-the-alp-tool
#1
Lisbeth Nilsson, Josephine Durkin
PURPOSE: To explore the knowledge necessary for adoption and implementation of the Assessment of Learning Powered mobility use (ALP) tool in different practice settings for both adults and children. To consult with a diverse population of professionals working with adults and children, in different countries and various settings; who were learning about or using the ALP tool, as part of exploring and implementing research findings. METHOD: Classical grounded theory with a rigorous comparative analysis of data from informants together with reflections on our own rich experiences of powered mobility practice and comparisons with the literature...
December 2, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882595/children-s-representation-and-imitation-of-events-how-goal-organization-influences-3-year-old-children-s-memory-for-action-sequences
#2
Jeff Loucks, Christina Mutschler, Andrew N Meltzoff
Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is organized according to veridical serial order or a higher level goal structure. Children were randomly assigned to learn novel event sequences either through interactive hands-on experience (Study 1) or via storybook (Study 2)...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826267/social-pre-treatment-modulates-attention-allocation-to-transient-and-stable-object-properties
#3
Katalin Oláh, Fruzsina Elekes, Borbála Turcsán, Orsolya Kis, József Topál
Increasing evidence suggests that ostensive-communicative signals in social learning situations enable observers to focus their attention on the intrinsic features of an object (e.g., color) at the expense of ignoring transient object properties (e.g., location). Here we investigated whether off-line social cues, presented as social primes, have the same power to modulate attention allocation to stable and transient object properties as on-line ostensive-communicative cues. The first part of the experiment consisted of a pre-treatment phase, where adult male participants either received intensive social stimulation or were asked to perform non-social actions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798016/supporting-the-provision-of-palliative-care-in-the-home-environment-a-proof-of-concept-single-arm-trial-of-a-palliative-carers-education-package-precept
#4
Liz Forbat, Erna Haraldsdottir, Marsha Lewis, Ken Hepburn
INTRODUCTION: Practical educational interventions for palliative carers are needed. Current supports frequently rely on carers travelling to a central venue to receive education. A substantial gap therefore exists around determining how high-quality relevant information can be delivered nationally, with limited cost implications, using educational methods that are acceptable to carers in palliative care. This study seeks to design and assess feasibility and acceptability of a distance-learning approach to educating carers...
October 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764977/optimizing-engagement-in-goal-pursuit-with-youth-with-physical-disabilities-attending-life-skills-and-transition-programs-an-exploratory-study
#5
Eric Smart, Adeeta Aulakh, Carolyn McDougall, Patty Rigby, Gillian King
PURPOSE: Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was informed by a prior observation session, and the second occurred after the program ended and explored youths' perceptions of whether and how their engagement changed...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746215/developmental-hearing-loss-impedes-auditory-task-learning-and-performance-in-gerbils
#6
Gardiner von Trapp, Ishita Aloni, Stephen Young, Malcolm N Semple, Dan H Sanes
The consequences of developmental hearing loss have been reported to include both sensory and cognitive deficits. To investigate these issues in a non-human model, auditory learning and asymptotic psychometric performance were compared between normal hearing (NH) adult gerbils and those reared with conductive hearing loss (CHL). At postnatal day 10, before ear canal opening, gerbil pups underwent bilateral malleus removal to induce a permanent CHL. Both CHL and control animals were trained to approach a water spout upon presentation of a target (Go stimuli), and withhold for foils (Nogo stimuli)...
