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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644920/genome-scale-metabolic-models-applied-to-human-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Daniel J Cook, Jens Nielsen
Advances in genome sequencing, high throughput measurement of gene and protein expression levels, data accessibility, and computational power have allowed genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to become a useful tool for understanding metabolic alterations associated with many different diseases. Despite the proven utility of GEMs, researchers confront multiple challenges in the use of GEMs, their application to human health and disease, and their construction and simulation in an organ-specific and disease-specific manner...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644057/the-implementation-of-medical-monitoring-programs-following-potentially-hazardous-exposures-a-medico-legal-perspective
#2
David Vearrier, Michael I Greenberg
CONTEXT: Clinical toxicologists may be called upon to determine the appropriateness of medical monitoring following documented or purported exposures to toxicants in the occupational, environmental, and medical settings. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database using the Ovid(®) search engine for the following terms cross-referenced to the MeSH database: ("occupational exposures" OR "environmental exposures") AND ("physiologic monitoring" OR "population surveillance")...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643342/progress-and-policy-implication-of-the-insurance-programs-for-catastrophic-diseases-in-china
#3
Wenhui Mao, Luying Zhang, Wen Chen
The State Council encouraged the involvement of commercial insurance companies (CICs) in the development of the Insurance Program for Catastrophic Diseases (IPCD), yet its implementation has rarely been reported. We collected literature and policy documentation and conducted interviews in 10 cities with innovative IPCD policies to understand the details of the implementation of IPCD. IPCDs are operated at the prefectural level in 14 provinces, while in 4 municipalities and 6 provinces, unified IPCDs have been implemented at higher levels...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642146/is-antimicrobial-stewardship-cost-effective-a-narrative-review-of-the-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Nichola R Naylor, Nina Zhu, Marlies Hulscher, Alison Holmes, Raheelah Ahmad, Julie V Robotham
AIMS: This narrative review aimed to collate recent evidence on the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, to address the question "is AMS cost-effective?", whilst providing resources and guidance for future research in this area. SOURCES: PubMed was searched for studies assessing the cost-effectiveness, cost-utility or cost-benefit of AMS interventions in humans, published from January 2000 to March 2017, with no setting inclusion/exclusion criteria specified...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638442/computational-dynamic-approaches-for-temporal-omics-data-with-applications-to-systems-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Yulan Liang, Arpad Kelemen
Modeling and predicting biological dynamic systems and simultaneously estimating the kinetic structural and functional parameters are extremely important in systems and computational biology. This is key for understanding the complexity of the human health, drug response, disease susceptibility and pathogenesis for systems medicine. Temporal omics data used to measure the dynamic biological systems are essentials to discover complex biological interactions and clinical mechanism and causations. However, the delineation of the possible associations and causalities of genes, proteins, metabolites, cells and other biological entities from high throughput time course omics data is challenging for which conventional experimental techniques are not suited in the big omics era...
2017: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637656/benchmarking-life-expectancy-and-cancer-mortality-global-comparison-with-cardiovascular-disease-1981-2010
#6
Bochen Cao, Freddie Bray, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Ophira Ginsburg, Samir Soneji, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Objective To quantify the impact of cancer (all cancers combined and major sites) compared with cardiovascular disease (CVD) on longevity worldwide during 1981-2010.Design Retrospective demographic analysis using aggregated data.Setting National civil registration systems in member states of the World Health Organization.Participants 52 populations with moderate to high quality data on cause specific mortality.Main outcome measures Disease specific contributions to changes in life expectancy in ages 40-84 (LE40-84) over time in populations grouped by two levels of Human Development Index (HDI) values...
