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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107227/structural-level-differences-in-the-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rate-in-south-africa-a-multilevel-assessment-of-individual-health-facility-and-provincial-level-predictors-of-infant-hiv-transmission
#1
S Woldesenbet, D J Jackson, C J Lombard, T H Dinh, V Ramokolo, T Doherty, G G Sherman, Y Pillay, A E Goga
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, South Africa reported an early mother to child transmission (MTCT) rate of 3.5% at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Provincial early MTCT rates ranged from 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-3.4%) to 5.9% (95% CI: 3.8-8.0%). We sought to determine reasons for these geographic differences in MTCT rates. METHODS: This study employed multilevel modelling using 2010 South African PMTCT evaluation (SAPMTCTE) data from 530 facilities. Interview data and infant blood samples were collected from 3085 mother-infant pairs at 4-8 weeks postpartum...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107159/caring-for-the-trafficked-patient-ethical-challenges-and-recommendations-for-health-care-professionals
#2
Wendy L Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking is an egregious human rights violation with profound negative physical and psychological consequences, including communicable diseases, substance use disorders, and mental illnesses. The health needs of this population are multiple, complex, and influenced by past and present experiences of abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Effective health care services for trafficked patients require clinicians to consider individual patients' needs, wishes, goals, priorities, risks, and vulnerabilities as well as public health implications and even resource allocation...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107157/who-is-in-your-waiting-room-health-care-professionals-as-culturally-responsive-and-trauma-informed-first-responders-to-human-trafficking
#3
Rochelle Rollins, Anna Gribble, Sharon E Barrett, Clydette Powell
Evidence-based practice standards are not yet well defined for assisting potential victims of human trafficking. Nonetheless, health care professionals are learning to be first responders in identifying, treating, and referring potential victims. As more public and private sector resources are used to train health care professionals about human trafficking, more evaluation and research are needed to develop an effective standard of care. Adopting a public health lens and using the "National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care" can guide critical decision making and actions...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106358/national-vaccine-injury-compensation-program-revisions-to-the-vaccine-injury-table-final-rule
#4
(no author information available yet)
On July 29, 2015, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) published in the Federal Register a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to amend the regulations governing the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP or program) by proposing revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table (Table). The Secretary based the Table revisions primarily on the 2012 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, "Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality," the work of nine HHS workgroups who reviewed the IOM findings, and consideration of the Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines' (ACCV) recommendations...
19, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103925/protocol-for-a-realist-review-of-workplace-learning-in-postgraduate-medical-education-and-training
#5
Anel Wiese, Caroline Kilty, Colm Bergin, Patrick Flood, Na Fu, Mary Horgan, Agnes Higgins, Bridget Maher, Grainne O'Kane, Lucia Prihodova, Dubhfeasa Slattery, Deirdre Bennett
BACKGROUND: Postgraduate medical education and training (PGMET) is a complex social process which happens predominantly during the delivery of patient care. The clinical learning environment (CLE), the context for PGMET, shapes the development of the doctors who learn and work within it, ultimately impacting the quality and safety of patient care. Clinical workplaces are complex, dynamic systems in which learning emerges from non-linear interactions within a network of related factors and activities...
January 19, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100641/new-sources-of-value-for-health-and-care-in-a-carbon-constrained-world
#6
Kate Emma Charlesworth, Maggie Jamieson
BACKGROUND: Due to the climate crisis, it is increasingly evident that countries will have to decarbonize. Healthcare, which has a large carbon footprint and uses vast quantities of resources, will have to undergo significant transformation. In this research, we sought the ideas of leading thinkers in the field, to address the question of how health systems can provide high-quality care in a carbon-constrained world. METHODS: Semi-structured, qualitative in-depth interviews with 15 healthcare thought leaders from Australia, the UK, the USA and New Zealand...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099465/impact-of-a-multi-strategy-community-intervention-to-reduce-maternal-and-child-health-inequalities-in-india-a-qualitative-study-in-haryana
#7
Madhu Gupta, Hans Bosma, Federica Angeli, Manmeet Kaur, Venkatesan Chakrapani, Monica Rana, Onno C P van Schayck
A multi-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), was implemented in India from 2005 to 2012. By improving the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, the aim was to reduce maternal and child health (MCH) inequalities. This study was planned to explore the perceptions and beliefs of stakeholders about extent of implementation and effectiveness of NRHM's health sector plans in improving MCH status and reducing inequalities. A total of 33 in-depth interviews (n = 33) with program managers, community representatives, mothers and 8 focus group discussions (n = 42) with health service providers were conducted from September to December 2013, in Haryana, post NRHM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099059/family-physician-readiness-for-value-based-payments-does-ownership-status-matter
#8
Heidy Robertson-Cooper, Bradley Neaderhiser, Laura E Happe, Roy A Beveridge
Value-based payments are rapidly replacing fee-for-service arrangements, necessitating advancements in physician practice capabilities and functions. The objective of this study was to examine potential differences among family physicians who are owners versus employed with respect to their readiness for value-based payment models. The authors surveyed more than 550 family physicians from the American Academy of Family Physician's membership; nearly 75% had made changes to participate in value-based payments...
January 18, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098853/does-human-resource-primacy-moderate-the-impact-of-psychological-distress-on-subsequent-risk-for-disability-retirement
#9
Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Stein Knardahl
Objective Human resource primacy (HRP) refers to employees' perceptions of how the organization shows interests in its employees' welfare, happiness, and health. The aims of this study were to determine whether (i) perceptions of HRP are related to the risk for disability retirement and (ii) HRP moderates the impact of psychological distress on later risk for disability retirement. Methods The study relied on a combination of self-report survey questionnaire data on HRP and psychological distress supplemented with official register data on disability benefits from the Norwegian Labor and Welfare Administration...
