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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413687/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-1-borderline-personality-disorder-as-a-limitation-of-resilience
#1
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
This paper sets out a recent transition in our thinking in relation to psychopathology associated with personality disorder, in an approach that integrates our thinking about attachment, mentalizing (understanding ourselves and others in terms of intentional mental states) and epistemic trust (openness to the reception of social communication that is personally relevant and of generalizable significance) with recent findings on the structure of both adult and child psychopathology and resilience. In this paper - the first of two parts - we review evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or p factor underlies vulnerability for psychopathology...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403701/education-must-evolve-to-equip-students-for-reality
#2
Robert Shelswell
Any emergency nurse (EN) will tell you that their learning truly began the day they first started work in an emergency department (ED). Despite all the training during a nursing degree course, it is only when an EN is exposed to the waiting room or the ambulance bay of the ED that they can start relating clinical theory to the reality of injured and sick adults and children at their most vulnerable.
April 13, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385683/the-multimodal-assessment-of-adult-attachment-security-developing-the-biometric-attachment-test
#3
Federico Parra, Raphaële Miljkovitch, Gwenaelle Persiaux, Michelle Morales, Stefan Scherer
BACKGROUND: Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383932/who-needs-innate-ability-to-succeed-in-math-and-literacy-academic-domain-specific-theories-of-intelligence-about-peers-versus-adults
#4
Elizabeth A Gunderson, Noora Hamdan, Nicole S Sorhagen, Alexander P D'Esterre
Individuals' implicit theories of intelligence exist on a spectrum, from believing intelligence is fixed and unchangeable, to believing it is malleable and can be improved with effort. A belief in malleable intelligence leads to adaptive responses to challenge and higher achievement. However, surprisingly little is known about the development of academic-domain-specific theories of intelligence (i.e., math vs. reading and writing). The authors examined this in a cross-section of students from 1st grade to college (N = 523)...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383111/changes-in-the-stimulus-preceding-negativity-and-lateralized-readiness-potential-during-reinforcement-learning
#5
Xi Ren, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Sergii Tukaiev, Steven A Hackley
According to reinforcement learning theory, dopamine-dependent anticipatory processes play a critical role in learning from action outcomes such as feedback or reward. To better understand outcome anticipation, we examined variation in slow cortical potentials and assessed their changes over the course of motor-skill acquisition. Healthy young adults learned a series of precisely timed, key press sequences. Feedback was delivered at a delay of either 2.5 or 8 s, to encourage use of either the striatally mediated, habit learning system or the hippocampus-dependent, episodic memory system, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360869/the-influence-of-state-anxiety-on-fear-discrimination-and-extinction-in-females
#6
Pauline Dibbets, Elisabeth A T Evers
Formal theories have linked pathological anxiety to a failure in fear response inhibition. Previously, we showed that aberrant response inhibition is not restricted to anxiety patients, but can also be observed in anxiety-prone adults. However, less is known about the influence of currently experienced levels of anxiety on inhibitory learning. The topic is highly important as state anxiety has a debilitating effect on cognition, emotion, and physiology and is linked to several anxiety disorders. In the present study, healthy female volunteers performed a fear conditioning task, after being informed that they will have to perform the Trier Social Stress Test task (n = 25; experimental group) or a control task (n = 25; control group) upon completion of the conditioning task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358657/the-cost-of-structure-learning
#7
Anne G E Collins
Human learning is highly efficient and flexible. A key contributor to this learning flexibility is our ability to generalize new information across contexts that we know require the same behavior and to transfer rules to new contexts we encounter. To do this, we structure the information we learn and represent it hierarchically as abstract, context-dependent rules that constrain lower-level stimulus-action-outcome contingencies. Previous research showed that humans create such structure even when it is not needed, presumably because it usually affords long-term generalization benefits...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358568/cognitive-functioning-aging-and-work-a-review-and-recommendations-for-research-and-practice
#8
Gwenith G Fisher, Dorey S Chaffee, Lois E Tetrick, Deana B Davalos, Guy G Potter
There is a larger proportion and number of older adults in the labor force than ever before. Furthermore, older adults in the workforce are working until later ages. Although a great deal of research has examined physical health and well-being of working older adults, less research has focused on cognitive functioning. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad contemporary and multidisciplinary review of the intersection between cognitive functioning, aging, and work as a follow-up to a paper previously written by Fisher et al...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357046/surgical-education-and-adult-learning-integrating-theory-into-practice
#9
Prem Rashid
Surgical education continues to evolve from the master-apprentice model. Newer methods of the process need to be used to manage the dual challenges of educating while providing safe surgical care. This requires integrating adult learning concepts into delivery of practical training and education in busy clinical environments. A narrative review aimed at outlining and integrating adult learning and surgical education theory was undertaken. Additionally, this information was used to relate the practical delivery of surgical training and education in day-to-day surgical practice...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329000/trajectory-formation-principles-are-the-same-after-mild-or-moderate-stroke
#10
Denis Mottet, Liesjet Elisabeth Henriette van Dokkum, Jérôme Froger, Abdelkader Gouaïch, Isabelle Laffont
When we make rapid reaching movements, we have to trade speed for accuracy. To do so, the trajectory of our hand is the result of an optimal balance between feed-forward and feed-back control in the face of signal-dependant noise in the sensorimotor system. How far do these principles of trajectory formation still apply after a stroke, for persons with mild to moderate sensorimotor deficits who recovered some reaching ability? Here, we examine the accuracy of fast hand reaching movements with a focus on the information capacity of the sensorimotor system and its relation to trajectory formation in young adults, in persons who had a stroke and in age-matched control participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296525/learning-experiences-and-strategies-of-parents-of-young-children-with-developmental-disabilities-implications-for-rehabilitation-professionals
#11
Karen Hurtubise, Christine Carpenter
AIM: To better understand the learning experiences of parents of children with developmental disabilities and the strategies they develop to support their caregiving role. METHODS: A qualitative secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with parents of children with developmental disability was conducted to better understand parents' learning experiences and the strategies they developed to use this learning in supporting their children. A foundational thematic analysis process was used to identify the main themes, and the interpretive process was influenced by adult education theories...
