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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231077/association-of-genetic-variation-in-the-tachykinin-receptor-3-locus-with-hot-flashes-and-night-sweats-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-study
#1
Carolyn J Crandall, JoAnn E Manson, Chancellor Hohensee, Steve Horvath, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Erin S LeBlanc, Mara Z Vitolins, Rami Nassir, Janet S Sinsheimer
OBJECTIVE: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS, ie, hot flashes or night sweats) are reported by many, but not all, women. The extent to which VMS are genetically determined is unknown. We evaluated the relationship of genetic variation and VMS. METHODS: In this observational study, we accessed data from three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (SNP Health Association Resource cohort [SHARe], WHI Memory Study cohort [WHIMS+], and Genome-Wide Association Studies of Treatment Response in Randomized Clinical Trials [GARNET] studies, total n = 17,695) of European American, African American, and Hispanic American postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Study...
March 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229194/screening-level-assessment-of-metal-concentrations-in-streambed-sediments-and-floodplain-soils-within-the-grand-lake-watershed-in-northeastern-oklahoma-usa
#2
Ean M Garvin, Cas F Bridge, Meredith S Garvin
Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The <63-µm fraction was analyzed for Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations by portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mean metal concentration results at reference transects indicated that background sediment/soil concentrations for Cd, Pb, and Zn within the watershed were 0...
February 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228450/academic-outcomes-in-children-with-congenital-heart-defects-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Matthew E Oster, Stephanie Watkins, Kevin D Hill, Jessica H Knight, Robert E Meyer
BACKGROUND: Most studies evaluating neurocognitive outcomes in children with congenital heart defects (CHD) have focused on high-risk patients or used specialized, resource-intensive testing. To determine the association of CHD with academic outcomes and compare outcomes according to the severity of CHD, we linked state educational records with a birth defects registry and birth certificates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, and North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services vital records...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226016/-geographical-and-organizational-aspects-of-primary-health-care-services-in-detecting-tuberculosis-cases-in-pelotas-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil-2012
#4
Simone Pieren Dos Reis, Jenifer Harter, Lílian Moura de Lima, Dagoberta Alves Vieira, Pedro Fredemir Palha, Roxana Isabel Cardozo Gonzales
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the geographical and organizational aspects of primary health care services in detecting tuberculosis cases in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. METHODS: this was a descriptive evaluation study involving 276 health professionals in 2012; data were collected using a structured questionnaire covering geographical and organizational aspects which received a score using a Likert scale of 1 to 5. RESULTS: average use of motorized transport by symptomatic respiratory patients having a cough for more than three weeks to get to a healthcare service was considered regular by respondents; although there was satisfactory availability of health professionals, human resource turnover and time-keeping were considered unsatisfactory; average time of more than 60 minutes waiting to see the doctor and average time spent with the doctor were considered regular...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224422/satisfaction-of-village-doctors-with-the-township-and-village-health-services-integration-policy-in-the-western-minority-inhabited-areas-of-china
#5
Da Feng, Liang Zhang, Yuan-Xi Xiang, Dong-Lan Zhang, Ruo-Xi Wang, Shang-Feng Tang, Hang Fu, Bo-Yang Li
Township and Village Health Services Integration Management (TVHSIM) is an essential form of China's two-tiered health service integration plan at the township and village level. Its main purpose, also one of the target goals in China's new healthcare reform, is to gradually integrate rural health services and appropriately allocate rural health resources. This study aims to assess the village doctors' satisfaction with the TVHSIM and provide scientific base to further improve TVHSIM. A cross-sectional study was carried out in which 162 village doctors from Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang in western China were interviewed...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222727/developing-global-maps-of-insecticide-resistance-risk-to-improve-vector-control
#6
Michael Coleman, Janet Hemingway, Katherine Ann Gleave, Antoinette Wiebe, Peter W Gething, Catherine L Moyes
BACKGROUND: Significant reductions in malaria transmission have been achieved over the last 15 years with elimination occurring in a small number of countries, however, increasing drug and insecticide resistance threatens these gains. Insecticide resistance has decreased the observed mortality to the most commonly used insecticide class, the pyrethroids, and the number of alternative classes approved for use in public health is limited. Disease prevention and elimination relies on operational control of Anopheles malaria vectors, which requires the deployment of effective insecticides...
February 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222352/status-of-pharmaceuticals-in-african-water-bodies-occurrence-removal-and-analytical-methods
#7
REVIEW
Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Luke Chimuka
In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219429/engaging-with-complexity-to-improve-the-health-of-indigenous-people-a-call-for-the-use-of-systems-thinking-to-tackle-health-inequity
#8
EDITORIAL
Alison Hernández, Ana Lorena Ruano, Bruno Marchal, Miguel San Sebastián, Walter Flores
The 400 million indigenous people worldwide represent a wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity, as well as traditional knowledge and sustainable practices that are invaluable resources for human development. However, indigenous people remain on the margins of society in high, middle and low-income countries, and they bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and mortality compared to the general population. These inequalities have persisted, and in some countries have even worsened, despite the overall improvements in health indicators in relation to the 15-year push to meet the Millennium Development Goals...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219417/documenting-research-with-transgender-and-gender%C3%A2-diverse-people-protocol-for-an-evidence-map-and-thematic-analysis
#9
Zack Marshall, Vivian Welch, James Thomas, Fern Brunger, Michelle Swab, Ian Shemilt, Chris Kaposy
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about how transgender, gender diverse, and Two-Spirit (trans) people have been represented and studied by researchers. The objectives of this study are to (1) map and describe trans research in the social sciences, sciences, humanities, health, education, and business, (2) identify evidence gaps and opportunities for more responsible research with trans people, (3) assess the use of text mining for study identification, and (4) increase access to trans research for key stakeholders through the creation of a web-based evidence map...