January 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096131/nutrition-micrornas-and-human-health
#10
REVIEW
Juan Cui, Beiyan Zhou, Sharon A Ross, Janos Zempleni
MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095435/evaluation-of-a-silver-embedded-ceramic-tablet-as-a-primary-and-secondary-point-of-use-water-purification-technology-in-limpopo-province-s-africa
#11
Beeta Ehdaie, Chloe T Rento, Veronica Son, Sydney S Turner, Amidou Samie, Rebecca A Dillingham, James A Smith
The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes point-of-use water treatment (PoUWT) technologies as effective means to improve water quality. This paper investigates long-term performance and social acceptance of a novel PoUWT technology, a silver-infused ceramic tablet, in Limpopo Province, South Africa. When placed in a water storage container, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet releases silver ions into water, thereby disinfecting microbial pathogens and leaving the water safe for human consumption. As a result of its simplicity and efficiency, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet can serve as a stand-alone PoUWT method and as a secondary PoUWT to improve exisitng PoUWT methods, such as ceramic water filters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092761/chlorinated-and-ultraviolet-radiation-treated-reclaimed-irrigation-water-is-the-source-of-aeromonas-found-in-vegetables-used-for-human-consumption
#12
Fadua Latif-Eugenín, Roxana Beaz-Hidalgo, Carolina Silvera-Simón, Xavi Fernandez-Cassi, María J Figueras
Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092759/effects-of-donor-proliferation-in-development-aid-for-health-on-health-program-performance-a-conceptual-framework
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Wood Pallas, Jennifer Prah Ruger
Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework...
January 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090819/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-rates-with-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Mark P Connolly, Elizabeth Goodwin, Carina Schey, Jacqueline Zummo
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii...
January 16, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086877/treating-the-invisible-gaps-and-opportunities-for-enhanced-tb-control-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#15
Naomi Tschirhart, Sein Sein Thi, Lei Lei Swe, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086823/a-realist-review-of-the-partograph-when-and-how-does-it-work-for-labour-monitoring
#16
Carol Bedwell, Karen Levin, Celia Pett, Dame Tina Lavender
BACKGROUND: The partograph (or partogram) is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO), for monitoring labour wellbeing and progress. Concerns about limitations in the way the partograph is used in the clinical context and the potential impact on its effectiveness have led to this realist systematic review of partograph use. METHODS: This review aimed to answer two key questions, 1) What is it about the partograph that works (or does not work); for whom does it work; and in what circumstances? 2) What are the essential inputs required for the partograph to work? A comprehensive search strategy encompassed key databases; including papers of varying methodologies...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086803/compendium-of-tcdd-mediated-transcriptomic-response-datasets-in-mammalian-model-systems
#17
Stephenie D Prokopec, Kathleen E Houlahan, Ren X Sun, John D Watson, Cindy Q Yao, Jamie Lee, Christine P'ng, Renee Pang, Alexander H Wu, Lauren C Chong, Ashley B Smith, Nicholas J Harding, Ivy D Moffat, Jere Lindén, Sanna Lensu, Allan B Okey, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Paul C Boutros
BACKGROUND: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent congener of the dioxin class of environmental contaminants. Exposure to TCDD causes a wide range of toxic outcomes, ranging from chloracne to acute lethality. The severity of toxicity is highly dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Binding of TCDD to the AHR leads to changes in transcription of numerous genes. Studies evaluating the transcriptional changes brought on by TCDD may provide valuable insight into the role of the AHR in human health and disease...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079902/phenx-measures-for-phenotyping-rare-genetic-conditions
#18
Michael Phillips, Tracey Grant, Philip Giampietro, Joann Bodurtha, Rodolfo Valdez, Deborah R Maiese, Tabitha Hendershot, Sharon F Terry, Carol M Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: The PhenX Toolkit, an online resource of well-established measures of phenotypes and exposures, now has 16 new measures recommended for assessing rare genetic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: These measures and their protocols were selected by a working group of domain experts with input from the scientific community. RESULTS: The measures, which cover life stages from birth through adulthood, include clinical scales, characterization of rare genetic conditions, bioassays, and questionnaires...
January 12, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077509/the-basic-approach-a-single-centre-experience-with-a-cost-reducing-model-for-paediatric-cardiac-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#19
Massimo A Padalino, Chiara Tessari, Alvise Guariento, Anna C Frigo, Vladimiro L Vida, Andrea Marcolongo, Fabio Zanella, Michael J Harvey, Ravi R Thiagarajan, Giovanni Stellin
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving but expensive therapy in terms of financial, technical and human resources. We report our experience with a 'basic' ECMO support model, consisting of ECMO initiated and managed without the constant presence of a bedside specialist, to assess safety, clinical outcomes and financial impact on our health system. METHODS: We did a retrospective single-centre study of paediatric cardiac ECMO between January 2001 and March 2014...
January 10, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077095/geographic-information-system-for-improving-maternal-and-newborn-health-recommendations-for-policy-and-programs
#20
Yordanos B Molla, Barbara Rawlins, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Marc Cunningham, Juan Eugenio Hernández Ávila, Corrine Warren Ruktanonchai, Kavita Singh, Sylvia Alford, Mira Thompson, Vikas Dwivedi, Allisyn C Moran, Zoe Matthews
This correspondence argues and offers recommendations for how Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to maternal and newborn health data could potentially be used as part of the broader efforts for ending preventable maternal and newborn mortality. These recommendations were generated from a technical consultation on reporting and mapping maternal deaths that was held in Washington, DC from January 12 to 13, 2015 and hosted by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) global Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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