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human resources for health

Fauzia A Khan, Alan F Merry
The safety of anesthesia characteristic of high-income countries today is not matched in low-resource settings with poor infrastructure, shortages of anesthesia providers, essential drugs, equipment, and supplies. Health care is delivered through complex systems. Achieving sustainable widespread improvement globally will require an understanding of how to influence such systems. Health outcomes depend not only on a country's income, but also on how resources are allocated, and both vary substantially, between and within countries...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Søren Kudsk-Iversen, Naomi Shamambo, M Dylan Bould
The majority of the world's population lacks access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care. Although there is a health workforce crisis across the board in the poorest countries in the world, anesthesia is disproportionally affected. This article explores some of the key issues that must be tackled to strengthen the anesthesia workforce in low- and lower-middle-income countries. First, we need to increase the overall number of safe anesthesia providers to match a huge burden of disease, particularly in the poorest countries in the world and in remote and rural areas...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
C Roger Goucke, Pongparadee Chaudakshetrin
Approximately 80% of the world's population lives in countries with little or no access to pain management. These countries also have 74% of the world's deaths from cancer and human immunodeficiency virus. Appropriate use of oral opioids can control 80%-90% of cancer pain. However, only 6.7% of the world's medical opioids are available in these low-resource countries. With the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery calling for a significant expansion of surgical services, postoperative pain management will need to be an increasing focus of our attention...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Ersheng Gao, Qiguo Lian, Iqbal H Shah
BACKGROUND: Non-consensual sex (NCS) among young people, an important subject with public health and human rights implications, was less studied in China. This study is to investigate the NCS awareness and victimization of university students in Shanghai, China and whether they were associated with adolescent gender-role attitudes. METHODS: Gender-role attitudes, awareness and victimization of different forms of NCS were examined among 1099 undergraduates (430 males and 669 females) in four universities in Shanghai using computer-assisted self-interview approach...
March 15, 2018: Reproductive Health
Loai Albarqouni, Khamis Elessi, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: Research conducted on conditions responsible for the greatest disease burden should be given the highest priority, particularly in resource-limited settings. The present study aimed to assess the research output in relation to disease burden in Palestine and to identify the conditions which are under- or over-investigated, if any. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or healthcare authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between January 2000 and December 2015...
March 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Samin Nobakht, Arash Shirdel, Yasamin Molavi-Taleghani, Mohammad M Doustmohammadi, Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri
INTRODUCTION: Human resource supply is considered as one of the most vital factors in achieving organizational goals, and human resources are the most valuable factor in the production and delivery of services. Labor shortages and surpluses could downgrade the quality of services offered to patients. Considering the seriousness of this issue, this study aimed to investigate the status of human resources in Iran hospitals. METHODS: The narrative review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Liyu Shi, Shifeng Cao, Xin Chen, Wei Chen, Yonghua Zheng, Zhenfeng Yang
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are distributed widely in Chinese bayberry fruit and have been associated with human health benefits, but molecular and biochemical characterization of PA biosynthesis remains unclear. Here, two genes encoding key PA biosynthetic enzymes, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) were isolated in bayberry fruit. MrANR was highly expressed at the early stage of fruit development when soluble PAs accumulated at high levels. Meanwhile, the transcript abundance of both MrANR and MrLAR observed at the late stage was paralleled with the high amounts of insoluble PAs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juliana Serje, Melanie Y Bertram, Callum Brindley, Jeremy A Lauer
Background: Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Sahar Dalahmeh, Sana Tirgani, Allan John Komakech, Charles B Niwagaba, Lutz Ahrens
Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL-1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL-1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Isabel Craveiro, Virginia Hortale, Ana Paula Cavalcante de Oliveira, Mario Dal Poz, Gustavo Portela, Gilles Dussault
Background: The production of knowledge on Human Resources for Health (HRH) issues has increased exponentially since 2000 but integration of the research in the policy-making process is often lagging. We looked at how research on HRH contributes or not to inform policy decisions and interventions affecting the health workforce in Portugal and Brazil. Methods: We designed a comparative case study of semi-structured interviews with present and past national decision-makers, policy advisors and researchers...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Zhang Ya-Lan, Zhu Yan-Kun, Chen Wei-Qi, Deng Yan, Li Peng
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province, so as to provide the reference for promoting the integrative ability of the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in Henan Province. METHODS: The questionnaires were designed and the method of census was adopted. The information, such as the amounts, majors, education background, technical titles, working years, and turnover in each parasitic disease control and prevention organization was collected by the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) at all levels...