February 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218340/world-health-organization-global-disability-action-plan-the-mongolian-perspective
#10
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Baljnnyam Avirmed, Yoon Kyoung Yi, Batchimeg Shirmen, Geoff Abbott, Mary P Galea
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on disability and rehabilitation in Mongolia, and to identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP). METHODS: A 4-member rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital conducted an intensive 6-day workshop at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, for local healthcare professionals (n = 77) from medical rehabilitation facilities (urban/rural, public/private) and non-governmental organizations...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216866/home-based-palliative-services-under-two-local-self-government-institutions-of-kerala-india-an-assessment-of-compliance-with-policy-and-guidelines-to-local-self-government-institutions
#11
Rajeev Jayalakshmi, Chatterjee Chopra Suhita
BACKGROUND: In contrast to India's poor performance in palliative and end-of-life care, the state of Kerala has gained considerable attention for its palliative care (PC) policy. This study tried to understand the structure, organization, and delivery of the program currently offered to the rural population, and its conformity to the state's PC policy and guidelines for Local Self-government Institutions (LSGIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive research design involving a review of Kerala palliative policy and guidelines for LSGIs was followed by direct field observation and interviews of stakeholders...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216188/rationale-and-support-for-a-one-health-program-for-canine-vaccination-as-the-most-cost-effective-means-of-controlling-zoonotic-rabies-in-endemic-settings
#12
REVIEW
Robert P Lavan, Alasdair I MacG King, David J Sutton, Kaan Tunceli
Although dog vaccination has been demonstrated to reduce and eliminate rabies in humans, during meetings there are often calls for further pilot studies. The assembled data proves that a widespread approach is now required. While zoonotic rabies has a minimal presence in developed nations, it is endemic throughout most of Asia and Africa, where it is considered to be a neglected tropical disease. In these areas, rabies causes an estimated annual mortality of at least 55,000 human deaths. Worldwide rabid dogs are the source of the vast majority of human rabies exposures...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215371/impact-of-the-cancer-prevention-and-control-research-network-accelerating-the-translation-of-research-into-practice
#13
EDITORIAL
Kurt M Ribisl, Maria E Fernandez, Daniela B Friedman, Peggy A Hannon, Jennifer Leeman, Alexis Moore, Lindsay Olson, Marcia Ory, Betsy Risendal, Laura Sheble, Vicky M Taylor, Rebecca S Williams, Bryan J Weiner
The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners...
March 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215283/why-neighborhoods-and-how-we-study-them-matter-for-adolescent-development
#14
T D Warner, R A Settersten
Adolescence is a sensitive developmental period marked by significant changes that unfold across multiple contexts. As a central context of development, neighborhoods capture-in both physical and social space-the stratification of life chances and differential distribution of resources and risks. For some youth, neighborhoods are springboards to opportunities; for others, they are snares that constrain progress and limit the ability to avoid risks. Despite abundant research on "neighborhood effects," scant attention has been paid to how neighborhoods are a product of social stratification forces that operate simultaneously to affect human development...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215151/iron-chelators-dictate-immune-cells-inflammatory-ability-potential-adjuvant-therapy-for-ibd
#15
Marcello Chieppa, Vanessa Galleggiante, Grazia Serino, Monica Massaro, Angelo Santino
BACKGROUND: The importance of hemoproteins for life lies largely in their iron-mediated chemical properties. In the human body, there are about 4 g of iron, a precious resource preserved by sophisticated recycling mechanisms. Iron is also important for pathogen growth, so it is not surprising that immune cells developed mechanisms to reduce iron availability in cases of inflammation. In healthy conditions, macrophages degrade hemoproteins and export iron, while if inflammation develops, they retain cytoplasmic iron to reduce extracellular iron concentrations...
February 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212791/echinococcosis-control-and-prevention
#16
P S Craig, D Hegglin, M W Lightowlers, P R Torgerson, Q Wang
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212600/persistence-of-social-inequalities-in-modern-welfare-states-explanation-of-a-paradox
#17
Johan P Mackenbach
AIMS: Social-epidemiological explanations of health inequalities usually take the existence of social inequality as a given and ignore the fundamental questions of why social inequality exists in the first place and why it is so persistent. I review here theories of the explanation of social inequality to identify the processes and/or structures responsible for its persistence. METHODS: This paper is a review of the relevant sociological literature. RESULTS: The sociological literature suggests that what persists over long periods of time is not a specific manifestation of social inequality but a 'meta-phenomenon': the fact that there are different social positions, that these social positions give access to different levels of resources in some graded way and that the distribution of individuals over social positions follows rules that create inequalities in the opportunities for achieving a more advantaged social position...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#18
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209201/understanding-the-performance-of-community-health-volunteers-involved-in-the-delivery-of-health-programmes-in-underserved-areas-a-realist-synthesis
#19
REVIEW
Gaëlle Vareilles, Jeanine Pommier, Bruno Marchal, Sumit Kane
BACKGROUND: The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs' performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performance of CHVs are more likely to be successful...
February 16, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208796/recent%C3%A2-trends%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-marine%C3%A2-phycotoxins%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-australian%C3%A2-coastal%C3%A2-waters
#20
Penelope Ajani, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years...
February 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
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