March 15, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280471/eccentric-exercise-program-design-a-periodization-model-for-rehabilitation-applications
#12
Michael O Harris-Love, Bryant A Seamon, Tomas I Gonzales, Haniel J Hernandez, Donte Pennington, Brian M Hoover
The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278153/a-model-for-brain-life-history-evolution
#13
Mauricio González-Forero, Timm Faulwasser, Laurent Lehmann
Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brain's energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242512/evaluation-of-a-cross-cultural-training-program-for-pakistani-educators-lessons-learned-and-implications-for-program-planning
#14
Rebecca Mazur, Rebecca H Woodland
In this paper, we share the results of a summative evaluation of PEILI, a US-based adult professional development/training program for secondary school Pakistani teachers. The evaluation was guided by the theories of cultural competence (American Psychological Association, 2003; Bamberger, 1999; Wadsworth, 2001) and established frameworks for the evaluation of professional development/training and instructional design (Bennett, 1975; Guskey, 2002; King, 2014; Kirkpatrick, 1967). The explicit and implicit stakeholder assumptions about the connections between program resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes are described...
June 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178911/bringing-mini-chalk-talks-to-the-bedside-to-enhance-clinical-teaching
#15
Michael B Pitt, Jay D Orlander
Chalk talks - where the teacher is equipped solely with a writing utensil and a writing surface - have been used for centuries, yet little has been written about strategies for their use in medical education. Structured education proximal to patient encounters (during rounds, at the bedside, or in between patients in clinic) maximizes the opportunities for clinical learning. This paper presents a strategy to bring mini-chalk talks (MCTs) to the bedside as a practical way to provide relevant clinical teaching by visually framing teachable moments...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160808/moving-social-work-norms-via-theater-for-senior-farmers
#16
Deborah B Reed, Deborah T Claunch
PROBLEM: Senior farmers have a 2.6-fold risk of fatal injury compared to their younger counterparts. Usual educational interventions have resulted in limited success in reducing injury. METHOD: An innovative strategy, didactic readers theater, was piloted. Farmers' stories provided the foundation for the scripts. The approach incorporated adult learning strategies based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was marketed as a "dinner theater" to farm couples...
February 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148325/the-past-present-and-future-of-paediatric-cardiology-training-at-the-johns-hopkins-hospital-in-the-tradition-of-dr-helen-taussig
#17
Gary S Beasley, Anne M Murphy, Joel I Brenner, William J Ravekes
Johns Hopkins has been a leader in paediatric cardiology for over 85 years. In the 1940s, Dr Helen Taussig began training fellows in paediatric cardiology at Johns Hopkins at a time when the diagnosis and treatment of CHD were in the earliest stage. Under her leadership, the fellowship developed a strong foundation that has continued to evolve to meet the current needs of learners and educators. In the current era, the Johns Hopkins programme implements the current theories of adult education and actively engages our fellows in learning as well as teaching...
December 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065344/abai-s-moc-assessment-of-knowledge-program-matures-adding-value-with-continuous-learning-and-assessment
#18
REVIEW
David I Bernstein, Stephen I Wasserman, William P Thompson, Theodore M Freeman
Rapid changes in modern medicine along with advances in the science of learning and memory have necessitated a shift in the way physician knowledge is assessed. Physician recertification beyond initial certification has historically consisted of retaining large amounts of knowledge over a long time span. The adult learning theory has shown that the maintenance and improvement of our knowledge base is more effective by being exposed to new concepts at regular intervals throughout one's career and reinforcing these concepts on an ongoing basis...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029389/neonatology-faculty-development-using-simulation
#19
REVIEW
Heather M French, Roberta L Hales
The goal of faculty development activities is to supply the public with knowledgeable, skilled, and competent physicians who are prepared for high performance in the dynamic and complex healthcare environment. Current faculty development programs lack evidence-based support and are not sufficient to meet the professional needs of practicing physicians. Simulation activities for faculty development offer an alternative to traditional, teacher-centric educational offerings. Grounded in adult learning theory, simulation is a learner-centric, interactive, efficient, and effective method to train busy professionals...
November 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013176/the-prevalence-of-synaesthesia-depends-on-early-language-learning
#20
Marcus R Watson, Jan Chromý, Lyle Crawford, David M Eagleman, James T Enns, Kathleen A Akins
According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque)...
February 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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