October 13, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724852/describing-complex-clinical-scenarios-at-the-bed-side-is-a-systems-science-approach-useful-exploring-a-novel-diagrammatic-approach-to-facilitate-clinical-reasoning
#7
Saroj Jayasinghe
Clinicians often encounter patients having complex clinical scenarios (CCS) where diverse and dynamic diagnostic and therapeutic issues interact. A limited range of bedside methods are available to describe such patients and most often it is a diagnostic summary, a problem list, or a list of differential diagnoses. These methods fail to portray the interconnected nature of CCCs. They prevent visualization of a system of networks or a web of causation operative in CCSs.A more holistic conceptualization is required and the author argues for an approach based on systems science...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721103/selective-attention-diffused-attention-and-the-development-of-categorization
#8
Wei Sophia Deng, Vladimir M Sloutsky
How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708679/development-of-foraging-skills-in-two-orangutan-populations-needing-to-learn-or-needing-to-grow
#9
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia I F Forss, Ellen J M Meulman, Nicole Zweifel, Kevin C Lee, Evasari Rukmana, Erin R Vogel, Maria A van Noordwijk, Carel P van Schaik
BACKGROUND: Orangutans have one of the slowest-paced life histories of all mammals. Whereas life-history theory suggests that the time to reach adulthood is constrained by the time needed to reach adult body size, the needing-to-learn hypothesis instead suggests that it is limited by the time needed to acquire adult-level skills. To test between these two hypotheses, we compared the development of foraging skills and growth trajectories of immature wild orangutans in two populations: at Tuanan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), Borneo, and Suaq Balimbing (Pongo abelii), Sumatra...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662265/development-of-a-communication-intervention-for-older-adults-with-limited-health-literacy-photo-stories-to-support-doctor-patient-communication
#10
Ruth Koops van 't Jagt, Andrea F de Winter, Sijmen A Reijneveld, John C J Hoeks, Carel J M Jansen
Successful doctor-patient communication relies on appropriate levels of communicative health literacy, the ability to deal with and communicate about health information. This article aims to describe the development of a narrative- and picture-based health literacy intervention intended to support older patients with limited health literacy when communicating during their primary care consultations. We performed a formative evaluation that included a review of the literature and interviews with stakeholders on relevant health literacy issues, qualitative studies with the target group, intervention planning, and a small-scale evaluation...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640910/weekly-e-mailed-teaching-tips-and-reading-material-influence-teaching-among-general-surgery-residents
#11
Ammara A Watkins, Stephen P Gondek, Kiran H Lagisetty, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Sidharta P Gangadharan, Michael J Cahalane, Tara S Kent
BACKGROUND: A nonintrusive e-mail reminder incorporating teaching tips and manuscripts was developed to supplement resident-as-teacher curricula. METHODS: Ten high-yield manuscripts and 10 teaching tips exemplifying the themes of mentorship or role modeling, teaching methods, adult learning theory, feedback, and the resident role of teaching were distributed to general surgery house staff through a weekly e-mail series. House staff completed surveys before and after the 20-week e-mail series...
July 9, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632387/japanese-and-canadian-children-s-beliefs-about-child-and-adult-knowledge-a-case-for-developmental-equifinality
#12
Stanka A Fitneva, Elizabeth Pile Ho, Misako Hatayama
Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628300/cigarette-smoking-and-depression-comorbidity-systematic-review-and-proposed-theoretical-model
#13
REVIEW
Amanda R Mathew, Lee Hogarth, Adam M Leventhal, Jessica W Cook, Brian Hitsman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite decades of research on co-occurring smoking and depression, cessation rates remain consistently lower for depressed smokers than for smokers in the general population, highlighting the need for theory-driven models of smoking and depression. This paper provides a systematic review with a particular focus upon psychological states that disproportionately motivate smoking in depression, and frame an incentive learning theory account of smoking-depression co-occurrence...
September 15, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608672/exploring-the-occupational-therapist-s-role-in-primary-health-care-listening-to-voices-of-stakeholders
#14
Deshini Naidoo, Jacqueline Van Wyk, Robin W E Joubert
BACKGROUND: Re-engineering of primary healthcare (PHC) was initiated nationally in 2009. There is, however, little information on the role expected of occupational therapists (OTs)in PHC. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to understand how stakeholders of the Department of Health (DOH) perceived the role of OT in PHC service. METHOD: This exploratory, qualitative study used purposive sampling to recruit community health-care workers (CHW; n = 23), primary healthcare nurses (PHC; n = 5), DOH management (n = 5), experienced (n = 14) and novice OTs (n = 37) who graduated from the University of KwaZulu-Natal...