June 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636442/the-national-ebola-training-and-education-center-preparing-the-united-states-for-ebola-and-other-special-pathogens
#7
Christopher J Kratochvil, Laura Evans, Bruce S Ribner, John J Lowe, Melissa Cole Harvey, Richard C Hunt, Abbigail J Tumpey, Ryan P Fagan, Michelle M Schwedhelm, Sonia Bell, John Maher, Colleen S Kraft, Nicholas V Cagliuso, Sharon Vanairsdale, Angela Vasa, Philip W Smith
The National Ebola Training and Education Center (NETEC) was established in 2015 in response to the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. The US Department of Health and Human Services office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to increase the competency of healthcare and public health workers, as well as the capability of healthcare facilities in the United States, to deliver safe, efficient, and effective care to patients infected with Ebola and other special pathogens nationwide...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634496/household-response-to-inadequate-sewerage-and-garbage-collection-services-in-abuja-nigeria
#8
Ismaila Rimi Abubakar
Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633647/meeting-the-oral-health-needs-of-12-year-olds-in-china-human-resources-for-oral-health
#9
Xiangyu Sun, Eduardo Bernabé, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Jennifer E Gallagher
BACKGROUND: An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. METHODS: We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus), dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake), and social factors (parental education)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632559/counting-the-cost-of-failed-spinal-fusion-for-relief-of-low-back-pain-does-primary-fusion-with-bone-morphogenetic-protein-make-economic-sense-from-a-primary-payer-perspective
#10
Adam P Lloyd
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the unknown direct costs of failed instrumented lumbar fusion using iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) and subsequent reoperation utilizing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) from a primary payer perspective. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Recent evidence has demonstrated increased rates of instrumented lumbar fusion and utilization of rhBMP-2 to treat a range of conditions causing lower back pain...
July 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626426/potential-of-central-eastern-and-western-africa-medicinal-plants-for-cancer-therapy-spotlight-on-resistant-cells-and-molecular-targets
#11
REVIEW
Armelle T Mbaveng, Victor Kuete, Thomas Efferth
Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625876/mental-health-in-zimbabwe-a-health-systems-analysis
#12
Khameer Kidia, Debra Machando, Walter Mangezi, Reuben Hendler, Megan Crooks, Melanie Abas, Dixon Chibanda, Graham Thornicroft, Maya Semrau, Helen Jack
There has been little external analysis of Zimbabwe's mental health system. We did a systems analysis to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for mental health service improvement in Zimbabwe and to generate cost-effective, policy-relevant solutions. We combined in-depth interviews with a range of key stakeholders in health and mental health, analysis of mental health laws and policies, and publicly available data about mental health. Five themes are key to mental health service delivery in Zimbabwe: policy and law; financing and resources; criminal justice; workforce, training, and research; and beliefs about mental illness...
June 15, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623923/making-hiv-testing-work-at-the-point-of-care-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study-of-diagnostic-practices
#13
Nora Engel, Malika Davids, Nadine Blankvoort, Keertan Dheda, Nitika Pant Pai, Madhukar Pai
BACKGROUND: Point of care testing promises to reduce delays in diagnosing and initiating treatment for infectious diseases such as Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). In South Africa, decentralized HIV testing with rapid tests offers important lessons for point of care testing programs. Yet, little is known about the strategies of providers and clients to make HIV testing successful in settings short of equipment, human resources and space. We aimed at examining these strategies. METHODS: This paper is based on a larger qualitative study of diagnostic practices across major diseases and actors in homes, clinics, communities, hospitals and laboratories in South Africa...
June 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623298/constraint-based-modeling-identifies-new-putative-targets-to-fight-colistin-resistant-a-baumannii-infections
#14
Luana Presta, Emanuele Bosi, Leila Mansouri, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Renato Fani, Marco Fondi
Acinetobacter baumannii is a clinical threat to human health, causing major infection outbreaks worldwide. As new drugs against Gram-negative bacteria do not seem to be forthcoming, and due to the microbial capability of acquiring multi-resistance, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic targets. Here we have derived a list of new potential targets by means of metabolic reconstruction and modelling of A. baumannii ATCC 19606. By integrating constraint-based modelling with gene expression data, we simulated microbial growth in normal and stressful conditions (i...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623181/allele-level-hla-matching-for-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-for-non-malignant-diseases-in-children-a-retrospective-analysis
#15
Mary Eapen, Tao Wang, Paul A Veys, Jaap J Boelens, Andrew St Martin, Stephen Spellman, Carmem Sales Bonfim, Colleen Brady, Andrew J Cant, Jean-Hugues Dalle, Stella M Davies, John Freeman, Katherine C Hsu, Katharina Fleischhauer, Chantal Kenzey, Joanne Kurtzberg, Gerard Michel, Paul J Orchard, Annalisa Paviglianiti, Vanderson Rocha, Michael R Veneris, Fernanda Volt, Robert Wynn, Stephanie J Lee, Mary M Horowitz, Eliane Gluckman, Annalisa Ruggeri
BACKGROUND: The standard for selecting unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases relies on antigen-level (lower resolution) HLA typing for HLA-A and HLA-B, and allele-level for HLA-DRB1. We aimed to study the effects of allele-level matching at a higher resolution-HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1, which is the standard used for adult unrelated volunteer donor transplantation for non-malignant diseases-for umbilical cord blood transplantation...