January 10, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Nathali Gunawardena, Ghose Bishwajit, Sanni Yaya
Background: For exploring maternal death, supply and demand-side factors can be characterized by the three delays model developed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994). The model comprises delay in deciding to seek care (delay 1), delay in reaching the health facility (delay 2), and delay in receiving quality care once at the health facility (delay 3). Few studies have comprehensively dealt with the health systems delays that prevent the receipt of timely and appropriate obstetric care once a woman reaches a health facility (phase III delays)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
George Cătălin Marinescu, Roua-Gabriela Popescu, Anca Dinischiotu
Over 12% of the world's health resources are spent on treating diabetes, as high blood glucose is the third cause of mortality worldwide. Insulin resistance is the basis of the most common form of diabetes: type 2 diabetes. Recent animal studies report successful attempts at reversing type 2 diabetes by the administering of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). However, the current high price of this molecule urges for more efficient and cost-effective production methods. This work proposes a method for purifying NMN by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) on silica with a covalently attached coating of poly(2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide) (PolyHEA) stationary phase using an isocratic elution with a denaturing mobile phase (50 mM formic acid) from a complex molecular mixture such as a fermentation broth...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Suresh Neethirajan, Vasanth Ragavan, Xuan Weng, Rohit Chand
Current food production faces tremendous challenges from growing human population, maintaining clean resources and food qualities, and protecting climate and environment. Food sustainability is mostly a cooperative effort resulting in technology development supported by both governments and enterprises. Multiple attempts have been promoted in tackling challenges and enhancing drivers in food production. Biosensors and biosensing technologies with their applications, are being widely applied to tackling top challenges in food production and its sustainability...
March 12, 2018: Biosensors
David Macku, Pavel Hedvicak, John Quinn, Vladimir Bencko
Due to the hybrid warfare currently experienced by multiple NATO coalition and NATO partner nations, the tactical combat casualty care (TCCC) paradigm is greatly challenged. One of the major challenges to TCCC is the ad hoc extension phase in resource-poor environments, referred to as prolonged field care (PFC) and forward resuscitative care (FRC). The nuanced clinical skills with limited resources required by warfighters and auxiliary health care professionals to mitigate death on the battlefield and prevent morbidity and mortality in the PFC phase represent a balance that is still under review...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Abigail M Judge, Jennifer A Murphy, Jose Hidalgo, Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking, also known as modern-day slavery, is an egregious human rights violation associated with wide-ranging medical and mental health consequences. Because of the extensive health problems related to trafficking, health care providers play a critical role in identifying survivors and engaging them in ongoing care. Although guidelines for recognizing affected patients and a framework for developing response protocols in health care settings have been described, survivors' ongoing engagement in health care services is very challenging...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Sonia Altizer, Daniel J Becker, Jonathan H Epstein, Kristian M Forbes, Thomas R Gillespie, Richard J Hall, Dana M Hawley, Sonia M Hernandez, Lynn B Martin, Raina K Plowright, Dara A Satterfield, Daniel G Streicker
Human-provided resource subsidies for wildlife are diverse, common and have profound consequences for wildlife-pathogen interactions, as demonstrated by papers in this themed issue spanning empirical, theoretical and management perspectives from a range of study systems. Contributions cut across scales of organization, from the within-host dynamics of immune function, to population-level impacts on parasite transmission, to landscape- and regional-scale patterns of infection. In this concluding paper, we identify common threads and key findings from author contributions, including the consequences of resource subsidies for (i) host immunity; (ii) animal aggregation and contact rates; (iii) host movement and landscape-level infection patterns; and (iv) interspecific contacts and cross-species transmission...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Maureen H Murray, Anjelika D Kidd, Shannon E Curry, Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman, Michael J Yabsley, Henry C Adams, Taylor Ellison, Catharine N Welch, Sonia M Hernandez
Many wildlife species shift their diets to use novel resources in urban areas. The consequences of these shifts are not well known, and consumption of reliable-but low quality-anthropogenic food may present important trade-offs for wildlife health. This may be especially true for carnivorous species such as the American white ibis ( Eudocimus albus ), a nomadic wading bird which has been increasingly observed in urban parks in South Florida, USA. We tested the effects of anthropogenic provisioning on consumer nutrition (i...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Daniel T C Cox, Kevin J Gaston
Many human populations are undergoing an extinction of experience, with a progressive decline in interactions with nature. This is a consequence both of a loss of opportunity for, and orientation towards, such experiences. The trend is of concern in part because interactions with nature can be good for human health and wellbeing. One potential means of redressing these losses is through the intentional provision of resources to increase wildlife populations in close proximity to people, thereby increasing the potential for positive human-nature experiences, and thence the array of benefits that can result...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tomas Strandin, Simon A Babayan, Kristian M Forbes
While urban expansion increasingly encroaches on natural habitats, many wildlife species capitalize on anthropogenic food resources, which have the potential to both positively and negatively influence their responses to infection. Here we examine how food availability and key nutrients have been reported to shape innate and adaptive immunity in wildlife by drawing from field-based studies, as well as captive and food restriction studies with wildlife species. Examples of food provisioning and key nutrients enhancing immune function were seen across the three study type distinctions, as were cases of trace metals and pharmaceuticals impairing the immunity of wildlife species...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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