August 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607526/understanding-the-patient-experience-through-the-power-of-film-a-mixed-method-qualitative-research-study
#15
Sherri Ogston-Tuck, Kath Baume, Chris Clarke, Simon Heng
BACKGROUND: For decades film has proved to be a powerful form of communication. Whether produced as entertainment, art or documentary, films have the capacity to inform and move us. Films are a highly attractive teaching instrument and an appropriate teaching method in health education. It is a valuable tool for studying situations most transcendental to human beings such as pain, disease and death. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine how this helps students engage with their role as health care professionals; to determine how they view the personal experience of illness, disease, disability or death; and to determine how this may impact upon their provision of patient care...
November 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605394/predicting-cyberbullying-perpetration-in-emerging-adults-a-theoretical-test-of-the-barlett-gentile-cyberbullying-model
#16
Christopher Barlett, Kristina Chamberlin, Zachary Witkower
The Barlett and Gentile Cyberbullying Model (BGCM) is a learning-based theory that posits the importance of positive cyberbullying attitudes predicting subsequent cyberbullying perpetration. Furthermore, the tenants of the BGCM state that cyberbullying attitude are likely to form when the online aggressor believes that the online environment allows individuals of all physical sizes to harm others and they are perceived as anonymous. Past work has tested parts of the BGCM; no study has used longitudinal methods to examine this model fully...
September 7, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598494/-the-opinion-of-psychiatry-residents-about-social-interaction-during-the-feedback-in-medical-education
#17
Patricia Rubí G, Luis De la Barra V, Hardy Schaefer A
UNLABELLED: In Medical Education, feedback is an instrument that informs the trainees about their learning process and how to make the necessary changes. Feedback enables learners to monitor their progress and provides direction for improvement. Effective feedback is useful to improve the performance, clinical skills, communication skills, and treatment of patients. It is essential when teaching clinical interview skills to psychiatry residents. Feedback necessarily involves social interaction between teachers and trainees...
June 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587287/the-impact-of-psychosocial-stress-on-conceptual-knowledge-retrieval
#18
Christian J Merz, Florian Dietsch, Michael Schneider
The acquisition of conceptual knowledge in scientific domains is among the central aims of school instruction because this semantic declarative knowledge helps individuals make interferences and explain complex phenomena. Recent research shows that naïve concepts acquired during childhood persist in long-term memory long after learning the scientifically correct concepts in school. In this study, we investigated the effects of stress on the retrieval of these conceptual representations. To this end, 40 healthy men were randomly assigned to either psychosocial stress or a control condition and evaluated, as quickly and accurately as possible, statements that were compatible with scientific concepts or incompatible with those concepts...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583998/using-interprofessional-learning-for-continuing-education-development-and-evaluation-of-the-graduate-certificate-program-in-health-professional-education-for-clinicians
#19
Saras Henderson, Megan Dalton, Jennifer Cartmel
INTRODUCTION: Health professionals may be expert clinicians but do not automatically make effective teachers and need educational development. In response, a team of health academics at an Australian university developed and evaluated the continuing education Graduate Certificate in Health Professional Education Program using an interprofessional learning model. METHODS: The model was informed by Collins interactional expertise and Knowles adult learning theories...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565653/judgment-of-learning-accuracy-in-high-functioning-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Catherine Grainger, David M Williams, Sophie E Lind
This study explored whether adults and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulties making metacognitive judgments, specifically judgments of learning. Across two experiments, the study examined whether individuals with ASD could accurately judge whether they had learnt a piece of information (in this case word pairs). In Experiment 1, adults with ASD demonstrated typical accuracy on a standard 'cue-alone' judgment of learning (JOL) task, compared to age- and IQ-matched neurotypical adults...
November 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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