June 13, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622731/navigating-tissue-chips-from-development-to-dissemination-a-pharmaceutical-industry-perspective
#16
Lorna Ewart, Kristin Fabre, Ananthsrinivas Chakilam, Yvonne Dragan, David B Duignan, Jeetu Eswaraka, Jinping Gan, Peggy Guzzie-Peck, Monicah Otieno, Claire G Jeong, Douglas A Keller, Sonia M de Morais, Jonathan A Phillips, William Proctor, Radhakrishna Sura, Terry Van Vleet, David Watson, Yvonne Will, Danilo Tagle, Brian Berridge
Tissue chips are poised to deliver a paradigm shift in drug discovery. By emulating human physiology, these chips have the potential to increase the predictive power of preclinical modeling, which in turn will move the pharmaceutical industry closer to its aspiration of clinically relevant and ultimately animal-free drug discovery. Despite the tremendous science and innovation invested in these tissue chips, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable their routine adoption into the industrial laboratory...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619414/health-information-needs-and-reliability-of-sources-among-nondegree-health-sciences-students-a-prerequisite-for-designing-ehealth-literacy
#17
Hussein Haruna, Ndumiso Tshuma, Xiao Hu
BACKGROUND: Understanding health information needs and health-seeking behavior is a prerequisite for developing an electronic health information literacy (EHIL) or eHealth literacy program for nondegree health sciences students. At present, interest in researching health information needs and reliable sources paradigms has gained momentum in many countries. However, most studies focus on health professionals and students in higher education institutions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at providing new insight and filling the existing gap by examining health information needs and reliability of sources among nondegree health sciences students in Tanzania...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617836/molecular-diversity-and-frequency-of-the-diarrheagenic-enteric-protozoan-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-a-hospital-setting-in-northern-spain
#18
José Manuel Azcona-Gutiérrez, Aida de Lucio, Marta Hernández-de-Mingo, Concepción García-García, Luis Miguel Soria-Blanco, Lucía Morales, María Aguilera, Isabel Fuentes, David Carmena
BACKGROUND: Human giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis are caused by the enteric protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. Both pathogens are major contributors to the global burden of diarrhoeal disease, affecting primarily children and immunodebilitated individuals in resource-poor settings. Giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis also represent an important, often underestimate, public health threat in developed countries. In Spain only limited information is currently available on the epidemiology of these infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616493/leadership-governance-and-partnerships-are-essential-one-health-competencies
#19
EDITORIAL
Craig Stephen, Barry Stemshorn
One Health is held as an approach to solve health problems in this era of complexity and globalization, but inadequate attention has been paid to the competencies required to build successful teams and programs. Most of the discussion on developing One Health teams focuses on creating cross-disciplinary awareness and technical skills. There is, however, evidence that collaborative, multi-disciplinary teams need skills, processes and institutions that enable policy and operations to be co-managed and co-delivered across jurisdictions...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616470/global-solutions-to-regional-challenges-bridging-the-one-health-divide-in-the-caribbean
#20
Arve Lee Willingham, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Diana G Scorpio, Christa A Gallagher
Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, located on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts in the West Indies, hosted a multi-national, transdisciplinary One Health conference in St. Kitts and Nevis. Historically the many countries of the Caribbean carry a high burden of chronic and infectious disease and struggle with complex economic and developmental issues that continuously pressurize inhabitants and their natural environment. Considering these vast regional challenges, presentations covered diverse topics including community-based approaches for zoonotic disease control and prevention and mitigation of problems at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans...
December 2016: One Health
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